Hydrocarbon and Fossil Fuels. The gasolene used to run autos, the Diesel needed to run coachs and trucks, and the kerosine indispensable for the usage of bivouacing ranges and lanterns are all illustrations of liquid fuels. An illustration of a gaseous fuel is one found when utilizing a barbeque grill. Coal that is used to power a locomotor by bring forthing steam is a solid fuel. All of these fuels in different provinces are mixtures of compounds called hydrocarbons.

It was thought, merely under 200 old ages ago, that C compounds found within the cells of an being could merely be synthesised by the being itself. This theory was subsequently disputed when a German chemist by the name of Friedrich Wohler used inorganic substances to synthesize urea which is a C compound found in urine, in 1828.

In scientific discipline today, irrespective of their beginning, about all C compounds are included in organic chemical science. Hydrocarbons are the simplest organic compounds, incorporating merely C and H. The simplest of these are methane and C2H6.

Research inquiry – Can the efficiency ( heating capableness ) of two shot gasoline be increased by uniting it with ethyl alcohol? If so, what ratio of ethyl alcohol to petrol is most efficient?

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Hypothesis – It was hypothesized that if more two stroke gasoline was added to the ratio so the temperature of the H2O in the beaker would increase when the same spirit burner and modified bomb calorimeter design were used.

Ethanol, Two Stroke Petrol

10, 90 ( Respectively )

Ethanol, Two Stroke Petrol

30, 70 ( Respectively )

Ethanol, Two Stroke Petrol

50, 50 ( Respectively )

Ethanol, Two Stroke Petrol

70, 30 ( Respectively )

Ethanol, Two Stroke Petrol

90, 10 ( Respectively )

MSDS and Health and Safety

Hazard

Safety Precaution

Dangerous chemicals at hazard of unexpected burning ( ethanol, methanol, two stroke fuel )

Handle with utmost attention and wear protective cogwheel – eg. Safety spectacless, research lab coat and baseball mitts.

Glassware

Handle with attention and topographic point towards Centre of tabular array.

ETHANOL – Annoying to eyes.

Bluess may do giddiness or asphyxiation.

Consumption may bring forth wellness harm.

Baseball gloves, safety spectacless, research lab coat and inhalator as required.

METHANOL – Reasonably annoying to the tegument.

Mild to chair oculus thorn. Swallowing even little sums of methyl alcohol could potentially do sightlessness or decease.

Baseball gloves, safety spectacless, research lab coat and inhalator as required.

4.0 Materials and Method

4.1 Materials

One empty pigment can

4 kilogram of clay

Plierss

Hammer

Nail

File

Beehive shelf

Twelve… … … … ..

80ml beaker

Thermometer

Retort base

Two clinchs

Three 10ml mensurating cylinders

Ethyl alcohol

Methanol

Two stroke gasoline 1 ; 20

Baseball gloves

Soft drink can

Apron

Safety spectacless

Paper towel

Pencil

Paper

Glad wrap

Aluminum foil

Gluey tape

Water

Spirit Burner

Wick

Cap

Data lumberman

Temperature investigation

Funnels

Pipet

4.2 Method

Part A

Simple Calorimeter

A rejoinder base and two clinchs were set up in order to keep a sodium carbonate can with a thermometer suspended in it.

100 Master of Library Science of H2O was poured into sodium carbonate can.

10 Master of Library Science of methyl alcohol was poured into the spirit burner and wick was wet.

Spirit burner was placed under sodium carbonate can and illume.

Three tests were carried out mensurating the temperature addition of the H2O in the can.

Part B

Making and proving of Bomb Calorimeter

A pigment can was insulated with a thick bed of clay so as to pin down every bit much heat as possible.

A big hole was made utilizing plyerss, a cock, a nail and a file in the top so as to infix a beaker while holding the lip resting on the exterior of the overturned can.

Spirit burner was placed on top of beehive shelf and can was placed on top of 4 sets of three porcelain things at a 45 grade angle to each other so as to let O to come in the calorimeter with minimum heat loss.

10 Master of Library Science of ethyl alcohol was pour into spirit burner, lit and temperature addition in beaker was recorded 3 times. Temp was recorded at 1 min, 2 mins and 3 mins, all of which were separate tests.

Spirit burner was emptied and wick was dried of any ethyl alcohol.

Measure 4 was repeated after 10 Master of Library Science of methyl alcohol was poured into spirit burner and tested.

First test was done and it was realised that there was deficient O to prolong a fire.

Many holes were so punctured around the wall of the can with a cock and nail to let O to come in the calorimeter.

Part C

Testing and comparing of ethyl alcohol and two shot gasoline

4.3 Table of Variables

CONTROLLED

Mugwump

Dependant

Same spirit burner used for every test.

Type of hydrocarbon poured into spirit burner ( ethanol, methanol, two stroke gasoline ) .

Temperature addition in beaker of H2O measured in & A ; deg ; C

Same sum of H2O in beaker ( 100mls ) .

Sum of clip hydrocarbon is left to fire ( 1, 2, 3 mins )

Controlled sum of air current upseting the fire.

Same initial temperature when possible for tests.

