Which statement about the emotions that develop over the first two years of life is true?
They are expressed in speedy and uncensored reactions.
What appears in an infant between 2 and 4 months of age?
Which emotion develops in an infant at the latest age?
The emotion of anger usually appears at the age of:
6 months.
Which emotion is apparent at birth?
Which behavior develops around six weeks of age?
the social smile
At six weeks of age, baby Jessica’s newest emotional reaction is MOST likely to be:
a social smile.
An infant’s anger is usually triggered by:
. Chang participated in a research study when he was an infant during which the researcher restrained his arms for two minutes. Which emotion did Chang likely experience?
Increased levels of cortisol are associated with an infant’s:
Usually, stranger wariness is first noticeable at______months.
Pierce is a two-year-old boy who loves his “lellow-lee” (yellow blanket) and won’t take a
nap without it. Pierce’s yellow blanket would be considered a(n):
transitional object.
When a baby acts upset because a caregiver is leaving, the baby is exhibiting:
separation anxiety.
Which statement is correct?
An 11-month-old girl may show anxiety when her mother goes into another room.
When baby Erica met her grandfather’s big dog for the first time, she cried and tried to move away from the dog. Erica is most likely:
9 months old.
An infant’s distress at seeing an unfamiliar person is called:
stranger wariness.
Four-month-old Tammi and thirteen-month-old Dawn are left with a babysitter. How will they react?
Dawn will probably show more distress than Tammi
Which emotion seems to depend on the development of social awareness?
Which characteristics must be present before an infant can experience pride, shame, or guilt?
social awareness
The new emotions that appear toward the end of a child’s second year are:
pride, shame, embarrassment, and guilt.
The emotions of shame, pride, and embarrassment require that a child first:
gain an awareness of other people.
Which statement about emotional development in toddlers is true?
Emotions like pride and humility are dependent on cultural values.
Rex is 3 months old. According to psychoanalyst Margaret Mahler, he views himself as:
a part of his mother.
Researchers placed a dot of rouge on babies’ noses and then had them look into a mirror. On
average, at what age did most babies touch their own noses when they saw their reflection?
18 months
If we place a dot of rouge on a 20-month-old girl’s nose and stand the child in front of a mirror, she may then touch her own nose. This proves that the child has some:
Which specific part of the brain is responsible for emotional self-regulation?
the anterior cingulate gyrus
Emotional reactions, especially those connected to self-awareness, are partially dependent
Tiffany is 8 months old. Her mother and father don’t get along well. There is often fighting
in the house that frightens Tiffany. What effect might this environment have on her brain development?
Her hypothalamus may grow more slowly than normal.
Research has found that a person’s temperament is:
linked to biological patterns that appear in infancy.
What is one of the four categories of temperament suggested by the New York Longitudinal
. slow to warm up
Regina is easily disturbed, unhappy, and cries a lot. The New York Longitudinal Study
researchers would say that Regina’s temperament is:
According to the New York Longitudinal Study, by approximately 3 months of age infants exhibit enough behaviors that they can be classified as one of______temperamental categories
Adam is playful, but sometimes moody; fussy but generally tolerant; and sometimes quiet, and other times boisterous. His temperament would be categorized as:
a. easy.
hard to classify.
According to the New York Longitudinal Study, at what age can infants’ temperaments first
be classified?
3 months
What are the four categories of temperament suggested by the New York Longitudinal
easy, difficult, slow to warm up, hard to classify
Which four-month-old girl’s temperament is the MOST likely to change over time? MODEL NEEDED/????
Michaela, who is inhibited and fearful
Which boy is MOST likely to be strongly affected by his mother’s responsiveness? MODEL NEEDED/????
a. Kim, who is anxious and difficult
The coordinated interaction between caregiver and infant is called:
The crucial aspect of synchrony is:
mutual interaction.
Jimmy’s dad comes home from grocery shopping, sees Jimmy sitting on the sofa, and says, “Where’s that boy of mine?” Jimmy gives his dad a smile that spreads across his entire face, and his dad responds with an exaggerated surprised look. This is an example of:
Synchrony depends on:
responsiveness and timing.
