minor issues such as music preference or style of dress
When adolescents and their parents disagree, it is usually regarding
identity-versus-identity-confusion and intimacy-versus-isolation stages
According to Erikson, adolescents’ reliance on peers to help them define their identities and learn to form relationships is the link between the
3%
What is the percentage of teenagers who experience major depression, in which their psychological disorder is such that the depression is severe and lingers for a long time?
academic achievement
Societal messages suggest that which of the following can act as a roadblock to a female’s social success?
generation gap
A divide between parents and adolescents in attitudes, values, aspirations, and worldviews is known as
controversial
If an adolescent student is liked by some and disliked by others, that adolescent is considered
crisis or commitment
Psychologist James Marcia suggests that adolescent identity can be seen in terms of two characteristics, which are
solitary sexual self-stimulation
The term masturbation refers to
the fact that socialized delinquents will live a life of crime into adulthood while undersocialized delinquents are rehabilitated
Differences between undersocialized delinquents and socialized delinquents include all of the following except
Filipino
Which of the following adolescent groups tends to feel a greater sense of respect and obligation toward their families?
a psychological investment in a course of action or an ideology
According to James Marcia’s definition, commitment is
crowds
Larger groups that are composed of individuals who share particular characteristics but who may not interact with one another are called
neglected
Brandy is an overweight 15-year-old girl who is neither liked nor disliked by others at her school. Rather, Brandy gets no attention from her classmates at all, and she feels as though she might as well be invisible. Brandy would be considered
Sub-Saharan Africa
Social norms oppose premarital sex for women in all of these areas EXCEPT
neglected
Children and adolescents who receive relatively little attention from their peers in the form of either positive or negative interactions are called
autonomy; egalitarian
Because of the adolescent’s development of _________, the balance of power in the relationship between parents and adolescent becomes more _______ toward the end of adolescence
american
Which of the following adolescents is the most likely to develop a degree of autonomy at an early stage of adolescence?
rejected
Children and adolescents who are uniformly disliked are called
Adolescents’ desire for autonomy makes parents and other adult family members, in general, inadequate and invalid sources for information
What is the likely reason why adolescents refer to their peers rather than their parents for social comparison?
divorce or breakup of the nuclear family
All of the following are considered important influences in whether or not an adolescent suffers with major depression except
low cognitive development
Which of the following does NOT contribute to the rising number of adolescent suicides?
suicide
Warren is a 16-year-old male who recently started to give away important possessions, stopped eating, and demonstrated general depression by being lethargic and uncommunicative. Warren may be demonstrating a warning sign of
cliques
Groups of 2 to 12 people whose members have frequent social interactions with one another are called
permissiveness with affection
According to current norms, if sexual intercourse occurs within the context of a long-term, committed, or loving relationship, it is called
sexual orientation
What term relates to the object of one’s sexual interest?
definitions of and rationales for appropriate vs. inappropriate conduct
According to psychologist Judith Smetana, what is the most likely reason for more conflict between adolescents and their parents in the earlier stage of adolescence compared to the later stage of adolescence?
identity diffusion
According to James Marcia, the status of adolescents who consider various identity alternatives, but never commit to one or never even consider identity options in any conscious way is called
constant wearing of black or dark clothing
Which of the following is NOT an alarm or warning sign of adolescent suicide?
develop awareness of uniqueness of self and knowledge of roles
In Erikson’s eight stages of psychosocial development, which of the following is the positive outcome of the fifth stage, called identity-versus-identity-confusion stage?
social comparison
When an adolescent provides another adolescent with opportunities to compare and evaluate opinions, abilities, and physical changes, this is called
The census represents a significant increase in the number of individuals who think of themselves as belonging to more than one race
When considering the results of the 2000 and 2010 U.S. Censuses, what is one outstanding feature present in the data?
hormonal imbalance in females
All of the following are likely causes of major depression in adolescent females except
onset of puberty, while at the same time societal pressures indicate it is appropriate for romantic involvement to begin
What developments lead to the change in the way adolescents view the opposite sex?
moratorium
According to James Marcia, the status of adolescents who may have explored various identity alternatives to some degree, but have not yet committed themselves, is called
transgendered
When a person pursues sexual reassignment surgery because they feel as though they were born with the wrong physical sex (i.e., trapped in the wrong body), this is called being
70%
The national dropout rate for African American college students is approximately
senescence
The natural physical decline brought about by aging is called
postformal thought; formal operations
Researcher Gisela Labouvie-Vief promoted _________, and Piaget believed in ________.
hardiness
A personality characteristic associated with a lower rate of stress-related illness is known as
gender stereotypes
Differences in gender distribution and attrition rates across subject areas reflect which of the following?
componential intelligence
Traditional intelligence tests, such as those used in psychoeducational evaluations in schools, usually focus on which of Sternberg’s aspects of intelligence?
reintegration
According to Schaie, what is the mission of people in late adulthood?
acute stressor
Theo returned home from vacationing in Europe. While he was flying home, his father died after suffering a heart attack. When told of his father’s death, Theo suffered from symptoms similar to a panic attack. Which of the following terms provides the best description of the immediate effect of Theo’s reaction to his father’s death?
achieving stage
According to developmental psychologist K. Warner Schaie, the point reached by young adults in which intelligence is applied to specific situations involving the attainment of long-term goals regarding careers, family, and societal contributions is called
69%
What percent of white high school graduates enter college?
