A student created the table above as a study guide. Evaluate the accuracy of the information shown in the table
The general structures are reversed for the two generations
Where does meiosis take place in the moss life cycle?
In the sporangium at the time of spore formation
Where does fertilization take place in the moss life cycle?
In the archegonium of the gametophyte generation
Which set of terms represents a haploid/diploid pair?
Spore/sporophyte
The table lists structures associated with portions of the life cycle in a conifer. Where on this table could an arrow be placed to indicate when meiosis occurs?
In between the sporophyte and gametophyte headings
n conifers, male gametophytes are called _______ and are formed by the division of microspores.
pollen
How do the sporophyte and gametophyte generations compare in a conifer?
The sporophyte generation is much larger than the gametophyte generation and the two generations grow in a single individual
Which statement describes events leading to formation of offspring in the conifer life cycle?
A haploid sperm from pollen enters the female gametophyte and fuses with a haploid egg.
A biologist isolates cells that are not actively producing auxin from a section of a plant stem. She places them in a culture dish with a growth medium that keeps the cells alive. When she adds auxin to the dish, the cells begin synthesizing more cellulose. What is an alternative that the biologist could add instead of auxin that would allow her to observe the same response?
Acid
Which is the correct order of events during auxin-mediated cell elongation?
Proton pump gene expression > ATP hydrolysis > H+ movement into cell wall > expansin activation
A biologist investigating the response of a particular plant species to light cues stumbles upon three mutant plant lines. Each displays a lack of normal phototropic behavior but varies in the auxin concentrations present in their growing tips. Based on the information given in the table, what could explain the behaviors of the three mutants?
Mutant 1 is deficient in an enzyme involved in auxin biosynthesis, whereas mutants 2 and 3 may have defective expansin and/or proton pump proteins
When a plant is illuminated from one side, auxin is transported to the _______ side of the shoot, where it stimulates cells to _______, causing the shoot to bend toward the light.
dark; expand
Where does the energy come from that drives water transport in plants?
The sun
Which would you expect to increase the rate of water transport in a plant?
A rise in temperature
What structures allow water vapor to escape the leaves of a plant?
Stomata
According to the current model of fluid flow in xylem, what creates the force that moves water from the roots to the leaves?
An increase in water tension in leaves
The hypothalamus is an example of a system under negative feedback control that _______ change when an imbalance is detected and _______ change when signals indicate balance has been restored.
initiates; stops initiating
If the body’s temperature drops below normal,
shivering will increase the body’s temperature towards its set point.
The hypothalamus functions as a
site for integrating information from temperature sensors in other parts of the body.
temperature sensor for sensing changes in body temperature.
control center for sending signals to other parts of the body to change body temperature.
A student runs on a treadmill for 10 minutes. She stops running and begins to measure the temperature of skin on her arm at one-minute intervals for a total of 8 minutes following her run. She records the values in the table shown. What can be inferred from these data?
The student’s set point for body temperature is equal to or near 37.2°C.
How does the respiratory system in birds differ from the mammalian respiratory system?
The respiratory system in birds is unidirectional, whereas the mammalian respiratory system is bidirectional.
Refer to the table below.

A student creates the table above as a study guide. Evaluate the accuracy of the information shown.

The information shown is accurate. inhalation ; exhalation
What is the function of the air sacs in the respiratory system of birds?
To hold air before and after it passes through the lungs so that it moves in one direction
Which sequence describes the order of structures through which air travels in the bird respiratory system?
Trachea, bronchus, posterior air sacs, lung, anterior air sacs, trachea
The cardiac cycle refers to the rhythmic relaxation (known as _______) and contraction (known as _______) of the _______.
diastole; systole; ventricles
During the systole phase of the cardiac cycle, high blood pressure in the ventricles forces the
aortic valve to open.
With age, the tissues making up a heart valve can lose flexibility and become stiff and narrowed while retaining their one-way closure properties. Suppose a man’s aortic valve is affected by this condition but his ventricles do not change their force of contraction. Which of the following will likely happen?
Pressure within the left ventricle will increase during the systole phase.
How does blood pressure in the aorta change as the heart goes through a cardiac cycle, and why?
Blood pressure in the aorta increases during systole as the result of muscle contraction in the ventricles.
