Heterotrophic prokaryotes are associated with important ecological functions such as _____________.
a. nitrogen fixation
b. oil spill cleanup
c. degradation of landfill contents
d. b and c
e. a, b, and c
d. b and c
Which of the following is FALSE about fungi?

a. Many fungi form mycelia of hyphae.
b. Most fungi live on trees.
c. Some fungi can live symbiotically with other organisms.
d. Most fungi are multicellular, although some are unicellular.
e. Most fungi get their nutrients by ingesting small pieces of other living organisms.

e. Most fungi get their nutrients by ingesting small pieces of other living organisms.
Which of the following is a mobility adaptation that bacteria have developed?

a. flagella
b. a capsule
c. pili
d. fermentation
e. none of the above

a. flagella
What are two major plant adaptations that were most important in allowing plants to become independent of aquatic habitats?

a. bilateral symmetry and multi-celled organisms
b. vascular system and seeds
c. segmented structures with mycelium
d. symbiotic relationships with fungi
e. single-celled organisms that produced spores

b. vascular system and seeds
Scientists are continually discovering new species of prokaryotes. Why is DNA testing important in identifying new prokaryotic species?

a. Because prokaryotes often live in extreme environments, it is hard to study them in a lab.
b. All prokaryotes look like eukaryotes.
c. Because testing their DNA makes prokaryotes glow, it is easier to study their behavior.
d. They mutate too quickly to study their features.
e. Prokaryotes are only found at hydrothermal vents.

a. Because prokaryotes often live in extreme environments, it is hard to study them in a lab.
Humans belong to the domain Eukarya; therefore, humans are more closely related to _______ than _______.

a. Extremia; Archaea
b. Archaea; Extremia
c. Bacteria; Archaea
d. Archaea; Bacteria
e. Humans aren’t more closely related to any one of these than to any one of the other.

d. Archaea; Bacteria
Which of the following is a physical adaptation that bacteria have developed in order to avoid host immune responses and attach to surfaces?

a. flagella
b. a capsule
c. pili
d. fermentation
e. none of the above

b. a capsule
You have just identified an Archaea species that lives on the scales of a deep-water fish. You find that when you have a pure culture of the new species, it will not survive. Which of the following could explain the inability to replicate the natural environment of the bacteria?

a. The culture on the scales is being kept at high pressure.
b. The new species requires a symbiotic relationship with other organisms on the scales that is not being replicated.
c. The culture is not being kept at high temperatures.
d. The new species requires an aerobic environment.
e. all of the above

b. The new species requires a symbiotic relationship with other organisms on the scales that is not being replicated.
Why is the Archaea domain closer to Eukarya than Bacteria?

a. They both lack a nucleus and contain cytoplasm.
b. The unique functional adaptations of Archaea are more similar to Eukarya adaptations.
c. Genetically, the Archaea are more similar to Eukarya than Bacteria.
d. b and c
e. Archaea is not closer to Eukarya because it contains prokaryotic cells just like Bacteria.

d. b and c
Which of the following describe bacteria that are considered harmful to humans due to the toxins they can create?

a. heterotrophs
b. halophiles
c. autotrophs
d. pathogens
e. Bacteria do not create harmful toxins, but instead only inhibit normal physiological processes in humans.

d. pathogens
A vascular system is the ___________.

a. specialized plant tissues that transport water and nutrients
b. organs of reproduction in plants
c. specialized plant tissues responsible for photosynthesis
d. tissues responsible for forming leaves
d. fruit-producing organs in plants

a. specialized plant tissues that transport water and nutrients
Which of the following environmental conditions are found around hydrothermal vents that support life?

a. low oxygen
b. high pressure
c. extreme pH
d. high temperature
e. all of the above

e. all of the above
Archaea is a diverse group of organisms that have the ability to live in extreme environments that often lack oxygen. Which of the following is potentially metabolized by Archaea around hydrothermal vents?

a. carbon dioxide
b. methane
c. hydrogen
d. a and b
e. a, b, and c

e. a, b, and c
Which of the following is a primary difference between all prokaryotes and eukaryotic cells?

a. Prokaryotes have DNA that floats freely in the cytoplasm.
b. Prokaryotes are significantly smaller than eukaryotic cells.
c. Prokaryotes do not have ribosomes like eukaryotic cells.
d. a and b
e. a, b, and c

d. a and b
Which of the following places support prokaryotic life?

a. radioactive dirt
b. deep Earth rock
c. cow intestines
d. glaciers
e. all of the above

e. all of the above
What do fungi and arthropods have in common?

a. All of the species in both groups have chitin in their structures.
b. All of the species in both groups are decomposers.
c. All of the species in both groups form mycelia.
d. None of the species in either group has cell walls.
e. All of the species of both groups are multicellular.

a. All of the species in both groups have chitin in their structures.
Which group of plants lack roots, seeds, and a vascular system?

a. angiosperms
b. gymnosperms
c. ferns
d. bryophytes
e. trees

b. gymnosperms
Which of the following features makes angiosperms different from all the other types of plants?

a. seeds
b. vascular system
c. roots
d. cones
e. flowers

e. flowers
Prokaryotes lack which of the following organelles?

a. nucleus
b. mitochondria
c. endoplasmic reticulum
d. b and c
e. a, b, and c

e. a, b, and c
Which insect adaptation is thought to have had the greatest influence on the diversity of this group?

a. exoskeleton
b. endoskeleton
c. bilateral symmetry
d. multicellularity
e. wings

e. wings
Which of the following is the most important characteristic used to classify organisms as eukaryotes?