5.0 Consequences

22/10/2010-Simple calorimeter

10mL ethyl alcohol

Initial Temperature= 23 grades

1 min=32

2min=36

3min=40

25/10/2010-Simple Calorimeter

10mL ethyl alcohol

Initial Temperature=23 grades

1 min=31

2min=35

3min=41

29/10/2010-Bomb Calorimeter

Initial Temp=22

1 min=30

2min=39

3min=47

Observations:

– ( 2 ) Condensation on exterior of beaker

– ( 2 ) Bubble forming

– ( 2 ) Perfect line on 80mL grade from marking by old experiments

– ( 3 ) Scattered bubbles, still warm after 4 proceedingss out of calorimeter

1/11/2010-Bomb Calorimeter

10mL Ethyl alcohol

Added foil after first tests produced FAIL consequences

Initial Temp=22

1min=30

2min=40

3min=47

Observations:

-Moved spirit burner closer to beaker ( used 4cm high beehive shelf )

5/11/2010-Bomb Calorimeter

10mL of 20:1 Two Stroke Petrol

No Aluminium foil

Trial 1:

Initial Temp=22

1min=32

2min-45

3min=56

Decided to fire for two proceedingss for future tests because it gave the best mean temp addition

Trial 2:

10mL of 20:1 Two Stroke Petrol

Started utilizing informations logger alternatively of basic thermometer

Initial Temp=21.5

2min=44.2

Trial 3:

Points to chart warming in fond regard

Initial Temp=22.2

2min=44.2

In Biology

Trial 4:

Initial=21.8

2min=43.8

Trial 5:

Initial:22.2

2min: 37.3

Possibly firing wick instead than hydrocarbon – invalid test? …

Time ( secs )

Temp ( & A ; deg ; C )

Time ( secs )

Temp ( & A ; deg ; C )

Time ( secs )

Temp ( & A ; deg ; C )

Time ( secs )

Temp ( & A ; deg ; C )

0

22.2

31

26.3

63

33.3

94

39.6

1

22.3

32

26.4

64

33.5

95

39.8

2

22.3

33

26.6

65

33.7

96

40

3

22.3

34

26.8

66

33.9

97

40.2

4

22.3

35

27

67

34.1

98

40.4

5

22.3

36

27.2

68

34.3

99

40.5

6

22.3

37

27.4

69

34.5

100

40.7

7

22.4

38

27.6

70

34.7

101

40.9

8

22.4

39

27.8

71

34.9

102

41

9

22.4

40

28.1

72

35.1

103

41.2

10

22.5

41

28.3

73

35.3

104

41.4

11

22.6

42

28.6

74

35.5

105

41.6

12

22.7

43

28.8

75

35.7

106

41.7

13

22.8

44

29

76

35.9

107

41.9

14

22.9

45

29.2

77

36.1

108

42.1

15

23.1

46

29.4

78

36.3

109

42.3

16

23.2

47

29.7

79

36.5

110

42.5

17

23.4

48

29.9

80

36.7

111

42.7

18

23.5

49

30.1

81

36.9

112

42.9

19

23.7

50

30.4

82

37.1

113

43

20

23.9

51

30.6

83

37.4

114

43.2

21

24.1

52

30.8

84

37.6

115

43.4

22

24.3

53

31.1

85

37.8

116

43.5

23

24.5

54

31.4

86

38

117

43.7

24

24.8

55

31.6

87

38.2

118

43.8

25

25

56

31.8

88

38.4

119

44.1

26

25.3

57

32

89

38.6

120

44.2

27

25.5

58

32.2

90

38.8

28

25.7

59

32.4

91

39

29

25.9

60

32.6

92

39.2

30

26.1

61

32.8

93

39.4

62

33

94

39.6

9.0 AppendixC: UserspaigePictures2010-10-26450.jpg

Degree centigrades: UserspaigePictures2010-10-26453.jpg

Degree centigrades: UserspaigePictures2010-10-26457.jpgC: UserspaigePictures2010-10-26454.jpgC: UserspaigePictures2010-10-26447.jpg

Treatment

Trial No.

T init

T concluding

? T

Mass init ( g )

Mass concluding ( g )

? Mass ( kilogram )

Q ( kJ )

Heat Content ( kJ/kg )

Mol H

100P

1

22

45

23

9.61860

100P

2

21.5

44.2

22.7

9.49314

100P

3

22.2

44.2

22

9.20040

100P

4

21.8

43.8

22

9.20040

100P

5

22.2

37.3

15.1

6.31482

10E90P

1

22

41.5

19.5

191.22

190.56

0.00066

8.15490

12355.90909

1324.553455

10E90P

2

22

40

18

191.22

190.56

0.00066

7.52760

11405.45455

1222.664727

10E90P

3

22

40.5

18.5

190.44

189.83

0.00061

7.73670

12683.11475

1359.629902

30E70P

1

22

41

19

194.49

193.62

0.00087

7.94580

9133.10

854.86

30E70P

2

22

41

19

193.53

191.49

0.00204

7.94580

3895.00

364.57

30E70P

3

25

40

15

191.49

190.89

0.00060

6.27300

10455.00

978.59

30E70P

4

25

45

20

190.87

190.10

0.00077

8.36400

10862.34

1016.71

50E50P

1

24

31

7

194.94

194.51

0.00043

2.92740

6807.91

544.63

50E50P

2

24

37

13

194.53

193.98

0.00055

5.43660

9884.73

790.78

50E50P

3

24

36

12

193.98

193.47

0.00051

5.01840

9840.00

787.20

70E30P

1

24

36

12

195.18

194.25

0.00093

5.01840

5396.13

358.30

70E30P

2

23.5

36

12.5

194.38

193.68

0.00070

5.22750

7467.86

495.87

70E30P

3

24

38

14

193.65

193.13

0.00052

5.85480

11259.23

747.61

100E

1

22

39

17

7.10940

100E

2

22

40

18

7.52760

x

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