1) People with lactose intolerance do not have enough ______.
A) lactose
B) lactase
C) glucose
D) fructose
B) lactase
2) A single carbon atom can form a maximum of ______ covalent bond(s).
A) none; carbon only participates in ionic bonds
B) 1
C) 2
D) 4
D) 4
3) The following molecule is best described as a ______.
CH3—CH2—CH2—CH2
C) hydrocarbon
4) ______ is a hydroxyl group.
A) —NH2
B) —OH
C) —COOH
D) —H
B) —OH
5) In the following reaction, galactose is a ______.
galactose + glucose > lactose + water
A) polysaccharide
B) monomer
C) polymer
D) protein
B) monomer
6) What name is given to the following reaction?
galactose + glucose > lactose + water
A) hydrolysis
B) hydrogenation
C) glycolysis
D) dehydration reaction
D) dehydration reaction
7) What name is given to the following reaction?
sucrose + water > glucose + fructose
A) glucogenesis
B) hydrolysis
C) denaturation
D) dehydration reaction
B) hydrolysis
8) Carbohydrates typically include ______.
A) an NH2 group
B) C, H, and O atoms
C) a hydrocarbon chain
D) a PO4 group
B) C, H, and O atoms
9) Which of the following are isomers?
A) glucose and fructose
B) glucose and sucrose
C) sucrose and glucose
D) lactose and maltose
A) glucose and fructose
10) Complete the equation:
monosaccharide + monosaccharide > ______ + water
A) disaccharide
B) polypeptide
C) polysaccharide
D) fat
A) disaccharide
11) In the following equation, lactose is a ______.
galactose + glucose > lactose + water
A) nucleic acid
B) fatty acid
C) disaccharide
D) dipeptide
C) disaccharide
12) Table sugar is ______.
A) glucose, a monosaccharide
B) glucose, a disaccharide
C) sucrose, a monosaccharide
D) sucrose, a dissaccharide
C) sucrose, a monosaccharide
13) For good health, it is important to include ______ in our diets.
A) fructose
B) monosaccharides
C) disaccharides
D) polysaccharides
D) polysaccharides
14) Which of the following is an example of a polysaccharide?
A) glucose
B) starch
C) maltose
D) sucrose
B) starch
15) Animals store carbohydrates as ______.
A) cellulose
B) glycogen
C) starch
D) maltose
B) glycogen
16) Cellulose is an example of ______.
A) a polypeptide
B) a steroid
C) fiber
D) fat
C) fiber
17) Which of the following is hydrophilic?
A) cellulose
B) testosterone
C) butter
D) cholesterol
A) cellulose
18) Sometimes when I have my morning coffee, which I drink black with no sugar, I notice a thin film floating on top of the coffee. Since I have just read Chapter 3 of the text, I now realize the nature of this substance and so I run to my friend screaming, “Look at this ______ in my coffee!”
A) hydrophilic substance
B) hydrophobic substance
C) glucose
D) nucleotide
B) hydrophobic substance
19) A glycerol with three fatty acids attached is referred to as a ______.
A) prostaglandin
B) nucleic acid
C) steroid
D) fat
D) fat
20) What name is given to the following reaction?
glycerol + 3 fatty acids > triglyceride + 3 water molecules
A) denaturation
B) hydrolysis
C) hydrogenation
D) dehydration reaction
D) dehydration reaction
21) Saturated fats are saturated with ______.
A) carbon
B) nitrogen
C) hydrogen
D) oxygen
C) hydrogen
22) By definition, what type of fatty acid has double bonds?
A) steroid
B) triglyceride
C) unsaturated
D) saturated
C) unsaturated
23) Which of the following is lowest in unsaturated fats?
A) beef
B) salmon
C) corn oil
D) canola oil
A) beef
24) A fat that is hydrogenated is ______.
A) more unsaturated
B) easier to digest
C) more solid
D) less likely to cause strokes
C) more solid
25) Which of the following is a health effect of a diet high in saturated fats?
A) increased blood flow
B) decreased risk of atherosclerosis
C) increased risk of heart attack
D) decreased risk of stroke
C) increased risk of heart attack
26) ______ is a steroid.
A) Butter
B) Sucrose
C) Amino acid
D) Estrogen
D) Estrogen
27) A friend of yours appears to have put on a lot of muscle very quickly. At the same time, you notice that your friend seems to have a lot of mood swings and appears depressed. It is reasonable for you to suspect that your friend has begun to take ______.
A) amino acid supplements
B) creatine
C) protein powder
D) an anabolic steroid
D) an anabolic steroid
28) Enzymes are ______.
A) amino acids
B) monosaccharides
C) phospholipids
D) proteins
D) proteins
29) Proteins are polymers constructed from ______ monomers.
A) hydrocarbon
B) amino acid
C) nucleotide
D) fatty acid
B) amino acid
30) Amino acids include a side group as well as ______.
A) a central carbon, a hydrogen atom, an amino group, and a carboxyl group
B) a central carbon, a hydrogen atom, a hydroxyl group, and a carbonyl group
C) a central hydrogen, a nitrogen atom, a hydroxyl group, and a carbonyl group
D) a central nitrogen, a carbon atom, an amino group, and a carbonyl group
A) a central carbon, a hydrogen atom, an amino group, and a carboxyl group
31) What is the name given to the reaction that breaks peptide bonds?
A) dehydration reaction
B) hydrogenation
C) hydrolysis
D) denaturation
C) hydrolysis
32) A pleated sheet is an example of protein ______ structure.
A) tertiary
B) quaternary
C) secondary
D) primary
C) secondary
33) A protein’s function is dependent on its ______.
A) pH
B) shape
C) size
D) weight
B) shape
34) Destruction of a protein’s shape is called ______.
A) hydrolysis
B) denaturation
C) a dehydration reaction
D) hydrogenation
B) denaturation
35) Nucleic acids are polymers of ______ monomers.
A) monosaccharide
B) fatty acid
C) DNA
D) nucleotide
D) nucleotide
36) A specific stretch of DNA that programs the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide is a ______.
A) gene
B) protein
C) nucleic acid
D) enzyme
A) gene
37) DNA nucleotides include ______.
A) uracil, guanine, adenine, and cytosine
B) thymine, guanine, adenine, and cytosine
C) thymine, uracil, adenine, and cytosine
D) thymine, guanine, adenine, and uracil
B) thymine, guanine, adenine, and cytosine
38) Which of the following is true with regard to a DNA molecule?
A) The amount of adenine is equal to the amount of guanine, and the amount of thymine is equal to the amount of cytosine.
B) The amount of adenine is equal to the amount of cytosine, and the amount of guanine is equal to the amount of thymine.
C) The amount of adenine is equal to the amount of thymine, and the amount of guanine is equal to the amount of uracil.
D) The amount of adenine is equal to the amount of thymine, and the amount of guanine is equal to the amount of cytosine.
D) The amount of adenine is equal to the amount of thymine, and the amount of guanine is equal to the amount of cytosine.
39) If one strand of a DNA double helix has the sequence AGTACTG, what will be the sequence of the other strand?
A) GACGTCA
B) AGTACTG
C) GTCATGA
D) TCATGAC
D) TCATGAC