Victor and Rosa want to enhance their synchrony with their six-month-old daughter. They can best do this by:
imitating her vocal and facial expressions.
In the research performed by Tronick ; Weinberg, mothers were instructed to interact with their infants by copying their babies’ facial expressions, and then on cue to show no emotional
reaction at all. This procedure is called the:
still-face technique.
Mary is playing with her infant daughter Rosalie. Mary responds to Rosalie’s facial
expressions by mimicking and exaggerating the same expressions. All of a sudden, Mary’s face becomes blank and she does not show any emotion. How is Rose likely to respond?
. Rose will probably frown, fuss, drool, or look away from her mother.
The lasting emotional bond that an infant forms with a caregiver is called:
. Attachment in infants is definitely evident by the age of:
6 months
. “Proximity-seeking” and “contact-maintaining” behaviors are displays of:
. Based on research, attachment appears to be:
universal around the world.
Which scenario portrays a secure attachment?
a child being willing to explore a new environment in the presence of the caregiver
Baby Carrie’s father is holding her. She is smiling at him one minute and then, unexpectedly, she slaps his face. Since this is typical behavior for her, she may have which type of attachment?
Jerome clings to his mother and refuses to leave her lap. Jerome is exhibiting ________attachment behavior.
Nine-month-old Taran explores new environments when his mother is present but shows distress when his mother leaves the room. Taran’s behavior illustrates a(n)________attachment
A sign of secure attachment is when a child:
maintains contacting with the caregiver while exploring.
Which child shows a secure attachment?
one who makes contact with the caregiver after the caregiver re-enters the room
Secure attachment makes a toddler:
willing to explore.
Ruby does not notice when her mother leaves the day care center and ignores her mother
when she returns. Ruby’s behavior is characteristic of __________attachment.
Which psychologist developed the Strange Situation test?
Mary Ainsworth
The Strange Situation measures how a child:
responds to separations and reunions with a caregiver.
In the Strange Situation, a sign of insecure attachment might be:
crying and unable to be comforted when Mother returns.
In the Strange Situation, a sign of secure attachment is:
smiling at Mother when she returns to the room.
Dr. Berkowitz is doing research using the Strange Situation in order to measure a child’s
Harry’s mother left him for a few minutes. When she returned, Harry climbed into her lap and then resumed playing. Harry is probably a(n)______attached child.
Recent research has indicated that once an infant has become securely attached to an adult:
he or she is likely to be a securely attached child.
Josh is 15 months old. His parents are happy in their marriage and financially stable. Most
likely, Josh’s attachment type will be:
Based on the experience of the Romanian children who were institutionalized during the late twentieth century, what might be concluded about attachment?
A person’s attachment style starts to be set by about six months of age.
A baby searches the faces of her parents to see how to respond in unfamiliar situations. This is called:
social referencing.
A parent and a toddler meet someone who makes the parent nervous. The toddler will
act anxious
Abed is 12 months old, and his uncle Frank is visiting for the first time in 6 months. Frank is
delighted to see his nephew, so as he enters the room, he booms, “There’s my little man!” Abed looks to his mother, who is smiling broadly at her brother Frank, and crawls to her to be picked up. Abed is demonstrating:
. social referencing.
Rodney was raised on a farm in Utah and enjoys the taste of beef liver cooked with onions. Sarah was raised in New York City and would never think of eating beef liver, but she very much enjoys sushi. What explains their differences in food preference?
. social referencing
Compared to mothers, fathers are more likely to make their infants:
When playing with their children, mothers are more likely than fathers to:
play peek-a-boo and patty cake.
Geoffrey enjoys spending time with his one-year-old son. Compared to his wife, Geoffrey’s
interaction with their son is likely to be:
more actively playful
When playing with their children, fathers are more likely than mothers to:
engage in physical play.
One clear difference between father-infant and mother-infant interactions is that:
babies laugh and smile more with their fathers.
Sigmund Freud was a(n):
psychoanalytic theorist.
A child’s typical activity during the oral stage is:
sucking on a pacifier
According to psychoanalytic theory, the child’s prime focus of pleasure in the first year of life
is the:
Freud’s stage that takes place in the second year is called:
the anal stage
Freud claimed that during the anal stage
infants find pleasure in stimulating and controlling the bowels.
