In a rare accident, both temporal lobes have been significantly injured. As you render care, you are least worried about which of the following?
(A) visceral agnosia
(B) gustatory agnosia
(C) some visual agnosia
(D) auditory agnosia
(A) visceral agnosia
To what depth must an injection of anesthetic be inserted to numb the spinal cord and thus relieve pain caudal to that area?
(A) to the depth of the subdural space
(B) to the depth of the epidural space
(C) to the depth of the subarachnoid space
(D) to the depth of the central canal of the spinal cord
(E) to the depth of the pia mater
(B) to the depth of the epidural space
If a person’s corpus callosum was severed __________.
(A) the person would be deaf in the left ear, would be blind in the right eye, and would not be able to read
(B) the person would die shortly after the injury
(C) the person would not be able to distinguish a pleasant odors from unpleasant ones
(D) that person would experience a lack of communication between the right and left cerebral hemispheres
(D) that person would experience a lack of communication between the right and left cerebral hemispheres
What neuronal action occurs at the pyramids of the medulla oblongata?
(A) The axons of general sensory neurons relay proprioceptive impulses from the spinal cord to the cerebellum at the pyramids.
(B) There is a slight drying of brain tissue due to lack of cerebral spinal fluid in this region.
(C) Cranial nerves attach at this region and cross to the opposite side of the brain.
(D) The axons of upper motor neurons cross to the opposite side of the brain.
(D) The axons of upper motor neurons cross to the opposite side of the brain.
Which of the following functions is NOT associated with the spinal cord?
(A) It provides a two-way conduction pathway for signals between the body and the brain.
(B) The spinal cord is a major integration center for reflexes.
(C) Through the spinal nerves that attach to it, the spinal cord is involved in sensory and motor innervation of the entire body inferior to the head.
(D) Through the cranial nerves that attach to it, the spinal cord is involved in sensory and motor innervation of the head and neck.
(E) All of the statements are functions attributed to the spinal cord. There are no exceptions.
(D) Through the cranial nerves that attach to it, the spinal cord is involved in sensory and motor innervation of the head and neck.
Damage to which region of the brain would result in someone being unable to identify an item in his or her pocket by touch alone?
(A) posterior association area
(B) visceral sensory area
(C) visual association area
(D) somatosensory association cortex
(D) somatosensory association cortex
Which of these statements is true of the hypothalamus?
(A) It contains the cardiac and vasomotor centers that regulate heartrate and blood pressure.
(B) It controls the autonomic nervous system and regulates hunger and thirst sensations.
(C) It controls emotional responses and provides information on equilibrium.
(D) It contains centers that regulate sneezing, hiccupping, and coughing.
(B) It controls the autonomic nervous system and regulates hunger and thirst sensations.
ALS would NOT be associated with which of the following?
(A) memory difficulty
(B) loss of muscle strength
(C) difficulty breathing
(D) abnormal stretch reflexes (deep tendon reflexes)
(A) memory difficulty
Which fiber tract carries the sensations of discriminative touch and proprioception?
(A) spinothalamic tract
(B) corticospinal tract
(C) spinocerebellar tract
(D) dorsal column
(D) dorsal column
Spina bifida and anencephaly are both examples of what category of congenital malformation?
(A) cerebral palsy
(B) hydrocephalus
(C) neural tube defects
(D) dyskinesia
(C) neural tube defects
Neural plasticity may occur when __________.
(A) the brain “bounces” against the interior of the cranium without sustaining permanent damage
(B) undamaged neurons in the brain sprout new cytoplasmic branches after a stroke that partially restores lost functions
(C) damaged neurons regenerate new cell bodies that restore motor function that was lost after a stroke
(D) neuroglial cells in the CNS form parallel bands to guide axonal extensions to their original target
(B) undamaged neurons in the brain sprout new cytoplasmic branches after a stroke that partially restores lost functions
The fluid-filled ventricles within the cerebrum are similar in function to the ________ of the spinal cord.
(A) central canal
(B) subarachnoid space
(C) dura mater
(D) pia mater
(A) central canal
Which region or regions of the central nervous system have an external layer of gray matter?
(A) spinal cord and brain stem
(B) cerebrum only
(C) cerebrum and cerebellum
(D) all regions of the brain
(C) cerebrum and cerebellum
Which brain region coordinates all of these critical functions: adjusts the rate and force of heart contractions, adjusts blood vessel diameter to regulate blood pressure, and regulates respiration rates?