How does the body deal with excess glucose?
metabolizes it to form glycogen in the liver and fat in the liver and adipose tissue
If blood glucose levels drop below the set point needed to maintain homeostasis, the pancreas will
secrete glucagon, which stimulates glycogen breakdown by liver cells.
How do insulin and glucagon function in the body?
Both act as stimulators to induce changes in cells to either take up glucose from the blood or move glucose into the blood.
A biologist interested in studying glucagon and its physiological effects wants to develop a mutant mouse line that does not produce glucagon. What should she look for in an initial screening step to identify a pool of mice that could potentially have such a mutation?
Mice that have very low blood glucose levels after prolonged fasting
What is the role of perforin in the cellular immune response?
It causes target cells to lyse.
A biologist identifies a mutant line of mice that lacks the cellular immune response. He suspects that a mutation in these mice affects the ability of host cells to carry out the antigen presentation step during the activation phase. What could the biologist do to test his hypothesis?
Isolate antigen-presenting host cells from mice known to have an intact cellular immune response and inject these into the mutant mice to see if the normal response can be restored.
Place the events in order of their sequence during the cellular immune response.
4, 2, 5, 1, 3
Suppose a mouse develops loss of sodium pump activity in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle in all of the nephrons in both kidneys. What problem would you expect this mouse to have?
A tendency to drink more water than normal accompanied by excretion of dilute urine
What physiological outcome results from the structure and activity of the loop of Henle?
A concentration gradient of ions is created in the surrounding tissue that allows urine passing through the collecting duct to become more concentrated than blood plasma.
Why is there an extensive capillary network associated with each nephron?
To take up ions and water that move out of the nephron and recycle them back to other parts of the body
The basic functional unit of the mammalian kidney filters the blood and actively secretes and reabsorbs specific solute molecules. What is the name of this unit?
Nephron
Which of the following actions would you expect to be occurring in the body of a person who has been stranded in a hot desert for several hours?
The hypothalamus would be stimulating production of antidiuretic hormone in the posterior pituitary.
Match each description with the appropriate structure.
1 = Posterior pituitary; 2 = Hypothalamus; 3 = Anterior pituitary
The four components shown in the table are included within a negative-feedback loop involving the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary. Knowing this, which of the following statements about this system are true?
When concentrations of thyroxin rise above a certain level in the blood, it triggers the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary to stop secreting TRH and TSH.
In a negative-feedback loop, a hormone _______ the hypothalamus and/or anterior pituitary when the hormone levels get too _______.
inhibits; high
What regulates the ovarian and uterine cycles?
Changes in hormone levels
In women, ovulation occurs at approximately which day of a 28-day ovarian cycle?
14
A class of pharmaceutical agents taken by women act as contraceptives—agents that prevent pregnancy. Which of the following agents would act as a contraceptive?
An agent that inhibits secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) by the anterior pituitary
At the end of the ovarian cycle, if a woman is not pregnant, the corpus luteum
disintegrates.
After a stimulus results in initial depolarization of a region of cell membrane of a neuron, a threshold voltage is reached. Once this happens, which of the following takes place?
A large number of voltage-gated sodium channels quickly open, causing a rapid change in membrane potential.
At the peak of the action potential,
voltage-gated sodium channels close and voltage-gated potassium channels open.
Your middle ear consists of a series of three bones—the malleus, incus, and stapes—connecting the eardrum to the cochlea. The primary function of your middle ear is to
transmit and amplify vibration stimuli.
How does the human ear transduce sound vibrations into action potentials?
Pressure from vibrating air stimulates vibrating structures in the ear that stimulate bending of hair cells that change the firing rate of neurons leading to the brain.
The principal elements of the human ear for converting vibrations into neural activity are found on the _______ of the _______.
basilar membrane; cochlea
Your outer ear consists of the structure located on the outside of your head called the _______, and the _______ that leads to the eardrum.
pinna; ear canal
Identify the structures labeled A, B, and C in the diagram of a sarcomere above.
A = Actin filament; B = Myosin filament; C = Titin
The sliding filament theory states that during muscle contraction
actin and myosin filaments change positions relative to each other.
A pharmaceutical company is interested in developing a drug that can act as a muscle relaxant. Preliminary research has led to the development of four compounds, each having a different mechanism of action in muscle tissue as described in the table. Which compound has potential to be developed as a muscle relaxant?
