__________ are receptors that can respond to changes in pressure.
mechanocreceptors
Pressure, pain, and temperature receptors in the skin are ________.
esteroceptors
Potentially damaging stimuli that result in pain are selectively detected by ________.
nociceptors
Which receptors adapt most slowly?
nociceptors
Feeling a gentle caress on your arm would likely involve all of the following except ________.
pacinian corpuscles
Pacinian corpuscles can be exteroceptors, interoceptors, or proprioceptor,
True
Which of the following is not a way that sensory receptors are classified?
sensitivity to a stimulus
Which type of sensory receptor allows us to feel an insect landing on our skin?
mechanoreceptor
Which of the following is NOT used to classify sensory receptors?
the number of dendritic endings present
Which of the following is composed of encapsulated nerve endings?
muscle spindles
The first level of neural integration in the somatosensory system is the __________ level.
receptor
__________ do NOT exhibit the property of adaptation.
tonic receptors
In the somatosensory system there are no third-order neurons in the cerebellum.
True
Which of the following is not a main level of neural integration in the somatosensory system?
segmental
Which of the following is an incorrect statement regarding the occurrence of a sensation?
The stimulus energy must be converted into the energy of a graded potential
called a transduction potential.
Select the correct definition.
Pattern recognition allows us to see a familiar face.
All processing at the circuit level going up to the perceptual level must synapse in the ________.
thalamus
Which of the following is not an aspect of sensory perception?
visceral identification
Transduction refers to conversion of ________.
stimulus energy into energy of a graded potential
Three main levels of neural integration operate in the somatosensory system. Which level involves processing in the sensory areas of the cerebral cortex?
perceptual level
Why might an individual experience the phenomenon known as “referred pain”?
Visceral pain afferents travel along the same pathways as somatic pain fibers.
Nerves that only carry impulses away from the central nervous system (CNS) are called __________.
motor nerves
__________ are collections of neuron cell bodies associated with nerves in the peripheral nervous system (PNS).
ganglia
The hyperalgesia that is common in phantom limb pain could be blocked if a new drug was developed that could prevent (without triggering any side-effects) the ______.
diffusion of calcium ions through NMDA receptors
Nerves that carry impulses toward the CNS only are ________.
afferent nerves
After axonal injury, regeneration in peripheral nerves is guided by ________.
Schwann cells
Regeneration within the CNS ________.
is prevented due to growth-inhibiting proteins of oligodendrocytes
Select the statement that is most correct.
Ganglia associated with afferent nerve fibers contain cell bodies of sensory neurons.
Which connective tissue layer directly surrounds each axon in a nerve?
endoneurium
Choose the FALSE statement about nerves.
The majority of a nerve’s bulk is due to axons.
There are __________ pairs of cranial nerves.
12
The majority of the cranial nerves attach to the __________.
brain stem
Spinal nerves are all classified as __________.
mixed nerves
The glossopharyngeal nerve is the only cranial nerve that contains sensory fibers.
false
The only cranial nerves to extend beyond the head and neck region are the vagus nerves.
true
External strabismus and ptosis could be caused by damage to the oculomotor nerve.
true
The ________ nerve is not a branch of the trigeminal nerve.
cervical
Bell’s palsy is ________.
characterized by paralysis of facial muscles
Mixed cranial nerves containing both motor and sensory fibers include all except which of the following?
olfactory
The cranial nerves that have neural connections with the tongue include all except the ________.
trochlear
Problems in balance may follow trauma to which nerve?
vestibulocochlear
A fracture of the ethmoid bone could result in damage to which cranial nerve?
olfactory
A patient who received a blow to the side of the skull exhibits the following signs and symptoms on that side of the face: he is unable to close his eye, and the corner of his mouth droops. Which cranial nerve has been damaged?
facial
David, an aspiring baseball player, was struck on the left side of his face with a fastball pitch. He was not wearing a safety helmet. His zygomatic arch was crushed, as well as parts of the temporal bone. Following the accident and reconstructive surgery, he noted that his left lower eyelid was still drooping and the corner of his mouth sagged. What nerve damage did he sustain?
Facial nerve damage on his left side
A nurse is asked about the cause of the excruciating pain of tic douloureux. How should the nurse answer?
The excruciating pain is caused by inflammation of the trigeminal nerve. Pressure on the trigeminal nerve root can turn normal stimuli, like tooth brushing, into painful stimuli.
The second cranial nerve forms a chiasma at the base of the brain for partial crossover of neural fibers.