(A) medulla oblongata
(B) cerebellum
(C) pons
(D) hypothalamus
(E) midbrain
(F) hindbrain
(A) medulla oblongata
The__________coordinates body movements and has been recently discovered to play a role in language, problem solving, and task planning.
Cerebellum
The second largest region of the brain is the
(A) cerebrum.
(B) diencephalon.
(C) cerebellum.
(D) brain stem.
(C) cerebellum.
One of the distinctions between the cerebrum and cerebellum is that
(A) gray matter is found superficially and deep in the cerebrum but is present only superficially in the cerebellum.
(B) the cerebrum is folded into gyri and lobes, whereas the cerebellum is only folded into folia but lacks lobes.
(C) fibers of the cerebellum enter and leave ipsilaterally, whereas those of the cerebrum enter and leave contralateraly.
(D) the cerebellum is involved only in refining motor responses, whereas the cerebrum is involved in both motor function and cognition.
(C) fibers of the cerebellum enter and leave ipsilaterally, whereas those of the cerebrum enter and leave contralateraly.
Which of these regions of the brain regulates body temperature, hunger, and thirst?
(A) hypothalamus
(B) cerebrum
(C) cerebellum
(D) thalamus
(A) hypothalamus
Which of these regions of the brain regulates hormonal secretions from the pituitary gland (hypophysis)?
(A) hypothalamus
(B) cerebrum
(C) cerebellum
(D) thalamus
(A) hypothalamus
Two parts of the brain that are most involved in emotions are the
(A) cingulate gyrus and hypothalamus.
(B) red nucleus and substantia nigra.
(C) medulla and cerebellum.
(D) superior and inferior colliculi.
(A) cingulate gyrus and hypothalamus
Neural centers that control heart rate, respiration, and blood pressure are located in the
(A) cerebrum.
(B) thalamus.
(C) medulla.
(D) midbrain.
(C) medulla.
The visual cortex is located in the _________ lobe.
(A) frontal lobe
(B) parietal lobe
(C) insular lobe
(D) occipital lobe
(D) occipital lobe
A patient can understand words spoken to him, but has an impaired ability to speak. Which area of the brain related to speech is functioning normally and which area has been damaged?
(A) Wernicke’s area; Broca’s area
(B) posterior association area; basal ganglia
(C) anterior association area; limbic association area
(D) basal ganglia; posterior association area
(E) Broca’s area; Wernicke’s area
(A) Wernicke’s area; Broca’s area
Which of these regions has two hemispheres connected by the corpus callosum?
(A) hypothalamus
(B) cerebrum
(C) cerebellum
(D) thalamus
(B) cerebrum
Which of these regions of the brain has frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes, as well as the insula?
(A) hypothalamus
(B) cerebrum
(C) cerebellum
(D) thalamus
(B) cerebrum
A “motor homunculus” can be visualized as an overlay on the precentral gyrus. The reason why the facial region of this homunculus covers such a large surface area is because
(A) we have very sensitive lips.
(B) our eyes are large for seeing.
(C) we have very expressive faces.
(D) our ears are large for hearing.
(C) we have very expressive faces.
It is easy to confuse the terms sulcus and gyrus (on the cerebral cortex). The difference between these two terms is that
(A) a sulcus is the same as a fissure on the cerebral cortex, whereas a gyrus is a lobe.
(B) a sulcus corresponds to a folia on the cerebellum, whereas a gyrus corresponds to a fissure.
(C) a sulcus is a groove, and a gyrus is a deeper groove.
(D) a gyrus is a ridge, and a sulcus is a groove.
(D) a gyrus is a ridge, and a sulcus is a groove.
Which of the following grooves separates the cerebrum from the cerebellum?
(A) longitudinal fissure
(B) lateral sulcus
(C) central sulcus
(D) transverse cerebral fissure
(D) transverse cerebral fissure
A cerebrovascular accident patient who is unable to recognize faces and objects but can still visually perceive spatial arrangement of objects most likely has damage to
(A) the occipital lobe.
(B) the temporal lobe.
(C) the primary visual cortex.
(D) the posterior association area.
(B) the temporal lobe.
If the most caudal part of the CNS is the conus medullaris, then the most rostral part is/are the
(A) hypothalamus.
(B) cauda equina.
(C) precentral and postcentral gyri.
(D) prefrontal lobes.
(D) prefrontal lobes.
Which of these brain regions are active in the formation of memories?
