St. Thomas Aquinas. or Thomas of Aquin or Aquino. scholastic philosopher. known as Doctor Angelicus. Doctor Universalis. was of baronial descent. and about allied to several of the royal houses of Europe. He was born in 1225 or 1227. at Roccasecca. the palace of his male parent Landulf. count of Aquino. in the districts of Naples. Having received his simple instruction at the monastery of Monte Cassino. he studied for six old ages at the University of Naples. go forthing it in his 16th twelvemonth. While there he likely came under the influence of the Dominicans. who were making their uttermost to enlist within their ranks the ablest immature bookmans of the age. for in malice of the resistance of his household. which was overcome merely by the intercession of Pope Innocent IV. he assumed the wont of St Dominic in his 17th twelvemonth. His higher-ups. seeing his great aptitude for theological survey. sent him to the Dominican school in Cologne. where Albertus Magnus was talking on doctrine and divinity. In 1245 Albertus was called to Paris. and there Aquinas followed him. and remained with him for three old ages. at the terminal of which he graduated as unmarried man of divinity.
In 1248 he returned to Cologne with Albertus. and was appointed 2nd lector and magister studentium. This twelvemonth may be taken as the beginning of his literary activity and public life. Before he left Paris he had thrown himself with ardour into the contention ramping between the university and the Friar-Preachers esteeming the autonomy of learning. defying both by addresss and pamphlets the governments of the university ; and when the difference was referred to the Catholic Pope. the vernal Aquinas was chosen to support his order. which he did with such success as to get the better of the statements of Guillaume de St. Amour. the title-holder of the university. and one of the most famed work forces of the twenty-four hours. In 1257. along with his friend Bonaventura. he was created physician of divinity. and began to give classs of talks upon this topic in Paris. and besides in Rome and other towns in Italy. From this clip onwards his life was one of ceaseless labor ; he was continually engaged in the active service of his order. was often going upon long and boring journeys. and was invariably consulted on personal businesss of province by the reigning pope.
In 1263 we find him at the chapter of the Dominican order held in London. In 1268 he was talking now in Rome and now in Bologna. all the piece engaged in the public concern of the church. In 1271 he was once more in Paris. talking to the pupils. pull offing the personal businesss of the church and consulted by the male monarch. Louis VIII. his kinsman. on personal businesss of province. In 1272 the bids of the head of his order and the petition of King Charles brought him back to the professor’s chair at Naples. All this clip he was prophesying every twenty-four hours. composing preachments. debates. talks. and finding clip to work hard at his great work the Summa Theologiae. Such wagess as the church could confer had been offered to him. He refused the archbishopric of Naples and the abbacy of Monte Cassino. In January 1274 he was summoned by Pope Gregory X to go to the council convened at Lyons. to look into and if possible settle the differences between the Greek and Latin churches. Though enduring from unwellness. he at one time set out on the journey ; happening his strength neglecting on the manner. he was carried to the Cistercian monastery of Fossa Nuova. in the bishopric of Terracina. where. after a lingering unwellness of seven hebdomads. he died on the 7th of March 1274. Dante ( Purgatorio. XX 69 ) asserts that he was poisoned by order of Charles of Anjou. Villani quotes the belief. and the Anonimo Fiorentino describes the offense and its motivation.
But Muratori. reproducing the history given by one of Thomas’s friends. gives no intimation of disgusting drama. Aquinas was canonized in 1323 by Pope John XXII. and in 1567 Pope Pius V ranked the festival of St. Thomas with those of the four great Latin male parents. Ambrose. Augustine. Jerome and Gregory. No theologian save Augustine has had an equal influence on the theological idea and linguistic communication of the Western Church. a fact which was strongly emphasized by Pope Leo XIII in hisEncyclical of August 4. 1879. which directed the clergy to take the instructions of Aquinas as the footing of their theological place. In 1880 he was declared frequenter of all Roman Catholic educational constitutions. In a monastery at Naples. near the cathedral of St. Januarius. is still shown a cell in which he is said to hold lived. The Hagiographas of Thomas are of great importance for doctrine every bit good as for divinity. for by nature and instruction he is the spirit of Scholasticism incarnate. The rules on which his system rested were these. He held that there were two beginnings of cognition — the enigmas of Christian religion and the truths of human ground.
The differentiation between these two was made emphasized by Aquinas. who is at strivings. particularly in his treatise Contra Gentiles. to do it kick that each is a distinguishable fountain of cognition. but that disclosure is the more of import of the two. Disclosure is a beginning of cognition. instead than the manifestation in the universe of a godly life. and its main feature is that it presents work forces with enigmas. which are to be believed even when they can non be understood. Disclosure is non Scripture entirely. for Scripture taken by itself does non match precisely with his description ; nor is it church tradition entirely. for church tradition must so far remainder on Scripture. Revelation is a godly beginning of cognition. of which Scripture and church tradition are the channels ; and he who would justly understand divinity must familiarise himself with Scripture. the instructions of the male parents. and the determinations of councils. in such a manner as to be able to do portion of himself. as it were. those channels along which this Godhead cognition flowed. Aquinas’s construct of ground is in some manner parallel with his construct of disclosure. Reason is in his thought non the single ground. but the fountain of natural truth. whose main channels are the assorted systems of pagan doctrine. and more particularly the ideas of Plato and the methods of Aristotle.
