Addiction includes
A) withdrawal.
B) tolerance.
C) deterioration of work performance.
D) All of the above
D) All of the above
Illicit drugs
A) may be manufactured illegally.
B) are psychoactive.
C) differ from state to state in regards to laws governing their possession.
D) All of the above
D) All of the above
Which of the following is true about routes of administration of drugs?
A) Drugs can’t be absorbed through the skin.
B) Intravenous injection is the most dangerous method of administration.
C) The least effective route of administration is by inhalation.
D) None of the above
B) Intravenous injection is the most dangerous method of administration.
The fastest-acting method of injection is
A) inunction.
B) intramuscular.
C) intravenous.
D) subcutaneous
C) intravenous.
Using a nicotine patch for smoking cessation is an example of
A) injection.
B) ingestion.
C) inunction.
D) inhalation.
C) inunction.
Suppositories
A) are designed to melt at body temperature.
B) are inserted into the vagina or anus.
C) cause a drug to remain inactive in the body for several hours.
D) All of the above
B) are inserted into the vagina or anus.
James is no longer able to feel the same effects from his drug of choice with his regular dose; he needs to increase the amount of the drug to feel the desired effects. This example demonstrates
A) withdrawal.
B) tolerance.
C) adjustment.
D) dosing.
B) tolerance.
David spends four hours a day lifting weights. He has also started taking steroids to increase his muscle mass and is preoccupied with gaining weight. He most likely suffers from this disorder.
A) codependence
B) anorexia nervosa
C) muscle dysmorphia
D) bulimia nervosa
C) muscle dysmorphia
To be addictive
A) a behavior must have the potential to produce a positive mood change.
B) the body eventually requires the chemical in order to feel normal.
C) continued involvement with a substance or activity occurs despite ongoing negative consequences.
D) All of the above
D) All of the above
Jason doesn’t see that his addiction to heroin is self-destructive. He is experiencing
A) obsession.
B) compulsion.
C) displacement.
D) denial.
D) denial.
Which of the following is true about gambling addictions?
A) Men are more likely to have gambling problems than women.
B) Gambling problems are greater among individuals with high socioeconomic status.
C) Compulsive gamblers seek the money and not the excitement.
D) None of the above
A) Men are more likely to have gambling problems than women.
Which of the following is true about gambling addictions?
Compulsive gamblers seek a high from the excitement rather than from money.
Alcohol, caffeine, and tobacco are all classified as which type of drug?
Recreational.
Which of the following statements is true of cocaine
It is an anesthetic.
Marijuana is administered therapeutically for all of the following reasons EXCEPT
to reduce appetite for weight control.
Heroin has a
high potential for addiction and no accepted medical use
The most popular form of LSD is
blotter acid that is swallowed or chewed
Which of the following is true about steroids?
Adverse effects include mood swings, elevated cholesterol levels, acne, and hypertension.
True or false. Depressants speed up neuromuscular activity and can increase focus and alertness.
False
True or False. Withdrawal and tolerance are key aspects of addiction.
True
Using a drug for a purpose other than that which it is intended is
drug misuse
An aspirin taken to relieve minor muscle aches would be considered an
OTC drug
Which of the following is true about over-the-counter drugs?
They can be abused
Mikail is attempting to reduce his caffeine consumption. Which of the following drinks that he consumes daily has the highest amount of caffeine per serving?
Gourmet coffee from a coffee shop.
What is the most common reason offered by college students to explain their drug use?
to reduce stress
A large dose of cocaine can cause
increased heart rate and blood pressure.
Amphetamines such as Ritalin or Adderall are commonly prescribed to treat
ADHD
Opioids are also called
narcotics
Marijuana today is
much more potent than in the 1960s
The most noticeable effect of the THC in marijuana is
bloodshot eyes
True or False. Methamphetamine can be snorted or smoked, but not injected or orally ingested.
False
(Meth can be injected, smoked, or orally ingested.)
Long-term effects of marijuana include all the following EXCEPT
increased production of testosterone in males
Marijuana use presents clear dangers to those driving motor vehicles (as well as others on the road) because it
slows reaction time and impedes decision-making
Morphine, codeine, and heroin are all
opioids
Which of the following is NOT true about the treatment for opioid addiction?
The most difficult time in the withdrawal process occurs 3 to 7 days after the last use.
Ecstacy is a
stimulant and mild hallucinogen
Which of the following is true about psilocybin?
it can cause hallucinations
Which type of drug has the potential to alter a person’s mood or behavior
psychoactive drug
True or false. Endorphins are hormones that act as “the body’s own opioids” in their ability to reduce pain and produce feelings of well-being.