(A) the posterior association area, basal ganglia, and hippocampal formation
(B) the limbic association area, basal forebrain nuclei, and the hypothalamus
(C) hypothalamus, basal ganglia, and amygdala
(D) anterior association area, posterior association area, and thalamus
(B) the limbic association area, basal forebrain nuclei, and the hypothalamus
After someone faints, smelling salts of ammonia may be placed under the person’s nose. The person breathes the ammonia vapors, which deliver a sharp jolt to the nasal membranes, and the person wakes up. This illustrates
(A) the function of the hypothalamus in controlling sleep.
(B) the function of sensory input to the reticular activating system.
(C) how smells bring about emotions.
(D) how smells elicit memories of being awake, causing the person to awaken.
(B) the function of sensory input to the reticular activating system.
The function of the blood-brain barrier is to
(A) keep neurons from innervating blood vessels.
(B) prevent all contact between bloodborne molecules and brain tissue.
(C) provide an impenetrable barrier between blood and brain, because the brain gets all its nourishment from the cerebrospinal fluid.
(D) help protect the central nervous system.
(D) help protect the central nervous system.
Trace the path of circulation of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) from production to absorption.
(A) choroid plexus, ventricles of the brain, subarachnoid space, arachnoid villi, superior sagittal sinus
(B) third ventricle, fourth ventricle, central canal of spinal cord, lateral and median apertures
(C) arachnoid villi, ventricles of the brain, subarachnoid space, choroid plexus, superior sagittal sinus
(D) ventricles of the brain, choroid plexus, arachnoid villi, subarachnoid space
(A) choroid plexus, ventricles of the brain, subarachnoid space, arachnoid villi, superior sagittal sinus
Cerebrospinal fluid is produced by choroid plexuses in all the following locations except the
(A) third ventricle.
(B) central canal.
(C) lateral ventricle.
(D) fourth ventricle.
(B) central canal.
Cerebrospinal fluid is located within the
(A) orbits.
(B) superior sagittal sinus.
(C) cerebral cortex.
(D) subarachnoid space.
(D) subarachnoid space.
Why does a lumbar puncture take place in the lower lumbar region of the spinal cord?
(A) The spinal cord ends at approximately the level of L1, making the area between L4 and L5 a safe location to sample cerebral spinal fluid without injuring the neural tissue of the spinal cord.
(B) There are no spinal nerves in the lower lumbar region so there is no risk of nerve injury when sampling from this region.
(C) The subarachnoid space is larger in this region, allowing a greater sample of cerebral spinal fluid to be gathered.
(D) The lumbar region is furthest from the production of cerebral spinal fluid in the brain ventricles; any impurities in the CSF would be concentrated in the lumbar region.
(A) The spinal cord ends at approximately the level of L1, making the area between L4 and L5 a safe location to sample cerebral spinal fluid without injuring the neural tissue of the spinal cord.
At what vertebral level does the spinal cord terminate (inferiorly) in the average adult?
(A) between L5 and S1
(B) S5
(C) between L1 and L2
(D) C3
(C) between L1 and L2
Why does the size of the ventral horns of the spinal cord vary along its length?
(A) The ventral horns have the largest neurons in them.
(B) The size of the ventral horns is influenced by the size of the cavity of the central canal of the spinal cord.
(C) The size of the ventral horns reflects the amount of skeletal musculature innervated at each level.
(D) The ventral horns contain both somatic motor and somatic sensory neurons.
(C) The size of the ventral horns reflects the amount of skeletal musculature innervated at each level.
Damage to the ventral root causes spastic paralysis, whereas damage to the descending tracts causes flaccid paralysis.
True
False
False
Damage to the ventral horns of the spinal cord or to the ventral motor roots destroys motor neurons in the region of injury, resulting in__________paralysis.
Flaccid
The cell bodies located in the anteriormost region of the spinal cord’s gray matter belong to this group.
(A) visceral motor
(B) somatic motor
(C) visceral sensory
(D) somatic sensory
(B) somatic motor
Cell bodies of the sensory neurons of the spinal nerves are located in
(A) the posterior gray horn of the spinal cord.
(B) nuclei of the cranial nerves.
(C) the dorsal root ganglia external to the spinal cord.
(D) the thalamus.
(C) the dorsal root ganglia external to the spinal cord.
The__________pathway carries information on pain, temperature, deep pressure, and coarser aspects of the sense of touchaˆ”stimuli that we are aware of but cannot localize precisely.
Spinothalamic
Which of the following is a descending motor spinal tract?
(A) pyramidal pathway
(B) spinothalamic pathway
(C) spinocerebellar pathway
(D) dorsal column pathway
(A) pyramidal pathway
What types of sensory information are conveyed toward the brain in the lateral spinothalamic tracts?
