It focuses the individual characteristics of the species and separates them using the most obvious differences. For example, it starts off separating the fauna from the flora by asking about properties that only plants would have; leaves, roots, flowers, etc. Another example is “Is the animal nocturnal? ” this question is a plain yes or no question so there is no chance you would be able to aka a mistake and choose the wrong direction. As extra insurance there are two images below the species name, and a small textbook of information on the species.
This guarantees the user cannot make a mistake. Part One: Extinct Relative – Grey Headed Flying Fox Name: Careerists (Cirrus night Tyler – tater Cirrus trot Greek mythology Classification: Chordate, Mammalian, Chiropractor, Microcomputer, Characterized Found as fossils in: USA, Europe. Time period: Hyperemia of the Eocene (between 56 and 48 million years ago) Similarities and Differences: Careerists and Pterosaurs Philosophical are two remarkably similar species despite he fifty – two or so million years between them.
They have Just about identical skeletal structures and from the images left we can see they do in fact resemble each other. An interesting characteristic which Coronaries and the Grey-Headed Flying Fox (GAFF) share is a second claw on the second digit as well as the first. Most modern bats have only one claw, which grows from the first digit. Although these “bats” are akin and quite analogous, the Grey Headed Flying Fox is distinguished from Coronaries by contrasting characteristics. Careerists was quite small when Juxtaposition’s with today’s modern bats.
It measured about fourteen centimeters long from nose to tail with a wingspan averaging at thirty – five centimeters. GAFF is comparatively larger, having an average wingspan of over a hundred centimeters and a body length of around twenty five to twenty eight meters. GAFF has also evolved to have no tail, while Careerists had a long tail which unlike other modern day bats was not connected to the hind legs by thin, skin membranes (reputation). Echolocation is an ability Careerists does share with many of today’s bats, although strangely the HIGH cannot collocate. The
Flying Fox is able to survive because of its diversified diet; Electrostatics had a diet made up of insects and their larvae while the GAFF eats fruit, pollen and nectar. Because the Careerists was a hunter, it’s body is quite flexible, easily out maneuvering the GAFF. Additionally, Careerists had a full set of relatively unspecified teeth similar to the teeth of today’s shrew. Reasons for change: There could be many reasons and causes for the evolution and then extinct of Careerists. If we look at the differences between the specimens, we can infer and guess at what caused these changes.
Differences Possible Reasons – Size difference – Larger bodies and therefore larger wings would allow the Grey- Headed Flying Fox to fly longer distances in their search for food. – The GAFF would have also been able keep itself warmer in cold conditions in comparison to its smaller ancestor. – It would be able to consume larger quantities of fruits, nectar and pollen; food items which in comparison to insects nave tile nutrition giving only small bursts tot energy and so need to be eaten in larger amounts. – Defense would have also improved with size as smaller predators would not have been able to target the GAFF.
Echolocation, flexible body, unspecified set of teeth – At the same time period Careerists evolved into GAFF and began to eat fruits, nectar and pollen, it would have lost the ability of echolocation, and would have lost its high level of mobility. The teeth of Careerists would have also become specialized to chewing and devouring its new ‘prey’. The changes in echolocation and the flexibility of Careerists would have been triggered by the change in diet as these characteristics and abilities would have been unnecessary and useless.
Fruit does not fly away when something tries to eat it. Fruit would have been widespread ND so more energy would have been expended moving from tree to tree which then gives reason to increased wings size. Discuss the difficulties that may arise in trying to classify extinct species Classifying extinct species from fossils is quite a challenge as the fossils have to be in prime condition for a definite classification. Fossils are commonly incomplete, missing essential structures which halt the identification process. They might be damaged beyond recovery and so cannot be identified.
In some causes, with the oldest fossils, there are no living organisms with which to make a meaningful comparison to and so here is no way to ‘classify’ the fossil. Nothing living has similarities which could be used to appropriately group them in the same classification as the fossil. All these difficulties make it hard to classify extinct species from fossils. When a new fossil is identified and classified, it is a great accomplishment. Discuss one recent advance in Molecular Biology or Biochemistry which has allowed scientists to better understand the origins and processes of evolution of life.
Synthetic Biology Synthetic Biology is “the design and construction of new biological parts, devices and yester and the re-design of existing, natural biological systems for useful purposes. ” Simply, it is the construction of life from man – made materials. It combines biology and engineering, and so often overlaps with bioengineering and similar factions. Synthetic biology encompasses a wide range of methodologies and disciplines, mainly biotechnology. A synthetic biologist studies Synthetic biology. They focus on finding how life works and the origins of life, using their gathered knowledge to benefit society.