True
True or false. A synergistic drug interaction can be dangerous or even deadly.
True
True or false. Methadone maintenance does not have the same potential for addiction that heroin does.
False
True or False. Prescription drug abuse has increased dramatically among college students over the past 10 years
True
Addiction
-the compulsive, repetitive use of a substance/drug that occurs despite ongoing negative consequences to the user
-addictive behaviors initially provide a sense of pleasure or stability that’s beyond an individual’s power to achieve in other ways. But eventually, the individual needs to consume the addictive substance or enact the behavior to feel normal/function on a daily basis
Physiological Dependence
the adaptive state of the brain/body processes that occur with regular addictive behavior and results in withdrawal if the addictive behavior stops
Tolerance
when increased amounts of a drug are required to achieve the desired effect
Psychological Dependence
dependency of the mind on a substance or behavior, which can lead to psychological withdrawal symptoms such as anxiety, irritability or cravings
Withdrawal
a series of temporary physical/psychological symptoms that occur when an addict abrupty abstains from an addictive chemical or behavior
Signs of Addiction
Compulsion+ Obsession
Loss of Control
Negative Consequences
Denial
Compulsion
preoccupation with a behavior and an overwhelming need to perform it
-characterized by obsession=excessive preoccupation with and addictive object or behavior
Loss of Control
the inability to predict reliably whether a particular instance of involvement with an addictive substance or behavior will be healthy or damaging
Negative Consequences
physical damage, legal trouble, financial ruin, academic failure, and other severe problems associated with addictions
Denial
the inability to perceive that the behavior is self-destructive
Process addiction
a condition in which a person is dependent on (addicted to) some mood-altering behavior or processes, such as gambling, eating or exercise
compulsive (pathological) gambler
-A person addicted to gambling
-characterized by preoccupation with gambling, using gambling to escape problems, lying to members to hide the extent of involvement with gambling
compulsive shopper
-people who shop on impulse as a way of coping and find it difficult to control their spending behaviors
-they buy more than one of the same thing and keep items in their closet with their tags on
-shopping doesn’t make them feel better, but actually worse
addictive exercisers
people who exercise compulsively to try to meet needs of nurturance, intimacy, self-esteem, and self-competency
Internet addiction
compulsive use of computer, cell phones, and other forms of technology to access the internet for activities such as email, games, blogging
excessive use of a drug
drug abuse
codependence
a self-defeating relationship pattern in which a person is addicted to the addict
-codependents find it hard to set health boundaries and they assume responsibility for meeting others’ needs to the point that they subordinate or even cease being aware of their own needs
-codependents are the primary enablers of their addicted loved ones
enabler
people who knowingly or unknowingly protect addicts from the consequences of their behavior
drugs that affect brain chemistry and have potential to alter mood and behavior
psychoactive drugs
6 Types of drugs
-prescription drugs
-OTC (over the counter) drugs
-recreational drugs (alcohol, tobacco, caffeine products–legal though psychoactive)
-herbal preparations
-illicit (illegal) drugs (all of which are psychoactive)
-commercial preparations (household cleaners, cosmetic, perfume)
oral ingestion
intake of drug through the mouth
-drug takes longest to reach bloodstream compared to other means
inhalation
introduction of drugs through respiratory tract ( sniffling, snorting, smoking, inhaling)
injection
introduction of drugs into body via a hypodermic needle
-fastest way for drug to reach bloodstream
inunction
introduction of drugs through the skin
ex: nicotine patches
suppositories
mixture of drugs and a waxy medium designated to melt at body temp that are inserted into vagina or anus
use of multiple medications, vitamins, or illicit drugs simultaneously
polydrug use
interaction of 2 or more drugs that produce more profound effects than would be expected if the drugs were taken separately
synergism
Why do college students do drugs?
