Nursing Leadership

Thinking Critically, Making Decisions, Solving Problems

LO1: Response

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The critical-thinking process can be used by answering 4 questions related to practical experiences. They are:

the underlying assumptions, interpretation of evidence, evaluation of arguments and the possible alternative perspectives.


LO 2: response

Creativity can be fostered by preparing, incubation, insight and verification.


LO 3: response

Decision-making and problem-solving skills can be improved by defining the problem, gathering of information, analyzing of the information, developing solutions, making a decision, implementation and evaluations of the solution.

Ref: page 11 and 112

LO 4: response

The major difference between individual and collective decision making process is the possibility of the exchange of ideas in the latter through brain storming sessions.


LO 5: response

For a leader, the stumbling blocks to making decisions and problem solving are the personality traits of the leaders, the experience, lack of adaptability and ideas with preconceived notions.

Ref: page 114

LO 6: response

To foster innovation one should provide stimulus for innovation, give case studies to analyze patient situations and debate and learn problem solving.

Ref: page: 115

Chapter 9: Communicating Effectively

LO 1: response

The factors that influence communication are the level of formality that is used and the relationship between the sender and the receiver of the communication.

Ref: page: 118

LO 2: response

Communication can be distorted by the use of inadequate reasoning, use of strong, judgmental words, too fast or too slow speaking, use of unfamiliar words and being very detailed.

Ref: page 119

LO 3: response

Formal communication is used for downward — for directive communication, upward — staff to management, lateral — between individuals or departments, and diagonal – between individuals and departments at different hierarchal levels.

Ref: page: 120

LO 4: response

Communication strategies varies according to gender differences in communication and generational or difference in culture between sender and recipient.

Ref: page 121

LO 5: response

Collaborative communication skills can be improved by identifying direction of communication removing communication distortion and ascertaining eh right communication strategy.

Ref: page 127

LO 6: response

Identify relationship to the receiver, craft the message, communicate message appropriately, choose appropriate medium and accurate timing of message delivery can enhance communication skills

Ref: Page 129

Chapter 10: Delegating Successfully

LO 1: response

Delegation involves responsibility which is an obligation to complete a task, accountability is acceptance of ownership for the outcome and authority is the accrued or conferred right to act.

Ref: page: 132

LO 2: response

Effective delegation benefits the delegate by gaining of new skills and abilities and creates confidence by bringing in trust and support. The delegator is able to devote more time for management, the unit benefits by creation of better functioning team and the organization benefits as it is able to achieve the goals efficiently.

Ref: page 133

LO 3: response

An effective delegator can be created by following the following steps — defining the task, deciding on the delegate, determining the task, reaching an agreement and monitoring the performance and providing feedback.

Ref: page 135

LO 4: Response

The obstacles of impediment to effective delegation and wrong or unfavorable organizational culture, lack of resources and insecure delegation.

Ref: page 138

LO 5: Response

Some individuals do not want to take risks and hence shy away from delegation and hence the fear of liability falling upon them with delegation keeps them away and affects delegation.

Ref: page 139

Chapter 11: Building and Managing Teams

LO 1: response

Groups and teams function in the following manner — starts with forming of team, followed by storming, norming, performing and adjourning.

Ref: page 146/147

LO 2: response

Teams are built with the intention of increasing efficiency and productivity by focusing on task and relationships of a group.

Composition, productivity, cohesiveness, task, group size and development and growth are factors that dictate team management.

Ref; page 149 & 150

LO 3: response

Teams can be build by focus on improvement of interpersonal workplace relationships, groups to meet goals and ability to accomplish tasks. Also training sessions and situation-based training are methods to build teams.

Ref: page 150

LO 4: response

The factors affecting team management include composition, productivity, cohesiveness, task, group size and development and growth of a team over time and the shared goals of the organization.

LO 5: response

The nurse manager’s leadership skills are vital because the staff nurses function in close proximity, coordination and have to frequently depend on one another fr performance at work.

Ref: page 153

LO 5: response

For leading groups, it is important to hold meetings efficiently through preparation and participation in the meeting and managing the behaviors of the members. I order to manage a task force; a leader would require to familiarize the task force members efficiently with each other so that there are bonds that are created in relation to the task.

Patient care conferences can be effectively led by being patient-focused and discuss specific patient care problems and a leader has to act as a coach, teacher and facilitator at such conferences.

Ref: page 154, 156 & 158

Chapter 12: Handling Conflict

LO 1: response

Conflict can be positive when it gives rise to healthy competition and focuses on winning and can be negative when it causes disruption and disturbance at work and focus is not defeat of the opponent. Positive conflict can be beneficial to organization by way of better competition and hence better overall outcome. Negative conflict can be harmful as it can hamper productivity.

Ref: page 161

LO 2: response

Positive or competitive conflict in interprofessional settings can bring in change as it focuses on creating of new things and new order even while collaborating between various departments.

Ref; page 161

LO 3: response

The components of conflict are antecedent conditions, perceived conflicts and felt conflicts, behavioral conflicts, suppressed and resolved conflicts and outcomes of conflicts. Other components include role and structural conflicts, competition for resources and conflicts for values and beliefs.

Ref: page 164 & 165

LO 4: response

There are three basic approaches to managing conflict:

The lose — lose strategy where no one side wins and a settlement is reached that is unsatisfactory for both sides.

The win — win strategy which strives to meet the goals and needs of both the parties in the conflict through consensus

The integrative decision making focuses on solving of the problem that caused the conflict rather than outcome of the conflict.

Ref; page 168

LO 5: response

A conflict can be managed by first evaluating the conflict situation and then deciding when and whether to intervene. Then one has to know and understand the antecedents and the conditions that created the conflict and the positions of the various parties involved. If required other should be enlisted to help and then solve the conflict by the selection of a conflict resolution approach and strategy that suits the conflict conditions.

Ref: page 170

Chapter 13: Managing Times

LO 1: response

Time wasters are issues that tend to prevent an individual from accomplishing a task assigned or delegated or in the achievement of a goal. This can include a large number of issues including interruptions like phone calls, messages and unplanned visitors, unscheduled and unnecessary meetings, absence of clear-cut goals and objectives, lack of regular or weekly plans and dearth of personal organization among others.

Ref: page 174

LO 2: response

The specific statements of results providing direction and vision in a prescribed timeline for achievement of a task are goals.

Ref: page 175

LO 3: response

Setting of goals according to the long and the short-term and the determination of importance of the goal is setting priorities.

Ref: page 176

LO 4: response

Group activities are undertaken to distribute work so that less time is required to accomplish regular or routine work. This can be achieved through identifying work items which tend to have similar characteristics and demands similar environmental surroundings as well as resources and can be grouped within divisions in the work shift.

Ref: page 177

LO 5: response

Personal organization and self-discipline can be achieved and managed by defining clearly the priorities that are based on well-defined and measurable goals that are achievable.

Ref: page 177

LO 6: response

Time wasters can be minimized by minimizing socializing and voiding small talks, planning meetings and calls, avoiding unnecessary talking, setting time for calls, using emails for messaging, controlling drop in visitors, scheduling and planning of paperwork, time control in meetings and respecting time.

Ref; pages 180,181 & 182.

Chapter 14: Budgeting and Managing Fiscal Resources

LO 1: response

Budgeting process works by of planning and controlling the operations of the future by way of comparison of the actual results and the planned expectations.

Ref: page 185

LO 2: response

The types of budget are incremental budget, zero-based budget, fixed or variable budgets, revenue budgets and expense budgets,

Ref: page 1887 & 188

LO 3: response

To monitor and control budgetary performance the variance or the difference…


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