Its composition is similar to plasma, except there are no plasma proteins. C Excretion is the process of removal of metabolic waste from the body. Mm Somersaulting is the regulation of water content in relation to the amount of salts in the body. 9 a Urea b It is to maintain the diffusion gradient between the blood and the dialysis fluid. C It is to prevent infection / contamination of the blood / the body system. Mm Structured questions Qua a) (I) 6566. % 1 (it) The urea content in urine is much higher because a large amount of water is reabsorbed/the amount of water reabsorbed along the kidney tubule is relatively much greater than that of urea 1 (b) The water content of globular filtrate is greater than that of the plasma 1 because protein is too large to pass the wall of the slumberous and that of the Bowman’s capsule 1 The proportion of water in the globular filtrate thus increase 1 c) The person cannot produce sufficient insulin to stimulate liver cells to convert glucose into glycogen 1

The level of glucose in the blood may become so high/exceed the threshold value 1 that glucose cannot be completely reabsorbed in the kidney Thus it appears in the urine 1 Effective Communication(C) 1 Total:marks 12 HECKLE Biology 2001 1 SQL (a) Proteins are found in blood plasma but not in neoprene because proteins are too large to pass through the wall of slumberous. (b) Much water is reabsorbed from the globular filtrate along the collecting duct. C) (I) glucose OR amino acids (it) The concentration drops to zero along the neoprene because X is totally reabsorbed from the fluid into the capillary (d) The amount increases because beans contain a lot of protein by active transport. Which is digested and absorbed in form of amino acids. Excess amino acids are denominated in the liver to form urea and are excreted by the kidney. (NOT accept: excess “proteins” are denominated. ) Effective communication mark = 1 13 a Pituitary gland Mm b Any three from: Mm x 3 Injection of ADD decreased urine production / urine production was inhibited in the first 10 minutes after the injection.

In the next 15 minutes, urine production increased. The effect of ADD was temporary. After 30 minutes, the rate of urine production has not returned to the original level. The rate decreased 4. 3 com min-l in the first 10 minutes after the injection / the rate increased 3. 5 com min-l in the next 15 minutes / the overall rate decreased 0. 8 com min-l . C ADD increases the permeability Mm of collecting duct to water. Mm More water is reabsorbed into the blood from the collecting duct Mm by osmosis. Mm d Sodium chloride increased the salt concentration of the blood. Mm The change was detected by the hypothalamus.

ADD production / secretion increased. Mm 14 a The differentially permeable membrane Mm separates the blood and the dialysis fluid. Mm cells cannot pass through the membrane. No net diffusion of glucose occurs. Mm Glucose is retained in the blood to stop water from passing into the blood by osmosis. Urea is removed from the blood by diffusion. C Her problem may be temporary / could be cured by other means. Mm Operation / transplant carries risk / may lead to rejection. Mm d I No antigens are on the surface of red blood cells. Mm ii Blood of different blood groups would cause agglutination.

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