-to reduce stress/relax/forget about problems
-to help them study
-social pressure
-genetics
Stimulant
drug that increases CNS activity
ex: cocaine, amphetamines,methamphetamines, and caffeine
Describe how drugs affect the brain
-neurons containing dopamine relay messages about pleasure through their nerve fibers to nerve cells in the limbic system, which regulates emotion
-Other nerve fibers also connect to part of the frontal region of the cerebral cortex, the area of brain that plays a role in memory, thinking, perception, consciousness
-this pleasure circuit, AKA mesolimbic dopamine system, spans the brainstem, the emotional limbic system, and the thinking frontal cortex
-all addicting drugs activate the brain’s pleasure circuit
-both an anesthetic and a stimulant
-in small doses, it can slow heart rate. But in larger doses, it can lead to increase in heart rate/blood pressure, suppress appetite, and lead to convulsions and death
Cocaine
Route of administration for cocaine
snorted, smoked or injected
The active ingredient in marijuana
THC
Effects of marijuana
dilation of blood vessels which produce bloodshot eyes
intensified reactions to various stimuli
reduces driver’s ability to react and make quick decisions
Depressant
drugs that slow down activity of CNS
ex: alcohol, opioids, barbituates, and benzodiazepines
drugs that induce sleep, relieve pain and induce euphoria
-they decrease heart rate, respiration, and blood pressure
-AKA narcotics
opioids
Of all opioids, ____has greatest notoriety as an addictive drug
heroin
-white powder derived from morphine
-more addictive/potent than morphine.
-has no medical uses
-mainly administered through intravenous injections
-moods swings from euphoric highs followed by depressive lows/ slow respiration, constricted pupils, feelings of drowsiness and a dreamy, mentally slow feeling
heroin
a potent, long-acting addictive drug that strongly activates the brain’s reward centers by producing a sense of euphoria
-in small doses, it can increase physical activity, alertness, and decrease appetite
-in large doses, can lead to convulsions, irregular heartbeats, death
methamphetamine
-large and varied group of synthetic agents that stimulate CNS
-small doses can improve alertness, increase attention, elevate mood, and decrease fatigue
-repeated use can lead to psychological/physical dependence
amphetamine
Route of administration for methamphetamine
snorted, smoked, ingested orally, or injected
opioid-like hormones that are manufactured in the human body and contribute to natural feelings of well-being
endorphins
the most difficult time in the withdrawal process is ____.
24-72 hours after last use
drugs that depress the CNS and induce sleep and reduce anxiety
barbituates
-AKA tranquilizers
-a class of CNS depressant drugs with sedative, hypnotic and muscle relaxing effects
benzodiazepines
the mixing of sensory messages
ex: hearing a taste and smelling a sound
synthesia
Hallucinogens
AKA psychedelics
-substances that are capable of creating auditory/visual hallucinations and unusual changes in moods, thoughts, and feelings by inhibiting the relay of sensory input. (preventing neurotransmission from occurring)
ex: LSD, ecstasy, mescaline, psilocybin, and ketamine
-the most notorious hallucinogen
-most common form is in blotter act
-produces euphoria as well as dysphoria
-shortens attention span, causing mind to wander
-causes distortions of ordinary perceptions
LSD
-street name for MDMA
-it’s a ”club” drug
-both a stimulant and mild hallucinogen
-creates feeling of extreme euphoira, openness/warmth, feelings of love/empathy
-enhances sensory experiences and distort perceptions
-doesn’t create hallucinations
ecstasy
-a synthetic substance that became a black market drug in 1970s
-was used as an anesthetic
-can produce euphoria/dysphoria
-produces hallucinations, delusions, and delerium
PCP
-derived from peyote cacus
-tastes bitter
-induces nausea and vomiting
-illegal except for use in Native American church
mescaline
active chemicals found in groups of mushrooms
psilocybin
products that are sniffed/inhaled to produce high
-legal
inhalants
anabolic steroids
artificial forms of testosterone that promote muscle growth/strength
ergogenic drugs
substances believed to enhance athletic performance
the process of freeing a drug user from an intoxicating or addictive substance in the body or from dependence on such a substance
detoxification
Effects of steroids
-produces euphoria, diminished fatigue, and increased bulk/power
-causes mood swings, acne, hypertension, and increased cholesterol levels
-causes hallucinations, as it inhibits the relay of sensory input. The brain fills the resulting void with visions, dreams, memories, and sensory distortions
Ketamine
Alcohol and marijuana are both
Depressants. They are both sedative . Provide relaxed,euphoric feelings, mood elevation,drowsiness, sedation
-Both lead to impaired judgment and decreased inhibitions (for some)
-Both can result in “hangover” feelings following heavy use
Even though marijuana is a depressant it can increase heart rate
True
Alcohol should never be taken with other sedatives
True
Addiction traditionally based on four criteria:
1) Relief of withdrawal symptoms
2) Continued use despite harm to self and others
3) Unsuccessful efforts to cease using or cut down on use, including relapse
4) Tolerance
-Stimulate the mind & body in many ways
-Increased heart rate, mental ability, endurance, alertness, physical ability, sex drive, pain tolerance, metabolism
-Decreased hunger, fatigue, desire to sleep, inhibitions
-Withdrawal symptoms range from minor headaches,
severe cravings for drug, inability to function, inability to
derive pleasure from ordinary activities without the drug,
exhaustion, depression
-Adverse effects: Risk of stroke, seizures, heart disease
(including sudden cardiac arrest), kidney failure, skin
lesions, wasting, decreased immunity, tooth decay,
psychosis.