40%
What percent of students entering college finish four years later with a degree?
componential intelligence
When a person uses information he/she has been taught (e.g., choose formulas and problem-solving strategies) to solve problems in a rational way, Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence would suggest that person was demonstrating
how prior experiences are used in problem solving, which involves the ability to cope with new situations
In Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence, the experiential aspect of intelligence deals with
are particularly susceptible to difficulties during their first year of college
Recent research indicates that first generation college students
achievement
According to Schaie, what is the mission of young adulthood?
problem-focused coping
Allison is having a great deal of difficulty in her statistics class. She goes to her teacher to discuss ways in which she can improve her skills, or even drop the class if necessary. Allison is demonstrating
achieving stage
Schaie believed that when young adults apply their intelligence to attain long-term goals and confront and resolve major issues such as what job to take and whom to marry, they are using an operation in the
dualistic thinking
According to research by psychologist William Perry, students entering Harvard University tended to have a view of the world where they reasoned that something was good or bad, people were good or bad, and others were for them or against them. He called this
hardiness
Ashley and her brother, Tim, react to stressful family situations entirely differently. Ashley is easily frustrated and tends to look at the negative side when things go wrong, while Tim has always been a person who enjoys challenges and feels capable of responding effectively no matter what the situation. Tim is demonstrating
executive stage
According to Schaie, the stage in which people in middle adulthood may become involved in town government, service clubs, charitable groups, unions and organizations, where they have a larger purpose in society and can look beyond their individual/family situations is called
they never learn to reduce their caloric intake as they age
Many people who have normal weight for their height during young adulthood put on weight as they age because
contextual intelligence
According to the text, which of the following of Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence has come to be called “practical intelligence”?
emotion-focused coping
Jayne is having difficulty finding adequate, affordable daycare for her child while she is at work. Instead of focusing on the negative, she looks at the bright side and realizes that at least she has a good job in a tight economy. Jayne is utilizing
men have more opportunities to earn money when they graduate from high school
Which of the following would be considered a reasonable answer as to why there is a gender gap in college attendance?
psychoneuroimmunology
What is the name for the new field of study that researches the relationship among the brain, immune system, and psychological factors with regard to stress-related events?
secondary appraisal
If a student assesses the situation to determine how much time he/she has available to devote to studying for an upcoming exam, this is an example of
legislation to enact universal health care benefits
Using Schaie’s stages of adult development, which of the following is an issue that a senior citizen is most likely to be focused on and interested in?
responsible stage
According to developmental psychologist K. Warner Schaie, the stage where the major concerns of middle-aged adults relate to their personal situations is called
physical and psychological factors
How well people cope with stress is an interplay between
acquisition
According to Schaie, what is the mission of childhood and adolescence?
disability
The term for a condition that substantially limits a major life activity such as walking or vision is a(n)
undereducated and underemployed
Statistics suggest that disabled people are generally
defensive coping
When a person attempts coping that involves unconscious strategies that distort or deny the true nature of a situation, this is called
experiential intelligence
When a person solves problems by utilizing his/her prior experience, as well as insight and coping ability/skills for new situations, Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence would suggest that person was demonstrating
adopting a new baby
Which of the following is most likely to lead to the greatest increase in stress?
emotional intelligence
What type of intelligence allows some people to acquire the ability to relate to others, understand what others are experiencing, and respond to needs of others?
the availability and use of effective contraceptives
What is the most likely reason for the dramatic decrease in the number of children in the average American family?
China
In what culture do men rank good health more important in marriage than love?
homogamy
In Jamar’s culture, the tendency to marry someone who is similar in age, race, education, and religion is referred to as which of the following?
