1) Which of the following is an autotroph?
A) human
B) mushroom
C) pine tree
D) fish
C) pine tree
2) Photosynthesis contributes to plant growth by _____.
A) taking in oxygen and making wood
B) taking in carbon dioxide and making sugars (carbohydrates)
C) synthesizing carbon dioxide and making cellulose
D) converting sugar to oxygen and water
B) taking in carbon dioxide and making sugars (carbohydrates)
3) Within the inner membrane of a chloroplast, interconnected sacs of membrane called ______ are suspended in a thick fluid called the ______.
A) chlorophyll… thylakoid
B) thylakoids… grana
C) thylakoids… stroma
D) grana… thylakoid
C) thylakoids… stroma
4) What is the function of stomata?
A) water absorption
B) Calvin cycle
C) location of photosystems
D) gas exchange
D) gas exchange
5) Through what structure(s) do plants obtain most of their water?
A) roots
B) interior cells
C) stomata
D) leaves
A) roots
6) What name is given to the membranous sacs found within a chloroplast?
A) stroma
B) cristae
C) thylakoids
D) vesicles
C) thylakoids
7) What are grana?
A) thick fluids inside chloroplasts
B) convolutions of the inner chloroplast membrane
C) stacks of membranous sacs
D) pigments found in chloroplasts
C) stacks of membranous sacs
8) If you provided your shade-tolerant plants with their preferred wavelength of light, but only minimal amounts of water, which of the following would you expect to occur?
A) increased plant growth
B) increased amounts of oxygen released by the plants
C) decreased amounts of ATP being produced by the plants
D) increased growth of the plants’ leaves
C) decreased amounts of ATP being produced by the plants
9) Which of the following equations best summarizes photosynthesis?
A) 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + 6 O2 > C6H12O6
B) 6 CO2 + 6 H2O > C6H12O6 + 6 O2
C) 6 CO2 + 6 O2 > C6H12O6 + 6 H2O
D) C6H12O6 + 6 O2 > 6 CO2 + 6 H2O
B) 6 CO2 + 6 H2O > C6H12O6 + 6 O2
10) In photosynthesis, redox reactions ultimately transfer electrons from ______ to ______.
A) O2… CO2
B) C6H12O6… O2
C) H2O… C6H12O6
D) H2O… CO2
D) H2O… CO2
11) Which of the following is produced during the light reactions of photosynthesis?
A) O2
B) CO2
C) C6H12O6
D) ADP
A) O2
12) The Calvin cycle requires ______ and ______ from the light reactions in order to operate.
A) glucose… carbon dioxide
B) electrons… NADH
C) ATP… NADPH
D) RuBP… NADP+
C) ATP… NADPH
13) The products of the light reactions of photosynthesis are ______.
A) ATP and NADH
B) ATP and NADPH
C) RuBP and O2
D) ATP and NADP+
B) ATP and NADPH
14) The color that we see when looking at a pigmented object is ______.
A) the wavelengths that are absorbed by the pigment
B) the wavelengths that are reflected or transmitted by the pigmented object
C) the wavelengths that have been raised to an excited state by the pigmented object
D) the wavelengths that the pigmented object created after interacting with sunlight
B) the wavelengths that are reflected or transmitted by the pigmented object
15) If a plant appears blue to us, what wavelength of light is being reflected?
A) blue
B) green
C) red
D) yellow
A) blue
16) The energy of wavelengths that appear ______ is least useful to photosynthesis.
A) red
B) green
C) blue
D) orange
B) green
17) What is responsible for the yellow-orange coloration of leaves in the fall?
A) RuBP
B) chlorophyll a
C) carotenoids
D) chlorophyll b
C) carotenoids
18) What is one reason why plants have accessory pigment molecules, like chlorophyll b and carotenoids?
A) to reflect more energy
B) to absorb energy in parts of the electromagnetic spectrum that chlorophyll a cannot
C) to give them different colors
D) because plants cannot make enough chlorophyll a for all of their energy needs
B) to absorb energy in parts of the electromagnetic spectrum that chlorophyll a cannot
19) What name is given to a discrete packet of light?
A) phaser
B) wavelength
C) photon
D) quantum
C) photon
20) The shorter the wavelength of visible light, the ______.
A) less energy absorbed by photosynthetic pigments
B) redder the color
C) more photons it contains
D) greater the energy
D) greater the energy
21) When a molecule absorbs a photon, one of its electrons is raised to the ______ state.
A) energetic
B) quantum
C) higher
D) excited
D) excited
22) Which of the following is a way that a molecule releases energy gained by absorption of a photon?
A) heat
B) fluorescence
C) light
D) all of the above
D) all of the above
23) Where are photosystems located?
A) chlorophyll
B) thylakoid membrane
C) cristae
D) stroma
B) thylakoid membrane
24) What compound is found at the reaction center of a photosystem?
A) chlorophyll b
B) carotenoids
C) phycobilins
D) chlorophyll a
D) chlorophyll a