A, blocks release of calcium ions from the sacroplasmic reticulum
Muscle contraction is an energy-dependent process, requiring the hydrolysis of ATP to supply the necessary energy. At what point during a muscle contraction does ATP hydrolysis occur?
Immediately following dissociation of the actin-myosin complex (cross bridge)
Precipitation tends to be _______ on the _______ side of a mountain because water vapor _______ as it rises there.
higher; windward; condenses
The information in the table provides general descriptions of a mountain region and its eastern and western sides. Based on this information, where would you most likely find a large water resource and in what direction would the prevailing winds blow?
Region: west of mountains, Biome: Sagebrush desert
Region: mountains, Biome: temperate desert on western slope, dense stands of timber on eastern slope
Region: east of mountains, Biome: temperate rainforest
A large body of water lies to the east of the mountains, and prevailing winds blow from east to west.
Which of the following statements about air is correct?
As air falls, it contracts and becomes warmer.
The Cascade Mountains bisect the state of Washington into western and eastern portions. The western portion is bounded on its western border by the Pacific Ocean. The eastern portion is bounded on its eastern border by the state of Idaho. What might you predict about these two portions based on the information presented in the tutorial?
Eastern Washington has a higher proportion of drought-resistant vegetation than western Washington.
Which of the following sets of biomes is placed in order from most to least biologically diverse?
Tropical rain forest, temperate seasonal forest, tundra
Which of the following factors are important in determining the type of biome that characterizes a particular region?
Temperature and precipitation
Which of the following sets of biomes is placed in order from lowest to highest average annual temperature?
Tundra, woodland/shrubland, subtropical desert
Which of the following biomes has the greatest annual rainfall?
Tropical rain forest
Which of the following sets of factors is important in distinguishing aquatic biomes?
Water temperature, water depth, water currents, salinity
Which of the following sequences places the aquatic biomes in order from lowest to highest salinity?
Stream, salt marsh, seagrass bed
Which of the following aquatic biomes is known for its high biological diversity?
Coral reef
Which of the following pairs of aquatic biomes shares the most similarities?
Salt marshes and mangrove forests
Which pathway represents the shortest path that a nitrogen atom in atmospheric nitrogen, N2, could travel and end up in a protein in a human?
N2 > bacterium > plant > human
A student remarks that it is a good thing that humans discovered how to use industrial processes to fix nitrogen because this ensures that the nitrogen cycle can remain intact if nitrogen-fixing bacteria ever go extinct. Evaluate the accuracy of this statement.
The statement is inaccurate because humans would not be able to distribute the product of nitrogen fixation from industrial processes in the same way that bacteria are able to distribute it globally now.
How are humans influencing the nitrogen cycle?
By increasing the rate of nitrogen fixation through industrial processes and intensive agriculture
By increasing the production of oxides of nitrogen and other chemical forms through livestock production and some forms of agriculture
By increasing the production of oxides of nitrogen and other chemical forms through burning fossil fuels and biomass
By what process does nitrogen enter the living components of ecosystems?
Through fixation by microbes
How are humans influencing the carbon cycle?
By cutting forests and burning biomass, which increase the atmospheric pool of CO2
By burning fossil fuels and manufacturing cement, which increase the atmospheric pool of CO2
Through changes in land use, which increase the atmospheric pools of CO2 and CH4
Suppose human activities that influence the carbon cycle came to a complete stop. Use the information provided in the figure to predict the net effect on global carbon cycling.
Carbon cycling would be shifted toward an increase in deposition in sediments and fossil fuels and a decrease in inorganic carbon dioxide levels.
Which of the following is the major compartment for carbon in Earth’s system?
Fossil fuels
Use the figure above to compare the quantity of carbon present in the atmosphere to that present in fossil fuels. What percent of the carbon in the fossil fuel compartment would double the amount of carbon in the atmosphere if it was burned?
0.003%
What form of radiation is absorbed by Earth’s surface and atmosphere, and what form does this radiation take when it eventually moves off into space?
Earth absorbs short-wave visible and ultraviolet radiation and emits long-wave infrared radiation.
