An individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting.
A lengthy insight therapy that was developed by Freud and aims at uncovering conflicts and unconscious impulses through special techniques, including free association, dream analysis, and transference.
Free Association
In psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing.
According to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories. According to contemporary psychologists, information processing of which we are unaware.
primitive instincts and energies underlying all psychic activity
Loss of part of epidermis, depression, mois
a Freudian term for sexual urge or desire
According to Freud, an instinctual drive toward death, leading to aggressive actions
According to Freud, the decision-making component of personality that operates according to the reality principle.
that part of the unconscious mind that acts as a conscience
The classical defense mechanism that protects you from impulses or ideas that would cause anxiety by preventing them from becoming conscious
Defense mechanism by which people divert sexual or aggressive feelings for one person onto another person
Oedipus Complex
According to Freud, a boy’s sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father
Collective Unconscious
Carl Jung’s concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species’ history
According to Jung, emotionally charged images and thought forms that have universal meaning.
Humanistic Psychology
A theoretical view of human nature which stresses a positive view of human nature and the strong belief in psychological homeostasis.
Actualizing Psychology
the achievement of one’s full potential through creativity, independence, spontaneity, and a grasp of the real world
A sense of one’s identity and personal worth
Conditional Positive Regard
positive regard that is given only when the person is doing what the providers of positive regard wish
Unconditional Positive Regard
according to Rogers, an attitude of total acceptance toward another person
Reciprocal Determinism
Bandura’s idea that though our environment affects us, we also affect our environment
An individual’s belief that he or she is capable of performing a task.
A characteristic that an organism can pass on to its offspring through its genes
Trait Theory
A leadership theory that holds that effective leaders possess a similar set of traits or characteristics
Surface Traits
aspects of personality that can easily be seen by other people in the outward actions of a person
Source Traits
the more basic traits that underlie the surface traits, forming the core of personality
Behavioral Genetics
An interdisciplinary field that studies the influence of genetic factors on behavioral traits
Psychological Test
Pre-employment exams given to find out more about a job applicant’s personality, character, and interests
Projective Test
An unstructured test in which a person is asked to respond freely, giving his or her own interpretation of various ambiguous stimuli
Self-Report Inventory
A type of psychological test in which a person’s responses to standardized questions are compared to established norms
Personality Theory
A theory that attempts to describe and explain similarities and differences in people’s patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving
Pleasure Principle
Freud’s theory regarding the id’s desire to maximize pleasure and minimize pain in order to achieve immediate gratification
Reality Principle
According the Freud, the attempt by the ego to satisfy both the id and the superego while still considering the reality of the situation
Ego Defense Mechanisms
mental mechanisms that develop as the personality attempts to defend itself, establish compromises among conflicting impulses, and allay inner tensions
modifying the natural expression of an impulse or instinct (especially a sexual one) to one that is socially acceptable
Psychosexual Stages
Developmental Periods with a characteristic sexual focus that leave their mark on adult personality
A defense mechanism that helps deal with feelings of threat and anxiety by enabling us unconsciously to take on the characteristics of another person who seems more powerful or better able to cope
Social Cognitive Theory
Theory that adds concerns with cognitive factors such as beliefs, self-perceptions, and expectation to social learning theory
Five-Factor Model of Personality
This model claims that much of what we need to know about somebody’s personality is captured by his/her standing of five measurable personality factors
Rorschach Inkblot Test
A projective personality test in which individual interpretations of the meaning of a set of unstructured inkblots are analyzed to identify a respondent’s inner feelings and interpret his or her personality structure
A pseudoscience that claims to assess personality, social, and occupational attributes based on a person’s distinctive handwriting, doodles, and drawing style
Thematic Apperception Test
A projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
the most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests. Originally developed to identify emotional disorders, this test is now used for many other screening purposes
California Psychological Inventory
provides information such as the patient’s character and interpersonal values and how one behaves in social situations
Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire
Self-report inventory developed by Raymond Cattell that generates a personality profile with ratings on sixteen trait dimensions
Possible Selves
Images of what we dream of or dread becoming in the future

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