regulation of plasma osmolarity
regulation of plasma ionic composition
regulation of plasma volume
regulation of insulin secretion
production of renin
secretion of erythropoietin
proximal convoluted tubule
descending limb of the loop of Henle
distal convoluted tubule
water and small solutes
ions, such as sodium and potassium
nitrogenous waste particles, such as urea
blood cells and large particles
Yes, both blood cells and large particles, such as proteins, are not allowed to filter through a healthy glomerular membrane.
colloid osmotic pressure of blood
hydrostatic pressure of blood (blood pressure)
Yes, the hydrostatic pressure of blood forces fluid out of the glomerular capillaries.
Yes, large proteins are not normally filtered by a healthy glomerular membrane.
net filtration would not be altered
net filtration would decrease
net filtration would increase
Yes, because osmotic pressure opposes filtration, increasing osmotic pressure would decrease net filtration.
50 mm Hg
60 mm Hg
25 mm Hg
35 mm Hg
Yes, 60 – (25 + 10) = 25 mm Hg. The two pressures that oppose filtration must be subtracted from the force favoring filtration.
afferent arteriole; glomerular capillaries
glomerular capillaries; peritubular capillaries
glomerular capillaries; Bowman’s capsule
peritubular capillaries; Bowman’s capsule
Yes, most substances are reabsorbed first through the luminal and then through the basolateral membranes of the proximal convoluted tubule.
active transport of water
a decrease in the osmolarity of the interstitium
an increase in the osmolarity of the interstitium
Yes, the increase in osmolarity causes the water to move into the interstitium.
passive sodium channels
the sodium-potassium ATPase pump in the
the sodium-potassium ATPase pump in the luminal
Yes, this pump moves sodium out of the cell into the interstitium, thus decreasing intracellular sodium.
Yes, the active transport of sodium out of the cell, across the basolateral membrane into the interstitium, provides the driving force for reabsorption of both water and solutes.
potassium ion channel
glucose carrier transporter
Yes, because this is a countertransporter, Na+ is transported into the cell and H+ is transported out of the cell into the lumen.
number of transport carriers in the luminal
number of transport carriers in the basolateral
number of sodium-potassium ATPase pumps in the
Yes, the number of carriers is the rate-limiting factor. For example, in Diabetes Mellitus, plasma glucose levels are very high, and the sodium-glucose transporter cannot transport (reabsorb) all the glucose passing through the proximal tubule. Glucose is therefore found in the urine.
Inulin’s filtered load is greater than its excretion rate.
Inulin is reabsorbed.
Inulin is secreted from the peritubular fluid into the
lumen of the renal tubule.
Inulin is freely filtered and not reabsorbed or
increased parasympathetic activity
decreased somatic neuron activity
relaxation of the internal urethral sphincter
increased sympathetic activity