Which of the following is NOT a primary function of the urinary system?

regulation of plasma osmolarity
regulation of plasma ionic composition
regulation of plasma volume
regulation of insulin secretion

regulation of insulin secretion
Which of the following is NOT a secondary function of the kidneys?

production of renin
secretion of erythropoietin
gluconeogenesis
glycogenolysis

glycogenolysis
Which of the following conditions might lead to glucose levels exceeding the transport maximum in the proximal tubules?

diabetes insipidus
dehydration
diabetes mellitus
kidney stones

diabetes mellitus
Which of the following is the inner region of the kidney, which is darker with a striped appearance?

renal pelvis
cortex
medulla
nephrons

medulla
As the glomerular filtrate is formed, it flows from the Bowman’s capsule into the __________.

connecting tubule
proximal convoluted tubule
descending limb of the loop of Henle
distal convoluted tubule

proximal convoluted tubule
Which of the following substances is not normally found in filtrate?

water and small solutes
ions, such as sodium and potassium
nitrogenous waste particles, such as urea
blood cells and large particles

blood cells and large particles

Yes, both blood cells and large particles, such as proteins, are not allowed to filter through a healthy glomerular membrane.

What is the primary driving force (pressure) that produces glomerular filtration?

gravity
colloid osmotic pressure of blood
hydrostatic pressure of blood (blood pressure)

hydrostatic pressure of blood (blood pressure)

Yes, the hydrostatic pressure of blood forces fluid out of the glomerular capillaries.

Which substance would be found in higher concentration if the membrane were damaged?

glucose
chloride
protein
creatinine

protein

Yes, large proteins are not normally filtered by a healthy glomerular membrane.

If the osmotic pressure in the glomerular capillaries increased from 28 mm Hg to 35 mm Hg, would net filtration increase or decrease?

net filtration would not be altered
net filtration would decrease
net filtration would increase

net filtration would decrease

Yes, because osmotic pressure opposes filtration, increasing osmotic pressure would decrease net filtration.

Calculate the net filtration pressure if capillary hydrostatic pressure is 60 mm Hg, capillary osmotic pressure is 25 mm Hg, and capsular hydrostatic pressure is 10 mm Hg.

50 mm Hg
60 mm Hg
25 mm Hg
35 mm Hg

25 mm Hg

Yes, 60 – (25 + 10) = 25 mm Hg. The two pressures that oppose filtration must be subtracted from the force favoring filtration.

Of the 800 millimoles of glucose that is filtered by the kidneys each day, what percentage is reabsorbed?

100%
99.2%
99.4%
98.1%

100%
Each kidney contains over one million __________, the functional units of the kidney.

renal corpuscles
renal tubules
nephrons
peritubular capillaries

nephrons
The process of filtration involves movement of fluid and solutes from __________ to __________.

afferent arteriole; glomerular capillaries
glomerular capillaries; peritubular capillaries
glomerular capillaries; Bowman’s capsule
peritubular capillaries; Bowman’s capsule

glomerular capillaries; Bowman’s capsule
The transport of solutes and fluid from the renal tubule into the peritubular capillaries is the process of __________.

secretion
filtration
osmosis
reabsorption

reabsorption
The process of eliminating urine from the body is called __________.

reabsorption
filtration
micturition
secretion

micturition
About __________ liters of fluid is filtered by the kidneys each day.

180
125
5
1.5

180
Most solutes that are reabsorbed in the proximal convoluted tubule use which of the following pathways?

transcellular
paracellular

transcellular

Yes, most substances are reabsorbed first through the luminal and then through the basolateral membranes of the proximal convoluted tubule.

During reabsorption of water in the proximal convoluted tubule, what causes water to osmose from the lumen into the interstitial space?

active transport of water
a decrease in the osmolarity of the interstitium
an increase in the osmolarity of the interstitium

an increase in the osmolarity of the interstitium

Yes, the increase in osmolarity causes the water to move into the interstitium.

The decreased intracellular concentration of sodium in tubular cells during active transport is caused by which of the following mechanisms?

passive sodium channels
sodium-glucose cotransporter
the sodium-potassium ATPase pump in the
basolateral membrane
the sodium-potassium ATPase pump in the luminal
membrane

the sodium-potassium ATPase pump in the basolateral membrane

Yes, this pump moves sodium out of the cell into the interstitium, thus decreasing intracellular sodium.

The active transport of which ion out of proximal convoluted tubule cells causes the reabsorption of both water and solutes?

chloride
sodium
potassium

sodium

Yes, the active transport of sodium out of the cell, across the basolateral membrane into the interstitium, provides the driving force for reabsorption of both water and solutes.

Which of the following transporters in the luminal membrane results in secretion?

potassium ion channel
Na+-glucose cotransporter
glucose carrier transporter
Na+-H+ countertransport

Na+-H+ countertransport

Yes, because this is a countertransporter, Na+ is transported into the cell and H+ is transported out of the cell into the lumen.

What is the limiting factor for the reabsorption of most actively transported solutes in the proximal tubule?

number of transport carriers in the luminal
membrane
number of transport carriers in the basolateral
membrane
number of sodium-potassium ATPase pumps in the
basolateral membrane

number of transport carriers in the luminal membrane

Yes, the number of carriers is the rate-limiting factor. For example, in Diabetes Mellitus, plasma glucose levels are very high, and the sodium-glucose transporter cannot transport (reabsorb) all the glucose passing through the proximal tubule. Glucose is therefore found in the urine.

Why is inulin, an exogenous substance, useful in determining glomerular filtration rate (GFR)?

Inulin’s filtered load is greater than its excretion rate.
Inulin is reabsorbed.
Inulin is secreted from the peritubular fluid into the
lumen of the renal tubule.
Inulin is freely filtered and not reabsorbed or
secreted.

Inulin is freely filtered and not reabsorbed or secreted.
Which of the following events does NOT take place during the process of micturition?

increased parasympathetic activity
decreased somatic neuron activity
relaxation of the internal urethral sphincter
increased sympathetic activity

increased sympathetic activity
x

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