25) The light reactions of photosynthesis take place ______.
A) in the stroma
B) on the cristae
C) in the thylakoid membrane
D) in the cytosol
C) in the thylakoid membrane
26) ______ is the source of the oxygen gas released by a photosystem.
A) H2O
B) Chlorophyll a
C) CO2
D) C6H12O6
A) H2O
27) Which of the following is the source of electrons for the light reactions?
A) C6H12O6
B) CO2
C) NADPH
D) H2O
D) H2O
28) Which of the following is found in both cellular respiration and in the light reactions of photosynthesis?
A) citric acid cycle
B) glycolysis
C) Calvin cycle
D) electron transport chain
D) electron transport chain
29) In photosynthesis, an H+ ion gradient forms across the ______.
A) thylakoid membrane
B) outer chloroplast membrane
C) endomembrane
D) inner chloroplast membrane
A) thylakoid membrane
30) The Calvin cycle makes direct use of ______ to make ______.
A) light energy and CO2… sugar
B) CO2, ATP, and NADPH… sugar and O2
C) light energy, CO2, and water… sugar and O2
D) CO2, ATP, and NADPH… sugar
D) CO2, ATP, and NADPH… sugar
31) C4 plants conserve water by ______.
A) shuttling CO2 from the Calvin cycle to the water-splitting photosystem
B) keeping their stomata closed when the weather is hot and dry
C) growing very deep roots
D) running the Calvin cycle at night
B) keeping their stomata closed when the weather is hot and dry
32) CAM plants conserve water by ______.
A) opening their stomata only at night
B) incorporating CO2 into RuBP
C) keeping their stomata closed at night
D) running the Calvin cycle at night
A) opening their stomata only at night
33) Refer to the accompanying figure. Plant cells that contain the organelle responsible for photosynthesis are concentrated in cells of the ______.
A) roots
B) leaves
C) stomata
D) grana
B) leaves
34) Refer to the accompanying figure. Which of the following is true regarding the behavior of a chlorophyll molecule as it absorbs a photon?
A) An electron goes from the excited state to the ground state.
B) Light is released.
C) The energy of a photon raises an electron to the excited state.
D) ATP is broken down.
C) The energy of a photon raises an electron to the excited state.
35) Refer to the accompanying figure. Which of the following best describes the direct mechanism of ATP production during photosynthesis?
A) use of the energy generated as hydrogen ions (H+) move up a proton gradient; this energy is used to make ATP
B) use of the energy released as excited electrons are passed from one molecule to another in the electron transport system; the energy is converted to the chemical bond energy of ATP
C) use of the energy stored in excited electrons; as the electrons move from the excited state to the ground state, the energy released is converted to the energy stored in the third phosphate bond in ATP
D) use of the energy stored in hydrogen ion (H+) gradients; the potential energy of the proton gradient is released as the protons move down their gradient through special membrane protein channels; this energy is converted to chemical bond energy in the ATP molecule
D) use of the energy stored in hydrogen ion (H+) gradients; the potential energy of the proton gradient is released as the protons move down their gradient through special membrane protein channels; this energy is converted to chemical bond energy in the ATP molecule
36) How many times must the Calvin cycle turn for the plant cell to be able to produce one molecule of glucose?
A) one
B) two
C) three
D) six
D) six
37) One of the compounds that is a direct output of the Calvin cycle is ______.
A) C6H12O6
B) NADPH
C) G3P
D) ATP
C) G3P
38) The first step of the Calvin cycle is the incorporation of ______ into ______.
A) O2… G3P
B) RuBP… O2
C) CO2… RuBP
D) G3P… RuBP
C) CO2… RuBP
39) The last stage of one complete turn of the Calvin cycle involves ______.
A) G3P production
B) oxidation of CO2
C) regeneration of RuBP
D) sugar production
C) regeneration of RuBP
40) If an herbicide blocked the Calvin cycle before the generation of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P), which of the following statements would be true?
A) The plant would still be able to make sugar, just a lot less.
B) No oxygen would be released by the plant.
C) No sugar would be made by the plant.
D) Only RuBP would be recycled.
C) No sugar would be made by the plant.
You work for a company selling tropical rain forest plants commonly found in the understory of the forest. These plants are shade tolerant and can be grown indoors because they require low light. Your employer wants you to find out what is the best type of light to maximize growth of these understory plants. Using a full spectrum of natural light would cause these plants to die because they are a shade-tolerant plant species.