True
The cranial nerve with a cervical origin (spinal cord) is the ________.
accessory
Which of the following cranial nerves carries only sensory information?
olfactory
Which cranial nerve transmits information about our sense of equilibrium?
vestibulocochlear
The phrenic nerve serves the __________.
diaphragm
In carpal tunnel syndrome, the __________ is compressed.
median nerve
Hiccups could occur if there was irritation or damage to the ______.
motor branches of ventral rami associated with the C3-C5 region of the spinal cord
The brachial plexus can be palpated at the lower lateral border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. Injury to the brachial plexus could cause weakness or paralysis to all of the following EXCEPT the ______.
sternocleidomastoid muscle
In carpal tunnel syndrome, there may be tingling and numbness in the thumb due to compression of the ______.
cutaneous branches of the median nerve
Damage to the ulnar nerve could result in the inability to ______.
flex the wrist
If “wrist drop” were to appear, there would also be an increased probability of ______.
inability to extend the forearm
A herniated lumbar disc could interfere with ______.
skin sensations from the lateral thigh
skin sensations from the medial thigh
adduction of the thigh
Sciatica has no direct affect on ______.
control of the adductor longus
The meningeal branch of a spinal nerve actually reenters the vertebral canal to innervate the meninges and blood vessels.
True
The musculocutaneous nerve is a major nerve of the brachial plexus.
True
The dorsal ramus consists only of motor fibers bringing information to the spinal cord.
False
Dermatomes are skin segments that relate to sensory innervation regions of the spinal nerves.
True
Dorsal and ventral rami are similar in that they both contain sensory and motor fibers.
True
Irritation of the phrenic nerve may cause diaphragm spasms called hiccups.
True
The obturator nerve branches from the sacral plexus.
False
Which of the following nerves does not arise from the brachial plexus?
phrenic
The posterior side of the thigh, leg, and foot is served by the ________ nerve.
tibial
Starting at the spinal cord, the subdivisions of the brachial plexus are (in order):
roots, trunks, divisions, cords
A major nerve of the lumbar plexus is the ________.
femoral
Spinal nerves exiting the cord from the level of L4 to S4 form the ________.
sacral plexus
Striking the “funny bone” is actually stimulation of (or injury to) the ________.
ulnar nerve
The sciatic nerve is a combination of which two nerves?
common fibular and tibial
The flexor muscles in the anterior arm (biceps brachii and brachialis) are innervated by what nerve?
musculocutaneous
If the ventral root of a spinal nerve were cut, what would be the result in the tissue or region that nerve supplies?
a complete loss of voluntary movement
Ralph sustained a leg injury in a bowling accident and had to use crutches. Unfortunately, he never took the time to learn how to use them properly. After two weeks of use, he noticed his fingers were becoming numb. Then he noticed his arms were getting weaker and had a tingling sensation. What could be his problem?
Compression of the radial nerve (in the region of the armpit) may cause temporary cessation of nervous transmission, often called “Saturday night paralysis.”
Which nerve is compressed in carpal tunnel syndrome?
median
A fall or an improperly delivered gluteal injection could result in ________.
sciatica
What type of nerve fibers are found in the ventral ramus of a spinal nerve?
both sensory and motor
The primary nerve that controls breathing is found in which nerve plexus?
cervical
The thickest and longest nerve in the body is the __________.
sciatic nerve
Which of the following lists the hierarchy of motor control from lowest to highest level of control?
segmental level, projection level, precommand level
Which structure is involved in the segmental level of motor control?
spinal cord
Somatic reflexes activate __________.
skeletal muscle
The knee-jerk reflex is an example of a __________.
stretch reflex
The cerebellum and basal nuclei are involved in regulating motor activity, starting
and stopping movements, and coordinating postural movements.
True
What parts of the brain ultimately plan and coordinate complex motor activities?
cerebellum and basal nuclei
Which of the following does NOT occur as people age?
peripheral nerves die off
The peripheral nervous system (PNS) includes the brain and spinal cord.
False
Which of the following is the correct simple spinal reflex arc?
receptor, afferent neuron, integration center, efferent neuron, effector
Inborn or intrinsic reflexes are ________.
involuntary, yet may be modified by learned behavior
Anatomically, all general sensory receptors are encapsulated nerve endings.
False
A knee-jerk reflex that is unusually strong may be caused by ______.
transmission of excitatory signals from the brain to the neurons that form the femoral nerve
Reciprocal inhibition means that while one sensory nerve is stimulated, another sensory neuron for synergistic muscles in the same area is inhibited and cannot respond.
False
The patellar “knee jerk” reflex is an example of a(n) ________.
stretch reflex
A reflex that causes muscle relaxation and lengthening in response to muscle tension is called a ________.
Golgi tendon reflex
In a crossed-extensor reflex, if the right arm was grabbed it would flex and the left arm would ________.
extend
Which reflex is important for maintaining muscle tone?
stretch reflex
Which reflex is triggered when a stranger suddenly grasps your arm?
crossed-extensor
CNS nerve fibers lack the intrinsic capacity to regenerate, while PNS nerve fibers are able to regenerate.
True
A joint and the muscle that moves that joint tend to be innervated by different nerves.
False
x

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