F. Small, biconcave disks that lack a nucleus when mature. G. 6 million orbs per mm of whole blood. H. Contains hemoglobin-respiratory pigment that carries oxygen and is red. Each rub contains about 200 million hemoglobin molecules. Hemoglobin contains four globing proteins, each with an iron-containing hem group. Iron atom of a hem group loosely binds with oxygen. Thus, blood carries oxygen. Snowmobiling which is formed in the lungs has a bright red color. Disemboweling NAS given up oxygen to tissue tiled and is a dark maroon color. Carbon monoxide combines with hemoglobin more readily than oxygen, making hemoglobin unavailable for oxygen transport. L.

Production of Red Blood Cells All blood cells are formed from special red bone marrow cells called stem cells. Stem Cell: A type of cell that is capable of dividing and producing new cells that differentiate into specific types of cells. Red bone marrow stem cells are capable of becoming blood cells, but also cardiac and nerve cells possible use in treatment of human illnesses. As orbs mature, they lose their nucleus and acquire hemoglobin. Live only about 120 days possibly due to lack of a nucleus. Old, worn-out orbs are destroyed in the liver and spleen. When orbs are broken down, the hemoglobin is released.

The globing portion of hemoglobin is broken down into its amino acids which are recycled by the body. The iron is recovered and is returned to the bone marrow for reuse. The hem portion of the molecule undergoes chemical degradation and is excreted as bile pigments by the liver. Blurring and blinder color of feces. Erythrocyte: A hormone that is released by the kidneys that stimulates the red bone marrow to speed up the maturation of cells that are in the process of becoming red blood cells. Anemia: A tired, run-down feeling due to an insufficient number of orbs or the orbs do not have enough hemoglobin.

Iron, the B vitamin folic acid, and vitamin 812 are necessary for the production of red blood cells. J. The White Blood Cells (Leukocytes) Larger than orbs, have a nucleus, lack hemoglobin, and w/o staining, appear translucent. 5000-11,000 per mm of blood. Not as numerous as orbs. Fight infections and in this way contribute to homeostasis. Webs are derived from stem cells in the red bone marrow and undergo several maturation stages. Colony-stimulating factors (CIFS): Proteins that help regulate the production of webs. Webs are found not only in the blood, but also in tissue fluid and lymph.

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When there is an infection, webs greatly increase in number. Life span of webs is a few days to months to years. Types of Webs Classified into the granular and granular leukocytes. Both contain granules in the cytoplasm surrounding the nucleus, but the granules are more visible after staining in granular leukocytes. Granules contain various enzymes and proteins which help webs defend the body. Granular leukocytes 3 types 1 Interruptions Most abundant of the webs; have a multi-lobed nucleus; do not take up stain well; first type of web to respond to infection. 2. Sinkholes

Have a bi-lobed nucleus; stain red; function is not clear, but they increase in number due to parasitic worm infections and allergic RSN. 3. Basophilic Have a U-shaped or lobed nucleus; stain dark-blue; release histamine associated with allergic reactions. Granular Leukocytes вЂ? 2 types 1 . Monocot’s Largest of the webs; have a kidney-shaped nucleus. Differentiate into macrophages once in tissues. Macrophages phagocytes pathogens, old cells, and cellular debris. Stimulate other webs to defend the body. 2. Lymphocytes 2 types: B cells and T cells. B cells produce antibodies.

T cells directly destroy foreign cells. K. The Platelets (Thromboses) Result from fragmentation of large cells called mastectomy’s in the red bone marrow. 200 billion platelets are produced per day. Blood contains platelets per mm. Platelets are involved in the process of blood clotting or coagulation. When a blood vessel is damaged, platelets clump at the site of the puncture and seal the break, if it is not too extensive. A large break may also require a blood clot to stop the bleeding. There are at least 12 clotting factors that participate in the formation of a blood clot.

Hemophilia is an inherited clotting disorder due to a deficiency in a clotting factor. Most frequent cause of death is bleeding into the brain with accompanying neurological damage. Ill. Blood Typing A. In order for blood transfusions to be safely performed, it is necessary for blood to be typed so that agglutination (clumping of red blood cells) does not occur. B. ABA blood typing is based on the presence or absence of type A antigen and type B antigen on the surface of red blood cells. C. Antigens are foreign substances, protein or polysaccharide, which stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies. D.

Antibodies are proteins produced in response to the presence of an antigen. Each antibody combines with a specific antigen. Blood Type Antigen on Orbs A and B None Antibody Anti-B Anti-A Anti-A and Anti-B E. Agglutination is clumping of red blood cells due to a reaction between antigens and antibodies on Orbs. Agglutination causes blood to stop circulating and Orbs to burst. F. Orbs with a particular antigen agglutinate when exposed to corresponding antibodies. With agglutination, anti-A antibodies have combined with type A antigens, r anti-B antibodies have combined with type B antigens, or both types of binding have occurred.

G. To receive blood, recipient’s plasma must not have an antibody that causes donor cells to agglutinate. H. Recipients with type ABA blood can receive any type blood. They are the universal recipient because this blood type has neither anti-A nor anti-B antibodies in the plasma. L. Recipients with type O blood can only receive type O blood. They cannot receive type A, B, or ABA. They are the universal donor because they have neither type A nor type B antigens on the red blood cells. J. Recipients with type A blood cannot receive type B or ABA blood.

K. Recipients with type B blood cannot receive type A or ABA blood. L. Re Blood Groups Re factor is an important antigen in human blood types. Re+ has Re factor on red blood cells. Re- lacks Re antigen on Orbs. Re- individuals do not make antibodies to Re factor, but make them if exposed to Re+ blood. If a mother is Re- and the father is Re+, a child can be Re+. During a pregnancy, Re+ can leak across the placenta into the mother’s bloodstream. The presence of Re+ antigens causes the mother to produce anti-Re antibodies.

In a subsequent pregnancy with another Re+ baby, the anti-Re antibodies may cross the placenta and destroy the child’s red blood cells hemolytic disease of the newborn. Due to RUB destruction, excess blurring in the blood can lead to brain damage and mental retardation or even death. The Re problem is prevented by giving Re- women an Re mucilaginous injection no later than 72 hours after giving birth to an Re+ child. This injection contains anti- Re antibodies that attack any of the baby’s Orbs in the mother’s blood before these cells can stimulate her immune system to produce her own antibodies.

V Capillary Exchange A. The pumping of the heart sends blood by way of arteries to the capillaries where exchange takes place across thin capillary walls. Blood that has passed through capillaries returns to the heart via veins. B. A capillary has an arterial end, a midsection, and a venous section. Exchange of nutrients and wastes as well as oxygen and carbon dioxide occurs here. V. Lymphatic Capillaries A. Larger lymphatic vessels have a structure similar to cardiovascular veins, except their walls are thinner and have more valves. Valves prevent backward flow of lymph.

B. Lymphatic vessels carry lymph which has the same composition as tissue fluid because lymphatic capillaries absorb excess tissue fluid at the blood capillaries. C. Lymphatic capillaries Join to form larger vessels that merge into the lymphatic ducts. Lymphatic ducts empty into cardiovascular veins within the thoracic cavity. D. The lymphatic system contributes to homeostasis by maintaining normal blood volume and pressure by returning excess tissue fluid to the blood. E. Edema: Swelling that occurs when tissue fluid is not collected by the lymphatic capillaries.


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