The Dynamic Equilibrium Diffusion will continue until the concentration in all region is the same. When this happen, we say it has reached the dynamic equilibrium. Factors Affecting the Rate of Diffusion (How fast diffusion happens) Particles that Move Through the Plasma Membrane Through Diffusion 1 . Substances soluble in fat: fatty acid, glycerol, some vitamins (A,D,E,K) 2. Neutral particles: water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, Example of Diffusion Between alveoli and blood capillaries in the lung during gases exchange.

What is Osmosis? Osmosis is the diffusion of a water through a semi-permeable membrane, from a elution of low solute concentration to a solution with high solute concentration. It is a physical process in which a solvent moves, without input of energy, across a semi-permeable membrane separating two solutions of different concentrations. Important Points: It is the diffusion of water (normally) through a semi-permeable membrane.

Large particles such as glucose, amino acids, proteins and nucleic acids 2. Some ions such as the sodium ions and chloride ions 2 Types of Transport Protein Facilitated diffusion occurs through 2 types of transport protein, namely 1. Channel Protein . Carrier Protein Concentration Gradient Facilitated diffusion happens down a concentration gradient. Similarities between Simple Diffusion and Facilitated Diffusion 1 . Down the concentration gradient (From high concentration to low concentration) 2.

No energy is required Differences between Simple Diffusion and Facilitated Diffusion What is Active Transport Active transport is the movement of substances across the plasma membrane of cells against the concentration gradient (From lower concentration to higher concentration). Since it is against the concentration gradient, energy is needed in the process. Video below shows how particles are transported through the carrier protein in active transport. Take notes that the process only happens when the carrier protein receives energy from an TAP.

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Basic Requirements in Active Transport 1 . Presence of the carrier protein 2. Presence of TAP (Adenosine Troposphere) Function of the TAP TAP is the source of energy in active transport. It supplies energy to the carrier protein to carry out the process. It is converted into ADAPT (Adenosine Toothpaste) after the reaction. Mechanism of Active Transport The video below shows how sodium ions and potassium ions are transported through the plasma membrane by a carrier protein.

Examples of Active Transport Intake of mineral ions by the root hairs off plant. The Plasma Membrane The plasma membrane is a semi-permeable lipid belayed found in all cells that controls water and certain substances in and out of the cell. Function tot the Plasma Membrane 1. Protects the cell. 2. Separates the intracellular components from the extracurricular environment. 3. Controls what enters and exits the cell Necessities for the Movement of Substances across the Plasma Membrane 1.

To transport nutrients into the cell. 2. For gases exchange 3. To excrete metabolic waste. 4. To maintain the pH value and ionic concentration of the cell. Substances In and Out through the Membrane Structure of the Plasma Membrane Fluid mosaic model Permeability of the Phosphoric Belayed The permeability of the phosphoric belayed is determined by: 1. The size 2. The charge and 3. The polarity of the substances pass through it.


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