More precisely, synthetic biologists engineer and manufacture biological systems to platform various technologies and rewriting and building (copying) natural systems to create engineered surrogates. Synthetic biology relies on several technologies; DNA sequencing, fabrication of genes, modeling of synthetic gene activities, and precise gene behavior observation are all essential technologies needed in synthetic biology. These technologies are used to test current understanding of natural living systems by building instancing of the system according to current understanding.
Observing the synthetically made systems and comparing expectations vs.. What actually occurred will either provide evidence tort or against our understandings and horses. Synthetic biology has many uses. Molecular cloning is used to obtain large amounts of a specific strand of DNA. Obsessions technology is another example of Synthetic biology in which technology is transplanted with biology. “Critter on a Chip” is an example of this sensor technology. A bluestocking bacteria was used with a light sensing computer chip to detect petroleum pollutants. When the bacteria senses the pollutant, it lights up.
The computer chip detects this light and so the pollutant is detected. Obsessions can be created to detect viruses, bacteria, hormones, drugs and DNA sequences. On May 20 2010, the first fully synthetic organism with a fully synthetic genome was created by Craig Veneer. The organism was a synthetic bacterium. This extraordinary achievement, while not recreating extinct creatures, could be used to create organisms similar to extinct species, creating organisms with the genes of extinct organisms. This includes the earliest forms of life. Additionally, synthetic biologist could create organisms that went extinct millions of years ago.
By deriving genomes from the fossil’s living descendants and synthetically making them, replicates of the species could be created. Being able to measure Roth rates, temperature resistance and other characteristics of species which lived millions of years ago would allow scientists to better understand how life started and how whilst also why life evolved. Finally, with the ability to create any living thing, synthetic biologists could create a bacterium with the minimum number of genes needed for it to survive or in essence, the first cell on earth.
This would allow scientists to test hypotheses about how inert, non – living chemicals “made the Jump” from individual chemicals to self perpetuating life. Synthetic Biology has helped us better understand the beginning of life and the recesses of evolution. With the recent advancement in this technology – the creation off totally synthetic cell – the future looks bright and clear, the past even clearer. Part Two: Evolution of Australian Species Choose two species of Australian Native Plants.
Banks or Granville Present the following information in a table: List the physical characteristics of each species Describe the biotic conditions required for each plant to survive. Describe the habitat of each plant Outline the method or reproduction of each plant Outline special adaptations or need for each plant Using your two identity Lana species, discuss reasons tort the diverse TTY in Plants. Banks Elegant(Elegant Banks) Granville Cinchona Australian Physical Characteristics Shrub/small tree; often suckering; one to four meters high; yellow – green, round flowers which are spiked (called inflorescence).
Each flower spike contains around 400 individual flowerbeds. Trunk can be up to fifteen centimeters in diameter and covered with grey tessellated bark. The blue – green leaves range from twenty to forty centimeters in length and one and a half centimeters wide. Spreading erect shrub, commonly one and a half meters high. Simple leaves from two to seven centimeters long and one to four centimeters wide. Undisguised, flat and linear. Flowers are cream, red and or brown in colour. The fruit is simple, brown, ribbed shape.
Biotic Conditions Grows in deep yellow acid sand which has a pH of 5. Grows near winter wet depressions and lakes. Grows well in rocky or stony soil and or sand with a lower pH of around 5. (Literate) Habitat Only occurs in a sixty – five square kilometer area situated north-west of a town called Enable in Western Australia. Low woodlands and tall grasslands. Western Australia amongst low trees and low grassland. Method of reproduction Extremely low amount of seed and so reproduces predominantly via suckering. Developing seeds are commonly aborted before they have matured.
After fires, the Banks starts flowering after three years and regenerate extremely well. Seed pods. The seed pods covered in toxic substance which deters predators. Seeds can be windblown and spread. Special Adaptations Main adaptation is the ability to survive regular bushfire. Thick bark, legislators and suckering reproductive method allow the banks to survive even the worst of fires. Main adaptation is not unlike that of the Banks. Thick bark, legislators and seeds which are released when a fire is detected (serotonin).
This helps the shrub survive bushfire and is also why fires are helpful in the growth of these shrubs. Using your two identified plant species, discuss reasons for the diversity in Australian Plants. The main reason for the diversity of Australian plants is the wide variety of environments that Australia contains. Coastal, temperate forests, arid deserts, mountain ranges are all environments which are found in Australia. Because of this, plants have had to adapt and evolve to defend against many different threats – suspires, frost, drought, a whole spectrum of dangers.
Australia also has soils which contrast in nutrients depending on where you are. The Banks, which grows in an kind of arid temperate environment would find it more consuming to grow and germinate seeds then to grow and expand using the suckering characteristic. Granville on the other hand, a plant which grows in an area with a higher water scarcity would find it more beneficial to grow and drop seeds, so the ‘spawn’ can lay in waiting until the time is right. As you can see, the great variety in environments and conditions of Australia plays a large role in the diversity of our plants.