-Examples: Cocaine, speed, crystal meth (crystal, “Tina”, “T” Tweak) , caffeine, nicotine, methamphetamine, etc
stimulants (uppers)
-Slow down the mind & body
-Increase sense of pleasure, well being & euphoria.
-Decrease pain, respiration, feelings of threat or worry; slows bowel movements (constipation)
-withdrawal symptoms can be severe but typically not life-threatening: vomiting, increased sensitivity to pain, insomnia, diarrhea, muscle/abdominal cramps, flu-like symptoms
-risk of lethal overdoes is high for first time and veteran users
Opioids
alcohol poisoning
Excessive alcohol can depress nerves that control involuntary actions such as breathing and the gag reflex (which prevents choking). A fatal dose of alcohol will eventually stop these functions
-symptoms: vomiting and choking on own vomit, seizures, slow/irregular breathing, hypothermia (low body temp), mental confusion
This group of drugs can cause users to experience spiritual enlightening or very important-seeming events during hallucinations, departure from reality, altered state.
-May lead to extremely unpleasant images/experience (bad trip). Users may exercise poor judgment (resulting in
injuries/death), confusion, disorientation, temporary (and in rare cases, long-term) psychosis
hallucinogens
Focuses on minimizing hazardous effects of behavior
-Negotiates rather than dictates solutions
-Seeks to preserve human dignity of user
-Meets users where they are at: support groups, education, behavior modifications
harm reduction
Effective for highly addictive substances and substances that can be harmful to quit too quickly
-regulated dosing
-safer formulation of chemical
-not necessarily harm-free
drug replacement therapy
What are some new nicotine products? (alternatives to cigarettes)
-Camel dissolvable sticks/strips
-nicotine lozenges (i.e. verve)
-camel snus (split-less pouch, juice can be swallowed)
-nicotine water
-nicogel (take single press of gel and rub it into skin)
What are some nicotine replacement products?
-Zonnic
-hookah/e-hookah
-e-cigarettes
-aerosol generating heating mechanism used with specially designed cigarettes
-format of a conventional cigarette lit using a normal lighter
-uses chemical reaction to generate nicotine containing aerosol
E-cigarettes work by
vaporizing liquid nicotine
-doesn’t just contain harmless h20 vapor
-contains nicotine/variability (extracted from real tobacco; few synthetics), volatile organic compounds, tobacco specific carcinogens, propylene glycol, heavy metals/silicate particles, second-hand vaping
e-cigarettes
FDA approved means that
-it’s clinically proven safe/effective
ex: nicotine gum, patch, lozenge, inhaler
-using medication or counseling increases the long-term quit rate (20% each respectively)
-using medicating AND counseling dramatically increases the long term quit rate (40%)
-using medication or counseling increases the long-term quit rate (20% each respectively)
-using medicating AND counseling dramatically increases the long term quit rate (40%)
Addiction triangle
-addiction can be emotional, physical, or a habit so treatments should address those things
Benefits of quitting smoking
after 20 min:
-BP,pulse rate, body temp drop to normal
after 8 hrs:
-CO lvl in blood drops to normal, O2 level in blood increases to normal
-after 24 hrs
-chance of heart attach decrease
-Long term: more energy, decreased risk of coronary heart disease, lung cancer,
drug
any substance that changes mental state or bodily function
Ways drugs can be introduced to the body
-few drugs dissolve so well in fatty membranes of cells that when they’re rubbed on the skin, they travel through all skin layers, through capillaries into bloodstream (inunction)
-apply drugs to mucous membranes. (snorting, sniffing )mucous membranes are much thinner and capillaries are closer to the surface
-hypodermic needle to inject drug into a vein, muscle, beneath the skin
-inhaling drugs into lungs (smoking)
-swallow the drugs (oral ingestion)
slowest way of getting drugs into body
oral ingestion
fastest way of getting drug into body
intravenous injection and then inhalation
What types of personalities are believed to be at a greater risk for drug abuse?
-people with OCD
-people who are risk-taking and adventurous
2 kinds of life experiences more likely found in lives of substance abusers
-they’re more likely to have grown up in a family with a substance abusing parent
-they have history of physical.emotion abuse from parent
risk factors for addiction
unstable family/work, family history of substance abuse (genetics), hangout out with people who do drugs, mental health, personality, life experiences
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