As a member of this SACS group, I was exposed to one of the many poverty-stricken gammon’s in Indonesia as e helped them fulfill their right to good health care. The life style and physical appearances of these Indonesian were very different to the ones of the more fortunate Indonesian students who attended my school, The British International School (IBIS). These differences have appealed me to investigate to what extent wealth affects Indonesian in terms of the way it determines their dietary habits and therefore their health.
Objective The purpose of this investigation is to compare the average encountering intake of Indonesian from two different socio-economic groups in terms of Carbohydrates, Proteins, Fats and Fluids. I will investigate whether wealth is in fact a factor of “better” health. I picked the ages 16-18 because by doing so, Indonesian students taking the International Baccalaureate program in international schools would be able to relate these results.
From this comparison, I will investigate whether or not there is a significant difference between the encountering intake of both SEES groups and the effects of such difference to their health in terms of malnutrition. In this investigation, the effects of malnutrition within the two Indonesian groups in terms of eight status and encountering deficiencies will also be examined. Background Information Microinstructions and Diet The purpose of a diet is to consume food that provides one with the following critical microinstructions : Carbohydrates, Proteins, Vitamins, Mineral and Water.
In order to manage health and weight, a balanced diet is to be maintained and the correct amount and variety of food is required. When an individual does not receive the required amount of nutrients, whether there is a lack or an excess amount, they are considered to be Malnourished. Encountering malnourishment can result in stunted Roth, reduced muscle growth, reduced intelligence and various deficiencies diseases. In this investigation, malnutrition will be represented in terms of whether a subject is overweight and underweight.
Encountering Intake Between SEES groups According to the report Diet and socioeconomic position: does the use of different indicators matter? , in economically developed countries, “most but not all studies have reported healthier diet among subjects with higher socio economic status”. Borrower it goes on to say that although there are certainly socioeconomic preferences in health, “differences in the amount of food or in nutrient intake among social classes are oaten small and can hardly explain the major inequalities observed in morbidity and mortality in these countries. 3 Indonesia, however, is a developing country. Therefore, the likelihood that it will follow the same pattern of such developed countries is uncertain. Food Frequency Questionnaires (Offs) According to Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, “The Food Frequency Questionnaire (FAQ) is the most common dietary assessment tool used in large epidemiological studies of diet and health. 4 Offs are claimed to be “the most practical and informative method of dietary food intake assessment”5 based on some studies.
The use of the combination of Offs and 24-hour recalls has been consistently present in a number of nutritional reports off comparing encountering intake of a variety of different subjects. Investigations have also been made to validate the use of FAQ as a method to assess encountering intake and have resulted with positive feedbacks. Therefore, for this investigation, I have decided to use a FAQ which have been modified by the subjects 24-hour recalls as my method of obtaining data nickering the encountering intake of the IBIS students and Camping people.
Hypothesis In order to calculate whether of not there is a significant difference between the encountering intakes of both SEES groups, I will conduct a student T-test. This means that a Hypothesis and a Null Hypothesis will be required. At the end of the experiment, one hypothesis will be accepted and the other rejected. Hypothesis In the present study, I hypothesize that there will be a significant difference between mean values of encountering intake in both social classes. Reasons:
Wealthier people have the advantage of being able to afford a wider quantity and variety of food Wealthier people are provided with better education about balanced diets especially when comparing students from IBIS and subjects from the Camping. Indonesia is considered to be a least developed country. Therefore, it may result to opposite patterns compared to developed countries. Null Hypothesis Considering that a Null Hypothesis is the opposite or alternative hypothesis, my Null Hypothesis states that: There is no significant difference between the mean values of encountering intake per month of the two SEES groups.
Variables: Dependent Variables Encountering Intake of Proteins, Carbohydrates, Fats and Fluids Controlled Variables Independent Variable The socio-economic status of subjects Fixed Variable Questions asked in FAQ and interviews Proportion of food intake- in both Offs and interviews the proportion of food was stated before asking how many servings per month consumed. The proportion of food remained the same for all subjects, despite their SEES group.
Ages of subjects Number of subjects per group Ratio of Males to Females within SEES groups The period of time – all data collected on Encountering intake per month was based n the month tot May, 2 Honesty of subjects 009. Uncontrollable Variables MATERIALS AND METHODS Subjects: This study was taken during the month of May in the year of 2009. The people used in this investigation shared the commonality of being Indonesian thus representing the Indonesian population in the country. The sample consisted of 40 Indonesian subjects, 20 subjects from each SEES group. The size of the sample is considered to be very small.
Therefore, subjects only merely representing the population of Jakarta, Indonesia. The two SEES groups were distinguished according to the income of the object parents and the amount of money spent on food a day. The group with the higher SEES consisted of students taking the B program in The British International School, Jakarta. This school is considered to be the most expensive international school in South East Asia. Based on surveys conducted by myself, on average a IBIS Indonesian student spends up to per day RPR 145, 000 on food alone, while the group with the lower SEES spends RPR 14,000.
The subjects with the lower SEES group were taken from a Pus Us Mass Camping in Jakarta. All subject were aged 16 to 18- the typical ages for an B student. This range of ages was chosen in order for B students and myself, to be able to relate to the topic. Within the two locations (The British International School and Pus Us Mass Camping), The subjects where chosen by systematic random sampling. However, a 1:1 ratio between female and male subjects was kept between two groups to make the investigation fairer. Approach: In the present investigation, the preliminary food list of encountering intake was collected using 24-hour recalls.