They have an anticodon at their 5? end and an amino acid attachment site at their 3? end.
They interact with mRNA.
ATP is required for the charging of tRNAs with amino acids.
They interact with ribosomes.
Specific enzymes bind amino acids to their corresponding tRNAs.
Poly A tail
Ribosome binding site
(1) Pre-mRNA is processed to make mRNA.
(2) Ribosomes translate the mRNA sequence to make proteins.
(3) mRNA is transported to the cytoplasm.
(4) DNA is used as a template to make pre-mRNA.
1; 2; 4; 3
4; 1; 2; 3
1; 4; 3; 2
4; 3; 1; 2
4; 1; 3; 2
The amino acid site
It is directed by consensus sequences.
It removes introns.
It shortens the RNA molecule.
It is performed by small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles (snRNPs).
It is common in prokaryotes.
serine; a stop codon
the anticodon of tRNA charged with methionine binds to mRNA associated with the small ribosomal subunit.
the large ribosomal subunit binds to mRNA, causing the release of the small subunit.
the poly A tail of mRNA is directly involved.
the complex of mRNA and the large ribosomal subunit are formed.
the large ribosomal subunit binds to the complex before the methionine-charged tRNA.
CCT to CCC
TTG to TTA
CTG to CTT
GAG to TAG
CAA to CAG
carry out translation.
are not found in prokaryotes.
have no role in the fidelity of mRNA and tRNA interactions.
carry genetic information.
contain RNA only.
DNA polymerases use ribonucleoside triphosphates as substrates.
RNA polymerases are less effective at proofreading than DNA polymerases.
only DNA polymerases are processive.
RNA polymerases do not require a template.
RNA polymerases use deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates as substrates.
peptidyl transferase activity is catalyzed by a ribosomal protein.
the polypeptide chain grows from the Trp to the Met direction.
rRNA is catalytically active.
rRNA plays a passive role.
the codons are read in the 3?-to-5? direction.
Some enzymes are made up of more than one polypeptide.
All genes code for multiple enzymes.
Not all proteins are coded by genes.
Some RNAs have catalytic activity.
Not all enzymes are coded for by genes.
Cytoplasm; chloroplast; mitochondrion; nucleus
Nucleus; cytoplasm; chloroplast; mitochondrion
Nucleus; mitochondrion; chloroplast; cytoplasm
Cytoplasm; chloroplast; nucleus; mitochondrion
Mitochondrion; chloroplast; nucleus; cytoplasm
do not include the cleavage of signal sequences.
may include the addition of polysaccharides to proteins.
do not include the addition of polysaccharides to proteins.
do not include the addition of phosphate groups.
do not affect the activity of an enzyme.
Promoter DNA sequence
The start codon AUG
Terminator DNA sequence
translate mRNA into polypeptides.
transcribe mRNA to proteins.
translate mRNA into DNA.
transcribe DNA into mRNA.
translate mRNA into tRNA.