a. membrane-enclosed nucleus and organelles
b. cell walls
c. symmetry
d. vascular system
e. type of reproduction

a. membrane-enclosed nucleus and organelles
The bacterium L. Bulgaricus uses an anaerobic process called _______ to produce yogurt.

a. symbiosis
b. nitrogen fixation
c. fermentation
d. photosynthesis
e. autotrophy

c. fermentation
Which of the following descriptions is a eukaryote group that evolved earlier than the others?

a. nonvascular, nonflowering plants
b. bilaterally symmetric vertebrates
c. arthropods with exoskeletons
d. angiosperm plants
e. vertebrates with endoskeletons

a. nonvascular, nonflowering plants
Which of the following statements regarding bacteria is FALSE?

a. Bacteria are essential to life on Earth.
b. Certain bacteria obtain their energy from inorganic gases.
c. Bacteria often have a symbiotic relationship with other organisms.
d. a and b
e. a, b, and c

e. a, b, and c
Starting with the group that evolved earliest to the group that evolved most recently, which of these sequences is in the correct order?

a. bryophytes, protists, fungi
b. fungi, protists, bryophytes
c. bryophytes, fungi, protists
d. protists, bryophytes, insects
e. insects, bryophytes, fungi

d. protists, bryophytes, insects
What do birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish all have in common?

a. They all have exoskeletons.
b. They are all mammals.
c. They are all radially symmetrical.
d. They all share a common ancestor with the echinoderms.
e. They lack segmented bodies.

d. They all share a common ancestor with the echinoderms.
What chemical process releases gas from rocks around hydrothermal vents that provides chemical energy for methanogens?

a. hydrogenation
b. methanogenesis
c. serpentinization
d. abiotic fermentation
e. photosynthesis

c. serpentinization
Where is prokaryotic life found around hydrothermal vents?

a. only at the base of the vents away from the high water temperature found at the top of the vent
b. only at the top of the vents where the water temperatures are high
c. coating the outside of the entire vent structure
d. coating the inside of the entire vent structure
e. c and d

e. c and d
Cyanobacteria are _______ because they contain the ability to conduct the specialized function of photosynthesis.

a. autotrophic
b. chemotrophic
c. heterotrophic
d. exotrophic
e. intratrophic

a. autotrophic
Because extremophiles are hard to culture outside of their native environments, how do scientists classify and identify specific species?

a. Currently, there is no way to do this type of classification.
b. They identify species at the source only.
c. They use DNA sequencing to identify species via genetic differences.
d. Most species of extremophiles have been identified.
e. b and d

c. They use DNA sequencing to identify species via genetic differences.
What do scientists do to provide a suitable environment for a methanogen taken from the Lost City?

a. They provide methane for the bacteria to consume.
b. They provide carbon dioxide and hydrogen for the bacteria to consume.
c. They provide light for photosynthesis.
d. a and b
e. a and c

b. They provide carbon dioxide and hydrogen for the bacteria to consume.
Which of the following characteristics is not one of the main features used to classify animals?

a. presence or absence of a bony or cartilaginous backbone
b. presence of appendages
c. type of skeleton
d. type of symmetry
e. presence or absence of body segmentation

b. presence of appendages
Which of the following actions are not usually associated with a loss of eukaryotic biodiversity?

a. overexploitation of biotic resources
b. habitat loss
c. re-introduction of a traditional predator
d. destruction of hot spots
e. human-caused changes in land use patterns

c. re-introduction of a traditional predator
Which of the following is FALSE about protists?

a. Protists are a highly diverse group.
b. Some protists are heterotrophic.
c. Protists form a genetically distinct evolutionary group.
d. Some protists are unicellular and others are multicellular.
e. Protists can be classified as plant-like, animal-like, or fungus-like.

c. Protists form a genetically distinct evolutionary group.
Which of the following statements regarding extremophiles is FALSE?

a. All extremophiles are in the Archaea domain.
b. All Archaea are considered extremophiles.
c. Extremophiles can survive without oxygen.
d. Extremophiles are a type of bacteria.
e. Extremophiles may have been some of the earliest living organisms on Earth.

b. All Archaea are considered extremophiles.
Which of the following are shapes of prokaryotic cells?

a. cocci
b. flagella
c. spirochetes
d. a and c
e. a, b, and c

d. a and c
Abiotic synthesis of organic molecules requires _______.

a. hydrogen
b. methanogenesis
c. serpentinization
d. anaerobic Archaea
e. all of the above.

a. hydrogen
Which of these choices does not describe an area that usually has a biologically diverse ecosystem?

a. an ecosystem with intact food webs and top predators
b. an area with a highly fragmented landscape
c. an area with a mosaic of physical, geographical, and climatic conditions
d. an area with many unique types of habitats
e. All of the above describe areas that usually have high biodiversity.

b. an area with a highly fragmented landscape
Why is it hard for scientists to study hyperthermophil behavior in the laboratory?

a. Hyperthermophils can survive only at very high temperatures that are difficult to replicate in a lab setting.
b. Hyperthermophils are physically identical to bacteria, making it hard to identify in a lab setting.
c. Hyperthermophils have a short life cycle, which makes it hard to study one particular organism.
d. Hyperthermophils can survive only at very low temperatures, which are difficult to replicate in a lab setting.
e. none of the above

a. Hyperthermophils can survive only at very high temperatures that are difficult to replicate in a lab setting.
Which of the following is TRUE about all animals?

a. They are all multicellular eukaryotic heterotrophs.
b. They all have an endoskeleton and bilateral symmetry.
c. Some single-celled species can make their own food.
d. They all have segmented body parts.
e. None of the above is true about all animals.

a. They are all multicellular eukaryotic heterotrophs.
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