Organic molecule made by living organisms Organic Molecules: contain carbon considered the “chemicals of life” Inorganic Molecules: Do not contain carbon Consist mostly of: carbon (c), hydrogen (h), oxygen (o) Monomers vs.. Polymers Monomers: single-molecule that may react with similar molecules to form a chain Polymers: a chain of many monomers that are chemically bonded together. How are polymers formed? Dehydration Synthesis (Condensation): two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom are removed from the monomers to form water, and the two monomers are Joined gather.
How are polymers broken down? Hydrolysis-?the reverse of dehydration synthesis (condensation) the reverse of dehydration synthesis. Water added to the polymer, unlinking the chain and breaking it back down to its original monomer units. Carbohydrates Group of organic molecules that includes: group of organic molecules that includes sugars, starches, and cellulose. Structure: carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 1:2:1 (CHIC)n – n is an integer such as 5 (C5H1005) Subunits: Monounsaturated Most often in a: Ring shape Subunits are connected with: covalent bonds
Function: Energy Structure Support cell wall Cell Membrane Marker Lipids organic molecule group including fats and phosphoric Structure: Subunits: Glycerol of fatty acids Glycerol and fatty acids plus: Insoluble in water Do not tort large polymers (2 or 3 tatty and triglyceride energy storage insulation Part of cell membrane (phosphoric) hormones Proteins acid s Witt glycerol) Examples: group of organic molecules that provides structure and facilitates chemical reactions Subunits: monomers: amino acids Amino acids connect via: Very large molecules
Globular or structural least likely to be affected by order of single-molecule units Function: Lots of functions! Enzymes (speed rate of chemical reactions) Structural components in cells mechanical functions in muscles and cotyledons (internal cell framework) Cell signaling immune response Nucleic Acids Group of organic molecules including DNA and RNA Subunits are nucleotides-? 5-carbon sugar, nitrogen base and one or more phosphate groups Most likely to be affected by order of single-molecule units Storage and retrieval of information: encode genes gene expression