How do people become “fixated” in a Freudian stage?
Their normal developmental urges are frustrated.
A child fixated in the oral stage may become an adult who:
eats too much.
Freud would attribute an adult’s fingernail biting and overeating to problems during which
childhood developmental stage?
Annalise is an adult who requires predictability and regularity in all aspects of her life. She
eats the same breakfast every day, organizes her clothes by color in her closet, and gets distressed when the milk is put on the wrong shelf in the refrigerator. Annalise appears to be fixated at the
In Erikson’s theory, the infant’s earliest task is described as that of:
learning trust or mistrust.
The first crisis of life, according to Erikson, is:
trust versus mistrust.
Erikson’s second stage of development is called:
. autonomy versus shame and doubt.
If a child successfully resolves Erikson’s first stage, he or she can be expected to
explore his or her world.
A toddler in Freud’s anal stage would also be at Erikson’s:
autonomy versus shame and doubt stage
According to Erikson’s theory, what holds true for most toddlers?
They want to gain a sense of control over their own bodies.
Another term for self-rule is:
According to Erikson, failure to develop autonomy over one’s own actions is most closely
identified with:
shame and doubt.
The autonomy versus shame and doubt crisis involves the child:
asserting control over his or her own actions.
The Western value of independence is clearly exhibited in:
Erikson’s stage of autonomy versus shame and doubt.
Huan is 20 months old, and his mother is in a hurry. She wants to put his shoes on, but Huan rejects that by squirming and declaring, “No! Me!” It takes him five minutes, and his shoes end up on the wrong feet, but he proudly skips out to the car when he’s done. Huan is in Erikson’s______stage.
autonomy versus shame and doubt
According to traditional behaviorism, personality is:
. molded by one’s parents.
Which theorist stated, “Failure to bring up a happy child, a well-adjusted child—assuming bodily health—falls squarely upon the parents’ shoulders”?
_________learning takes place by observing others.
Developmentalists have found that social learning takes place:
throughout life.
Margarita and Roberto are warm, nurturing parents who hold their baby often. They are exhibiting:
proximal parenting.
When Caitlin falls and hurts herself, she cries and runs to her mother. Rather than comforting Caitlin, her mother offers her a toy to distract her. Her mother is probably a(n):
distal parent.
Distal parenting tends to produce children who are:
. self-aware.
In the study comparing children in rural Cameroon with children from urban Greece, which
children were observed spending the greatest time being held by their mothers?
3-month-old Cameroonian children
Proximal parenting tends to produce children who are:
According to cognitive theory, infants use their early relationships to develop a set of
assumptions that become a frame of reference that may be used later in life. Such a set of assumptions is called a:
working model.
One-year-old Claire lives in a loving, but noisy, family home with her parents and four siblings. She receives much positive attention and has a trusting relationship with her family.
According to Piaget, she will MOST likely develop:
a cognitive schema that families are as loving and loud as her working model.
. A working model, according to cognitive theory:
can be reorganized.
According to Maslow, infancy begins with which kind of needs?
_________believes that caregivers also have needs that influence how they respond to infants.
Which hormone is associated with encouraging caregiving behaviors?
. Allocare refers to:
The care of children by people other than their biological parents.
When Birgitta gave birth, her mother moved in with the young family to help care for the
newborn. This sort of caregiving by someone other than the baby’s parent is called:
Worldwide, only about 15 percent of infants receive daily care from:
a paid, trained, nonrelative caregiver
In the United States, about 20 percent of infants are cared for_______throughout their first year of life.
exclusively by their mothers
Center-based day care is common in countries like France, Israel, and China, where:
it is heavily subsidized by the government.
Child care that occurs in the home of a nonrelative who usually cares for several children of
various ages is called:
family day care
A type of care in which several paid, trained providers care for many children in a space designed especially for the purpose of day care is called:
center day care.
Which is NOT an essential characteristic of high-quality day care?
. a ratio of one adult to three infants.
Mothers who work full time outside the home play with their children _______mothers who stay at home paly with their children
almost as much
stopped at T/F
questions …end

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