Erikson’s emphasis on examining the continued growth and development of the personality throughout the lifespan
While Erikson’s intimacy-versus-isolation stage approach has been influential, some aspects of his theory have come under scrutiny by today’s developmentalists in all of the following areas EXCEPT
Italy
According to research reported in the text, which country has the least divorce?
status
The evaluation of a role or person by other relevant members of a group or society is called
50%
In what percentage of households in the U.S. do women earn as much as their husbands?
artistic
According to John Holland’s personality type theory, a person who would have an interest in acting, poetry, or painting would probably be described as
consummate love
According to Robert Sternberg, when two people share a loving, sexually vibrant, long-term relationship, this is called
realistic
According to John Holland’s personality type theory, people who are down-to-earth, practical problem solvers, and physically strong, but have mediocre social skills are best described as
marriage offers a guaranteed commitment to both parties
All of the following are reasons why young adults choose to marry EXCEPT
developing close, intimate relationships with others
According to Erikson, the focus of a person’s early 30s is
the process of choosing a particular social clock
Psychologist Ravenna Helson’s research demonstrated that the critical factor in the course of personality development for women is
55
Women today make up ____% of the U.S. labor force
intimacy-versus-isolation stage
According to Erikson, the period of post-adolescence into the early 30s that focuses on developing close relationships with others is called
romantic love
According to Robert Sternberg, when two people are happily dating one another but not making future plans, this is called
90%
What percentage of people eventually marry?
he fulfills obligations to his parents
According to psychologist George Vaillant’s longitudinal research study of male Harvard graduates, all of the following usually occur when a man is in his late 20s and early 30s except
the process of choosing a particular social clock
Psychologist Ravenna Helson’s research demonstrated that the critical factor in the course of personality development for women is
9 out of 10
When polled, _____________ 18- to 29-year-olds rate a happy marriage as an important ingredient to a good life
communal
Occupations that are associated with relationships are called
decision/commitment
According to Robert Sternberg, empty love develops when only _________ is present.
to get financial gain from governmental benefits programs such as tax breaks and welfare
All of the following are reasons why young adults choose to have children EXCEPT
empty love
Jerome and Alice have been married for 15 years, and their marriage is strained with bickering and unhappiness. Still, they are not considering a divorce because they have an 8-year-old son whom they both love deeply. Psychologist Robert Sternberg would call their relationship
empty love
According to Robert Sternberg, when two people are living in an arranged marriage or a couple has decided to stay together “for the sake of the children,” this is called
evolutionary factors
Which of the following is an explanation for cross-cultural similarities and gender differences?
passion and decision/commitment
According to Robert Sternberg, fatuous love develops when _________ is (are) present
social clock
The culturally determined psychological timepiece providing a sense of whether we have reached the major benchmarks of life at the appropriate time in comparison to our peers is called
companionate love
According to Robert Sternberg, when two people enjoy each other’s company and their relationship but no longer feel much sexual interest for the other, it is called
passion
According to Robert Sternberg, infatuated love develops when only _________ is present
artistic
According to John Holland’s personality type theory, a person who would have an interest in acting, poetry, or painting would probably be described as
seek loving, long-term, and meaningful relationships
Research suggests that most gay and lesbian couples
extrinsic motivation
Bernice is a go-getter at her sales job because she likes the finer things of life like sports cars, jewelry, and expensive vacations. Bernice is most likely motivated by
marriage gradient
Jorge has been taught to marry a woman who is younger, smaller, and lower in status. This is referred to as the
the process of choosing a particular social clock
Psychologist Ravenna Helson’s research demonstrated that the critical factor in the course of personality development for women is
romantic love
Darnell and Denise have been happily dating for months; however, they do not feel compelled to make a long-term commitment yet. Psychologist Robert Sternberg would call their relationship
decline in the number of couples getting married
For the past three decades, there has been a significant
social clock
The culturally determined psychological timepiece providing a sense of whether we have reached the major benchmarks of life at the appropriate time in comparison to our peers is called
fatuous love
Mark and Angela met one night at a local bar, and after dating for two weeks they decided to move in together, despite barely knowing each other. Psychologist Robert Sternberg would call their relationship
extrinsic motivation
What type of motivation drives people to obtain tangible rewards such as money and prestige?
30-34
Which of the following age groups of women giving birth have increased over earlier decades?
intimacy
According to Robert Sternberg, liking develops when only _________ is present
Partners establish early on in the marriage the superior and inferior positions of the partners
Which of the following is NOT a typical characteristic of a happy marriage?
African American women
In what culture does the marriage gradient make finding a spouse difficult when the person is well educated?
the effort to exude confidence and independence
According to Erikson, when a person is in his/her 30s, intimacy is related to all of the following EXCEPT
realistic period
According to Ginzberg’s theory, the third stage, which occurs in early adulthood when people begin to explore specific career options, either through actual experience on the job or through training for a profession, and then narrow their choices and make a commitment, is called
Civil Solidarity Pacts
What is the legal alternative to marriage in France in which couples receive many of the same legal rights as married couples without a legal lifetime commitment?
6
Researcher John Holland created the personality type theory, which contains ____ personality traits
50%
What percentage of marriages in the U.S. remain intact?
x

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