Reason and disclosure are separate beginnings of cognition ; and adult male can set himself in ownership of each. because he can convey himself into relation to the church on the one manus. and the system of doctrine. or more purely Aristotle. on the other. The construct will be made clearer when it is remembered that Aquinas. taught by the cryptic writer of the Hagiographas of the pseudo-Dionysius. who so wonderfully influenced medieval authors. sometimes spoke of a natural disclosure. or of ground as a beginning of truths in themselves cryptic. and was ever accustomed to state that ground every bit good as disclosure contained two sorts of cognition. The first sort ballad rather beyond the power of adult male to have it. the second was within man’s range. In ground. as in disclosure. adult male can merely achieve to the lower sort of cognition ; there is a higher sort which we may non trust to make. But while ground and disclosure are two distinguishable beginnings of truths. the truths are non contradictory ; for in the last resort they rest on one absolute truth — they come from the one beginning of cognition. God. the Absolute One.
Hence arises the compatibility of doctrine and divinity which was the cardinal maxim of Scholasticism. and the possibility of a Summa Theologiae. which is a Summa Philosophiae every bit good. All the many Hagiographas of Thomas are preparative to his great work the Summa Theologiae. and demo us the advancement of his head preparation for this his life work. In the Summa Catholicae Fidei Contra Gentiles he shows how a Christian divinity is the amount and Crown of all scientific discipline. This work is in its design excusatory. and is meant to convey within the scope of Christian thought all that is of value in Mahommedan scientific discipline. He carefully establishes the necessity of disclosure as a beginning of cognition. non simply because it aids us in groking in a slightly better manner the truths already furnished by ground. as some of the Arabian philosophers and Maimonides had acknowledged. but because it is the absolute beginning of our cognition of the enigmas of the Christian religion ; and so he lays down the dealingss to be observed between ground and disclosure. between doctrine and divinity.
This work. Contra Gentiles. may be taken as an luxuriant expounding of the method of Aquinas. That method. nevertheless. implied a careful survey and comprehension of the consequences which accrued to adult male from ground and disclosure. and a thorough appreciation of all that had been done by adult male in relation to those two beginnings of human cognition ; and so. in his preliminary Hagiographas. Thomas returns to get the hang the two states. The consequences of disclosure he found in the Holy Scriptures and in the Hagiographas of the male parents and the great theologists of the church ; and his method was to continue backwards. He began with Peter Lombard ( who had reduced to theological order. in his celebrated book on the Sentences. the assorted important statements of the church upon philosophy ) in his In Quatuor Sententiarum P. Lombardi libros. Then came his rescues upon open points in divinity. in his Twelve Quodlibeta Disputata. and his Quaestiones Disputatae. His Cutena Aurea next appeared. which. under the signifier of a commentary on the Gospels. was truly an thorough sum-up of the theological instruction of the greatest of the church male parents.
This side of his readying was finished by a close survey of Scripture. the consequences of which are contained in his commentaries. In omnes Epistolas Divi Apostoli Expositio. his Super Isaiam et Jeremiam. and his In Psalmos. Turning now to the other side. we have grounds. non merely from tradition but from his Hagiographas. that he was acquainted with Plato and the mystical Platonists ; but he had the sagaciousness to comprehend that Aristotle was thegreat representative of doctrine. and that his Hagiographas contained the best consequences and method which the natural ground had as yet attained to. Accordingly Aquinas prepared himself on this side by commentaries on Aristotle’sDe Interpretatione. on his Posterior Analytics. on the Metaphysics. the Physics. the De Anima. and on Aristotle’s other psychological and physical Hagiographas. each commentary holding for its purpose to put clasp of the stuff and hold on the method contained and employed in each treatise. Fortified by this thorough readying. Aquinas began his Summa Theologiae. which he intended to be the amount of all known acquisition. arranged harmonizing to the best method. and subsidiary to the dictates of the church.
Practically it came to be the theological pronouncement of the church. explained harmonizing to the doctrine of Aristotle and his Arabian observers. The Summa is divided into three great parts. which shortly may be said to handle of God. Man and the God-Man. The first and the 2nd parts are entirely the work of Aquinas. but of the 3rd portion merely the first 90 quaestiones are his ; the remainder of it was finished in conformity with his designs. The first book. after a short debut upon the nature of divinity as understood by Aquinas. returns in 119 inquiries to discourse the nature. properties and dealingss of God ; and this is non done as in a modern work on divinity. but the inquiries raised in the natural philosophies of Aristotle find a topographic point alongside of the statements of Scripture. while all topics in any manner related to the cardinal subject are brought into the discourse. The 2nd portion is divided into two. which are quoted as Prima Secundae and Secunda Secundae. This 2nd portion has frequently been described as ethic. but this is barely true.
The topic is adult male. treated as Aristotle does. and so Aquinas discusses all the ethical. psychological and theological inquiries which arise ; but any theological treatment upon adult male must be chiefly ethical. and so a great proportion of the first portion. and about the whole of the 2nd. has to make with ethical inquiries. In his ethical treatments Aquinas distinguishes theological from natural virtuousnesss and frailties ; the theological virtuousnesss are faith. hope and charity ; the natural. justness. prudence and the similar. The theological virtuousnesss are founded on religion. in resistance to the natural. which are founded on ground ; and as religion with Aquinas is ever belief in a proposition. non swear in a personal Saviour. conformably with his thought that disclosure is a new cognition instead than a new life. the relation of unbelief to virtue is really purely and narrowly laid down and implemented. The 3rd portion of the Summa is besides divided into two parts. but by accident instead than by design. Aquinas died before he had finished his great work. and what has been added to finish the strategy is appended as a Supplementum Tertiae Partis. In this 3rd portion Aquinas discusses the individual. office and work of Jesus Christ. and had begun to discourse the sacraments. when decease put an terminal to his labours. Father: Count Landulf
Mother: Countess Theadora of Theate
University: University of Naples
University: University of Paris
Professor: University of Paris ( 1259-68 )
Professor: University of Paris ( 1272-73 )
Professor: University of Naples