T to A, G to C

40) How does RNA differ from DNA?
A) RNA is double-stranded; DNA is single-stranded.
B) RNA is a polymer of amino acids; DNA is a polymer of nucleotides.
C) RNA contains uracil; DNA contains thymine.
D) In RNA G pairs with T; in DNA G pairs with C.
C) RNA contains uracil; DNA contains thymine
41) The ability to tolerate lactose throughout life is most likely to be seen in ______.
A) populations that live in cold climates
B) populations that live in wet climates
C) cultures that keep dairy herds
D) Native Americans
C) cultures that keep dairy herds
While shopping, you settle on two types of cookies. The nutritional label for the chocolate mint cookies lists 5 grams of saturated fat, 0 grams of trans fat, 22 grams of carbohydrates, and 11 grams of protein per serving. The nutritional label for the peanut butter cookies lists 0 grams of saturated fat, 5 grams of trans fat, 26 grams of carbohydrates, and 4 grams of protein per serving.
45) Which cookies are less healthy?
A) The chocolate mint cookies because they contain more saturated fat.
B) The chocolate mint cookies because they contain more total grams of protein and carbohydrates.
C) The peanut butter cookies because they contain more trans fat.
D) The peanut butter cookies because they contain more grams of carbohydrates.
C) The peanut butter cookies because they contain more trans fat.
While shopping, you settle on two types of cookies. The nutritional label for the chocolate mint cookies lists 5 grams of saturated fat, 0 grams of trans fat, 22 grams of carbohydrates, and 11 grams of protein per serving. The nutritional label for the peanut butter cookies lists 0 grams of saturated fat, 5 grams of trans fat, 26 grams of carbohydrates, and 4 grams of protein per serving.
46) The manufacturer of the chocolate mint cookies changed the ingredients of its cookies. Each serving now has 1 gram of saturated fat (4 fewer grams), 4 grams of trans fat (4 more grams), 21 grams of carbohydrates (1 fewer gram), and 11 grams of protein (no change). Do you think that the manufacturer made these cookies healthier?
A) No, because they now have less saturated fat.
B) Yes, because they now have less saturated fat.
C) Yes, because they now have fewer grams of carbohydrates.
D) No, because they now have more grams of trans fat.
D) No, because they now have more grams of trans fat
x

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