DNA and RNA are polymers composed of ______ monomers
The backbone of DNA consists of ______.
a repeating sugar-phosphate-sugar-phosphate pattern
The DNA double helix is ______.
made up of two polynucleotide strands
RNA contains the nitrogenous base ______ instead of ______, which is only found in DNA.
uracil . . . thymine
If adenine makes up 20% of the bases in a DNA double helix, what percent of the bases are guanine
In a DNA double helix, adenine pairs with ______ and guanine pairs with ______.
thymine . . . cytosine
If one strand of a DNA double helix has the sequence GTCCAT, what is the sequence of the other strand?
Who discovered the structure of DNA?
Watson and Crick
Evidence for the spiral nature of DNA came from ______.
X-ray crystallography studies
What type of chemical bond joins the bases of complementary DNA strands?
After replication, ______.
each new DNA double helix consists of one old strand and one new strand
During replication, ______ are the enzymes responsible for joining the nucleotides of a new DNA strand together.
DNA polymerases
The modern phrasing of Beadle and Tatum’s hypothesis about relationships between genes and their products is “one gene-one ______.”
What name is given to the collection of traits exhibited by an organism?
How many amino acids are common to all living systems?
How many nucleotides make up a codon?
The shared genetic code of all life on Earth is evidence that ______.
all life shares a common ancestry
Transcription is the ______.
manufacture of a strand of RNA complementary to a strand of DNA
If a strand of DNA has the sequence AAGCTC, transcription will result in a(n) ______.
single RNA strand with the sequence UUCGAG
Which of the following enzymes is responsible for RNA synthesis?
RNA polymerase
The region of DNA where RNA synthesis begins is the ______.
The correct sequence of events occurring during transcription is ______.
initiation, elongation, termination
The absence of a terminator in transcription will result in ______.
the production of a longer RNA molecule
What protects mRNA from attack by cellular enzymes?
a cap and tail
The expressed (coding) regions of eukaryotic genes are called ______.
Translation converts the information stored in ______ to ______.
RNA . . . a polypeptide
The RNA that is translated into a polypeptide is ______ RNA
The DNA codon AGT codes for an amino acid carried by a tRNA with the anticodon
Where is translation accomplished?
What is the correct order of the stages of translation?
initiation, codon recognition, peptide bond formation, translocation, termination
Peptide bonds form between ______
amino acids
A mutation within a gene that will insert a premature stop codon in mRNA would ______.
result in a shortened polypeptide chain
What is the smallest number of nucleotides that must be added or subtracted to change the triplet grouping of the genetic message?
What is the ultimate source of all diversity?
Viruses that infect bacteria are ______.
How can bacteriophage DNA be spread from cell to cell without causing cell death?
via a lysogenic cycle
A(n) ______ is to bacteria as a ______ is to animal cells.
prophage . . . provirus
HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) must use its own ______ to reproduce.
reverse transcriptase
Pic-The figure below shows the flow of genetic information in a eukaryotic cell. The transfer of information from DNA into an RNA molecule is known as ______.
Pic-Examine the genetic code table, shown below. The codon AGC codes for the amino acid ______
Pic-Consider the following figure. It indicates that a single amino acid substitution ______
may alter a protein so that it no longer functions properly
While working with cultured mouse cells, a researcher unknowingly treated the cells with a mutagen that causes the deletion or insertion of individual nucleotides in DNA. Subsequently, she isolated and cultured a single cell from this group. She noticed that the progeny of this cell were not producing a certain protein and that this affected their survival
The mutation that resulted from her accident was probably ______.
one that changed the triplet grouping of the genetic message
The mutation would be most harmful to the cells if it resulted in ______.
a single nucleotide insertion near the start of the coding sequence
Plant viruses ______.
often use RNA, rather than DNA, as their genetic material
Pic-If you were asked to study the pattern of bacterial growth (increase in numbers over time) during an infection, you would find that numbers of bacteria increase exponentially up to a certain point. Assume that you have been asked to interpret the growth of bacteriophages. You infect the host bacteria and measure the increase of phages over a defined period of time. You plot the results and get the graph shown here.

Once viruses are detected, the number of viruses increases rapidly. This is because __________.

the viruses lyse the hosts to release mature viruses all at once

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