From your biology class, you recall that the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis involve pigment molecules that absorb light of specific wavelengths. You also remember the experiments done by the German biologist Theodor Engelmann, in which he separated light using a prism into different wavelengths and then determined which wavelengths were best for promoting photosynthesis in the algae species he was examining. Your goal is to determine which wavelengths (colors) of light are best for promoting photosynthesis to enhance growth in your species of plant. To achieve this, you grew your plants under different wavelengths of light and measured their growth rates. The wavelengths were measured in nanometers (nm), and the growth rate was measured in millimeters per day (mm/day). The data you collected are as follows:
41) Which wavelength is best for your plants’ growth?
A) 650 nm
B) 550 nm
C) 500 nm
D) 400 nm

C) 500 nm
You work for a company selling tropical rain forest plants commonly found in the understory of the forest. These plants are shade tolerant and can be grown indoors because they require low light. Your employer wants you to find out what is the best type of light to maximize growth of these understory plants. Using a full spectrum of natural light would cause these plants to die because they are a shade-tolerant plant species.

From your biology class, you recall that the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis involve pigment molecules that absorb light of specific wavelengths. You also remember the experiments done by the German biologist Theodor Engelmann, in which he separated light using a prism into different wavelengths and then determined which wavelengths were best for promoting photosynthesis in the algae species he was examining. Your goal is to determine which wavelengths (colors) of light are best for promoting photosynthesis to enhance growth in your species of plant. To achieve this, you grew your plants under different wavelengths of light and measured their growth rates. The wavelengths were measured in nanometers (nm), and the growth rate was measured in millimeters per day (mm/day). The data you collected are as follows:
42) Of the following, which wavelength is least useful to your plants?
A) 650 nm
B) 450 nm
C) 550 nm
D) 400 nm

C) 550 nm
You work for a company selling tropical rain forest plants commonly found in the understory of the forest. These plants are shade tolerant and can be grown indoors because they require low light. Your employer wants you to find out what is the best type of light to maximize growth of these understory plants. Using a full spectrum of natural light would cause these plants to die because they are a shade-tolerant plant species.

From your biology class, you recall that the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis involve pigment molecules that absorb light of specific wavelengths. You also remember the experiments done by the German biologist Theodor Engelmann, in which he separated light using a prism into different wavelengths and then determined which wavelengths were best for promoting photosynthesis in the algae species he was examining. Your goal is to determine which wavelengths (colors) of light are best for promoting photosynthesis to enhance growth in your species of plant. To achieve this, you grew your plants under different wavelengths of light and measured their growth rates. The wavelengths were measured in nanometers (nm), and the growth rate was measured in millimeters per day (mm/day). The data you collected are as follows:
43) Which wavelength of light is the least useful to your plant’s growth?
A) 750 nm
B) 650 nm
C) 550 nm
D) 500 nm

A) 750 nm
44) Why do some plant species require shaded conditions while other plant species require bright sunlight?
A) Different species of plants have different pigment molecules that utilize different wavelengths of light.
B) Different species of plants have leaves that are shaped differently.
C) Some species of plants are able to produce sugar without ever having been exposed to sunlight.
D) Some species of plants are consumers and do not need sunlight.
A) Different species of plants have different pigment molecules that utilize different wavelengths of light.
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