__________ are receptors that can respond to painful stimuli.

Mechanoreceptors
Chemoreceptors
Nociceptors
Photoreceptors

Nociceptors
Which of the following is NOT used to classify sensory receptors?

structural complexity
location
the type of stimulus they detect
the number of dendritic endings present

the number of dendritic endings present
In order for you to realize there has been a sensory change, it has to reach the __________ level of processing.

circuit
receptor
abstraction
perceptual

?
__________ do NOT exhibit the property of adaptation.

Phasic receptors
Sensory receptors
Tonic receptors
Photoreceptors

Tonic receptors
CNS nerve fibers regenerate because of the actions of Schwann cells.

True
False

False
Choose the FALSE statement about nerves.

Nerves can carry only sensory information, only motor information, or a mixture of sensory and motor information.

Axons make up a majority of the matter in a nerve.

Nerve axons are surrounded by a loose connective tissue layer called the endoneurium.

Nerves consist of parallel bundles of myelinated and nonmyelinated axons.

Axons make up a majority of the matter in a nerve.
Spinal nerves are all classified as __________.

sensory nerves
afferent nerves
mixed nerves
motor nerves

mixed nerves
In carpal tunnel syndrome, the __________ is compressed.

radial nerve
musculocutaneous nerve
axillary nerve
median nerve

median nerve
Which of the following lists the hierarchy of motor control from lowest to highest level of control?
segmental level, projection level, precommand level
Segmental refers to which level of motor control?

brain stem
spinal cord
cerebellum
basal nuclei

spinal cord
The knee-jerk reflex is an example of a __________.

flexor reflex
superficial reflex
tendon reflex
stretch reflex

stretch reflex
The sensory division of the PNS is also known as the efferent division.

True
False

True

All of the sensory information is considered afferent, or flowing toward the CNS. Efferent means “from the CNS.”

Three main levels of neural integration operate in the somatosensory system. Which level involves the spinal cord?

perceptual level
circuit level
integrative level
receptor level

circuit level

Processing at the circuit level involves the transmission of action potentials along ascending pathways. These pathways deliver impulses to the appropriate regions of the cerebral cortex for localization and perception of the stimulus.

Sensory stimuli that activate receptors generate action potentials that are sent into the CNS.

True
False

False

Sensory stimuli that activate receptors generate graded potentials that are sent into the CNS.

The hyperalgesia that is common in phantom limb pain could be blocked if a new drug was developed that could prevent (without triggering any side-effects) the ______.

diffusion of calcium ions through NMDA receptors
release of enkephalins
binding of enkephalins to NMDA receptors
diffusion of enkephalins across synaptic clefts

diffusion of calcium ions through NMDA receptors

Diffusion of calcium ions through these receptors cause a depolarizing event and activate and action potential in the neuron.

Which of the following characteristics is representative of receptor-level processing, NOT perceptual-level processing?

magnitude
transduction
detection
spatial discrimination

transduction

Transduction is converting a stimulus into a nervous signal; this happens at the receptor level.

A dermatome represents the motor innervation of muscles in that area.

True
False

False

Dermatomes represent sensory innervations of the underlying skin.

What motor structure inhibits the motor cortex at rest?

cerebellum
brain stem motor nuclei
basal nuclei
precommand area

basal nuclei

The basal nuclei inhibit motor centers at rest but release that inhibition to allow for motor activity.

Which of the following cranial nerves carries only motor information?

abducens
olfactory
optic
trigeminal

abducens

The abducens carries efferent (motor) signals to the extrinsic eye muscle that abducts the eye (turns it laterally).

Which connective tissue layer directly surrounds every axon in a nerve?

endomysium
perineurium
endoneurium
epineurium

endoneurium

Within a nerve, each axon is surrounded by endoneurium, a delicate layer of loose connective tissue that also encloses the fiber’s associated Schwann cells.

Which cranial nerve innervates most of the visceral organs?

accessory
vagus
abducens
hypoglossal

vagus

The vagus nerve has many targets in the thoracic and abdominal cavities and innervates many of the visceral organs.

Which pair below is incorrect?

cranial nerve III: pupillary constriction
cranial nerve IV: sensory
cranial nerve VI: eye movement
cranial nerve III: oculomotor nerve
optic nerve: sensory

cranial nerve IV: sensory

The trochlear nerve is a motor nerve that innervates the superior oblique of the eye.

Which of the following carries no sensory information?

trigeminal nerve
vestibulocochlear nerve
hypoglossal nerve
optic nerve

hypoglossal nerve

The hypoglossal nerve carries motor commands to the tongue.

Which of the following is NOT correct concerning nerves?

Nerves are collection of axons of either sensory or motor neurons but not both.

Nerves do not contain cell bodies.

Nerves are analogous to tracts in the CNS.

Nerves are covered by an outer sheath called the epineurium.

Nerves are collection of axons of either sensory or motor neurons but not both.

Nerves can be mixed collections of both sensory and motor axons.

Which cranial nerve transmits information about audition?

optic
vestibulocochlear
vagus
abducens

vestibulocochlear

The vestibular branch of the vestibulocochlear nerve transmits afferent impulses for the sense of equilibrium. The cochlear branch transmits afferent impulses for the sense of hearing.

Which of the following is NOT required for a reflex arc?

motor neurons
sensory neurons
interneurons
receptors

interneurons

In many cases, the interneurons are the integration point for reflexes, but they are not necessary.

Which reflex has a contralateral component?

flexor
tendon
crossed-extensor
stretch

crossed-extensor

The crossed-extensor reflex activates opposing actions in the opposite limb.

Which of these receptor types functions as an exteroceptor?

hair follicle receptors
Lamellar (Pacinian) corpuscles
Tactile (Merkel) discs
All of the listed responses are correct

All of the listed responses are correct.

All of the structures listed are sensitive to stimuli arising outside the body.

Which of the receptor types contributes to the sense of touch by responding to light pressure?

free nerve endings of sensory neurons
muscle spindles
Lamellar (Pacinian) corpuscles
Tactile (Merkel) discs

Tactile (Merkel) discs

The tactile (Merkel) disc shown in E would be located in the base of the epidermis and would detect light touch.

Stretch reflexes can cause reciprocal inhibition because the sensory neuron synapses on the alpha motor neurons of both agonists and antagonists.

True
False

False

The stretch reflex activates agonists directly. However, reciprocal inhibition of the antagonist happens through an interneuron.

Which of the receptor types might function as a nociceptor?

free nerve endings of sensory neurons

free nerve endings of sensory neurons

Nociceptors respond to potentially damaging stimuli like noxious chemicals and extremes of temperature or pH. Nociceptors are generally associated with free nerve endings of specialized neurons.

The synapse between which of the following two neurons is a part of a monosynaptic reflex arc?
A monosynaptic reflex arc includes a synapse between sensory and motor neurons without the involvement of an interneuron.
When removing a hot sheet of cookies from the oven, you feel heat coming through the pot holder. What mechanism momentarily overrides your reflexive action to immediately drop the hot cookie sheet?

modification of outgoing efferent signals by spinal cord gray matter interneurons

temporary suppression of sensory input to the spinal reflex center

intervention by the limbic system to inhibit the fear of being burned

modulation of descending motor pathways by brainstem and cortex

modulation of descending motor pathways by brainstem and cortex
x

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