The table shows data representing three planets: Venus, Earth, and Mars. Use information provided in the tutorial to help you think about what the data show. Which of the following statements must be true about the atmospheres on these three planets?
The total quantity of gases making up each planet’s atmosphere is likely to be important to explain their surface temperatures.
How do greenhouse gases and aerosols in the atmosphere affect Earth’s radiation budget?
Greenhouse gases increase the trapping of infrared radiation emitted by Earth, and aerosols decrease the amount of solar radiation that reaches Earth’s atmosphere.
The diagram shows the paths taken by radiation after being absorbed by the Earth’s atmosphere and surface. How would the diagram change if the levels of carbon dioxide in Earth’s atmosphere were dramatically reduced?
The lower arrow for back radiation within the atmosphere would be much smaller.
At Glacier Bay, Alaska, why were Dryas (an herbaceous plant) and alder trees among the first plants to appear during the ecological succession of gravel deposits left behind by a retreating glacier?
Dryas and alder trees have nitrogen-fixing bacteria in nodules on their roots.
After reading about the changes at Glacier Bay, a student remarks that the pattern and interactions of organisms present at each stage in succession creates the conditions that lead to the pattern present at the next stage. A second student remarks that the soil produced at each stage of succession helps define the pattern present at the next stage. Evaluate these two statements.
Both statements are accurate.
Which of the following statements about ecological transitions is true?
It leads to a community distinctly different from the original community.
At Glacier Bay, Alaska, the gravel deposits left behind by a retreating glacier were colonized first by which of the following organisms?
Microorganisms
Biologists collected the data shown above from bird species inhabiting two islands near a mainland. According to the MacArthur-Wilson model, what could be the relationship between the two islands?
Island 1: average number of species 8.90, colonization rate .33, extinction rate 0.08
Island 2: number of species 1.72, colonization rate .13, extinction rate 0.08
Island 1 could be the same size as Island 2 and closer to the mainland than Island 2.
Which statement is supported by the MacArthur-Wilson model simulation?
Species diversity depends on the rates of colonization and extinction, which depend on the size and location of an island.
According to results from the simulation in the tutorial, which island characteristics are associated with the highest species richness?
Large and close to the mainland
A tsunami strikes a large peninsula, destroying the bird populations living there. The tsunami also fragments the peninsula into three islands of similar size but different distances from the mainland. What would the MacArthur-Wilson model predict about bird populations on these islands in the future? (Assume that birds do not migrate between islands.)
The rates of colonization of bird species will decrease with increasing distance of the island from the mainland, leading to lesser diversity with distance.
How do changing values for r affect the growth rate of a population?
Populations grow when r is positive, remain constant when r is zero, and shrink when r is negative.
The equations used in the tutorial apply to populations over short time intervals. Why can they not be applied to populations over very long time periods?
Real populations are affected by resource limitations that are not accounted for in the equations.
How long will it take a population of 550 moose to double if 25 offspring are born and 14 moose die on average per year?
34.5 years
What is meant by the term “doubling time” and how did changing values for N0 affect the doubling time of a population?
Doubling time is the amount of time needed for a population to double in size; increasing N0 did not change the doubling time.
What is carrying capacity?
The number of individuals in a population that can be supported by an area
The red and green solid lines show changes over the same time period for two different populations of the same plant species. Which of the following statements can be made about these two populations?
The region where one population lives has fewer resources for sustaining the species than the other.
If the size of a population is greater than the carrying capacity (K), what will happen to the population?
The population will experience more deaths than births.
The red and green solid lines show changes over the same time period for two populations of two different animal species living in the same region. Which of the following statements can be made about these two populations?
The two populations stabilize at the same number of individuals.
The solid blue and green lines trace the population growth of two different species living in isolation in the same environment without the other species present. The dotted lines trace the population growth of the same species living together in the same environment. What can be concluded about these two species?
Species A has a negative effect on species B.,Species B has a negative effect on species A.,They can coexist in the same environment.
What do each of the two terms labeled as 1 and 2 represent in this equation?
1 = Density-dependent growth rate of species A; 2 = Effect of species B on growth rate of species A
Which of the following is an outcome of interspecific competition?
Only one species survives; the other goes extinct.
Why are the two terms labeled as 1 and 2 connected by a minus sign?
Because an increase in the population of species B has a negative effect on the growth of species A
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