Austrian Monk named gregor mendel
Whose early work is the basis for much of our current understanding of genetics?
Mendel chose pea plants for his experiments because they reproduce quickly, and he could easily control how they mate.
Why did Mendel use pea plants?
Genes
Mendel concluded that traits are inherited as “discrete units.” Using what you know about genetics, what do we call these units today?
1) organisms inherit two copies of each gene, one from each parent
2) organisms donate only one copy of each gene in their gametes.
What two conclusions make up Mendel’s law of segregation?
Genetically uniform line of organism
What does “purebred” mean?
1) Control over breeding
2) use of purebred plants
3) observation of “either or” traits that appeared in only two alternate forms
Mendel’s three choices in designing his experiments?
Mendel controlled the fertilization process
How did Mendel know that any variation in the offspring of the crosses he did resulted only from his experiments?
One of two or more words pronounced alike but different in meaning or derivation or spelling
Homophone
Different
An organism that heterozygous for a certain trait has the _____________ alleles for that trait
Same
An organism that is homozygous for a certain trait has the ___________ alleles for that trait
The genetic makeup of a specific set of genes
Genotype
An individual organism
Phenotype
Genes are used to code for proteins
What is the relationship between a gene and a protein?
Homozygous; Heterozygous
What term describes a pair of alleles that are the same? That are different?
Alleles can be represented as alternate copies of a gene
How are alleles represented on paper?
Yes, it has to be homozygous recessive
If an organism has a recessive trait (phenotype), can you determine its genotype for that trait?
Homozygous Dominant
What type of alleles are present in an organism with a QQ genotype?
An allele is an alternate form to a gene
What is an alternate form of a gene?
The opposite of homozygous is heterozygous. As such, the opposite of dominant is recessive.
What is the opposite of homozygous? Of dominant?
TT
Homozygous dominant
tt
Homozygous recessive
Tt
Heterozygous dominant
Alleles, gene, homologous, locus, one, alleles, same, different
Your cells have two _________ for each ________, one for each of the _____________ chromosomes on which the ____________ for that gene is found. Each parent gives ______ allele. The two ___________ may be the same __________ or they may be ____________
The mating of two organisms
Cross
Any of the alternative forms of a gene that may occur at a specific locus.
Allele
A genome is all of an organisms genetic material
Genome
A dominant allele us expressed when two different alleles are present
Dominant
A recessive allele is expressed only when two copies are present
Recessive
Each gamete gets one of the alleles since each parent contributes only one allele to the offspring, only one allele from each parent is written inside each grid box
Why does each parent contribute only one allele to the offspring?
A genotypic ratio is a comparison that tells the proportion of offspring that have a particular genotype. A phenotypic ratio is a comparison that tells the proportion of offspring that have a particular phenotype.
A ratio is a comparison that tells how tow or more things relate. How do you get ermine a genotypic ratio? A phenotypic ratio?
Dihybrid cross works with two traits
Monohybrid cross works with only 1 trait
What’s is a dihybrid cross? How is it different from a monohybrid cross?
A cross between an organism with an unknown genotype and an organism with the recessive phenotype
What is a test cross?
The alleles
What is independent in the law of independent assortment?
Independent assortment of chromosomes during meiosis and random assortment of gametes
What are two ways that sexual reproduction helps create and maintain genetic diversity?
Created a genetic diversity
Which does sexual reproduction create, new alleles or new combinations of alleles?
Crossing over
The exchange of chromosome segments between homologous chromosomes is called?
Genetic linkage
The tendency for two genes that are located together on a chromosome to be inherited is called?
Independent assortment & fertilization
What factors contribute to genetic diversity?
Depending on the position, but yes they may have to reattach to other homologous chromosome
If two genes are located close together on the same chromosome, are they likely to follow Mendel’s law of independent assortment?
Chromosomes that determines an organism sex
What are sex chromosome?
Chromosomes that do not play a direct role in sex determination
What are autosomes?
They don’t have the disease but can pass it on
How is a carrier different from a person who has a genetic disorder?
Genes that are located on the sex chromosome
What are sex-linked genes?
The male can pass on either be an X or Y chromosome
How does a gamete from a male determine the sex of the offspring?
A carrier in genetics can transport a trait to their offspring
The verb carry means “to transport.” How is the everyday meaning of carry related to the meaning of the term carrier in genetics?
True
Gene expression is often related to whether a gene is located on an autosome or a sex chromosome
False
Autosomes play a direct role in sex determination
True
Homologous chromosomes have the same genes, but never have the same alleles for that gene
False
All of the traits that Mendel studied are determined by genes located on the sex chromosomes
True
For someone to have a disorder that is caused by recessive alleles located on an autosome, they must inherit two copies of the recessive allele
False
A carrier for a recessive disorder can have the genotype CC or cc but not Cc
True
Autosomal disorders can be caused by dominant or recessive alleles
A heterozygous phenotype is somewhere between the two homozygous phenotypes. Neither allele is completely dominant nor completely recessive
How is incomplete dominance different from a dominant and recessive relationships?
Both traits are fully and separately expressed
How is co-dominance different from a dominant and recessive relationship?
A gene that comes from multiple alleles
What is a multiple-allele trait?
Expressed no allele and is dominant in offspring
The prefix in-means “not.” How is the meaning of this prefix related to the meaning of incomplete dominance?
Alleles are expressed as dominant in offspring
The prefix Co- means “together”. How is the meaning of this prefix related to the meaning of co-dominance?
Traits produced by two or more genes
The term poly- means “many,” and the term Venice means “related to genes.” How do these word parts combine to give the meaning of polygenic?
Multiple allele is the combination of co-dominance and an extra, whereas polygenic is a combination of two genes
How do multiple-allele traits differ from polygenic traits?
Several genetic disorders are caused by genes on the X chromosome
Why can females, but not males, be carriers of sex-linked genetic disorders?
The human genome is so large that mapping human genes is difficult
Why must a combination of methods be used to study human genetics?
Chromosomes in a cell
What is a karotype a picture of?
x

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