(A) pain and temperature
(B) equilibrium
(C) visual senses
(D) discriminative touch
(A) pain and temperature
The white matter of the spinal cord contains ascending and descending pathways known as tracts.
True
False
True
An individual is paraplegic when spinal cord injury occurs __________.
(A) between T1 and L2 spinal segments
(B) the damage to the spinal cord is between C3 and C5 spinal segments
(C) the damage to the spinal cord is below S5 spinal segment
(D) the damage to the spinal cord is between C6 and C7 spinal segments
(A) between T1 and L2 spinal segments
Shearing of axons in a diffuse axonal injury causes such widespread disruptions because such an injury involves
(A) projection fibers.
(B) commissural fibers.
(C) association fibers.
(D) pyramidal tract fibers.
(A) projection fibers.
Which of the following is associated with Alzheimer’s disease?
(A) deterioration of the substantia nigra of the midbrain
(B) accumulation of protein plaques around neurons
(C) inadequate vitamin B
(D) cerebral ischemia
(B) accumulation of protein plaques around neurons
What structure connects the right and left cerebral hemispheres?
(A) Corpus callosum
(B) Vermis
(C) Septum pellucidum
(D) Intermediate mass
(A) Corpus callosum
Which of the following areas form the central core of the brain?
(A) Epithalamus
(B) Thalamus
(C) Hypothalamus
(D) Cerebellum
(B) Thalamus
Where is the arbor vitae located?
(A) Cerebrum
(B) Cerebellum
(C) Diencephalon
(D) Brain stem
(B) Cerebellum
What part of the corpora quadrigemina is clearly observed in a midsagittal section?
(A) Inferior colliculus
(B) Superior colliculus
(C) Optic chiasm
(D) Corpus callosum
(B) Superior colliculus
Which region of the brain is necessary for consciousness?
(A) Diencephalon
(B) Cerebrum
(C) Cerebellum
(D) Brain stem
(B) Cerebrum
Which neuronal structures are located in the ventral horn?
(A) Long myelinated and unmyelinated axons
(B) Cell bodies of somatic motor neurons
(C) Cell bodies of visceral motor neurons
(D) Central processes of sensory neurons
(B) Cell bodies of somatic motor neurons
Which meninx surrounding the central nervous system contains blood vessels that nourish the neural tissue?
(A) Cerebral spinal fluid
(B) Pia mater
(C) Dura mater
(D) Arachnoid mater
(B) Pia mater
Which clinical symptom results from injury to the descending fiber tracts in the spinal cord white matter?
(A) Flaccid paralysis
(B) Spastic paralysis
(C) Parenthesia
(D) Localized loss of sensory and motor function at or near the location of the injury
(B) Spastic paralysis
How many regions make up the brain stem?
(A) 3
(B) 2
(C) 1
(D) 4
(A) 3
Which area of the brain stem is in contact with the spinal cord?
(A) Pons
(B) Midbrain
(C) Medulla oblongata
(D) Cerebellum
(C) Medulla oblongata
Which region contains the corpora quadrigemina?
(A) Medulla oblongata
(B) Midbrain
(C) Pons
(D) Epithalamus
(B) Midbrain
Which ventricle is located within the brain stem?
(A) Fourth ventricle
(B) Third ventricle
(C) Second ventricle
(D) First ventricle
(A) Fourth ventricle
The foramen magnum marks the border between the medulla oblongata and spinal cord.
False
True
True
The inferior colliculi are part of the corpora quadrigemina.
True
False
True
Which of the following ventricles is found under the corpus callosum?
(A) Fourth ventricle
(B) Lateral ventricles
(C) Fornix
(D) Third ventricle
(B) Lateral ventricles
Which passageway connects the third and fourth ventricles?
(A) Central canal
(B) Interventricular foramen
(C) Cerebral aqueduct
(D) Septum pellucidum
(C) Cerebral aqueduct
Identify the passageway found in the spinal cord that is continuous with the ventricles.
(A) Interventricular foramina
(B) Choroid plexus
(C) Central canal
(D) Cerebral aqueduct
(C) Central canal
Cerebrospinal fluid is produced within the ventricles.
False
True
True
The ventricles are all interconnected.
True
False
True
Identify cranial nerve I.
(A) Optic nerve
(B) Olfactory nerve
(C) Optic tract
(D) Oculomotor nerve
(B) Olfactory nerve
Which of the following areas takes visual information from one side of the body and conveys it to the opposite side?
(A) Optic tract
(B) Optic chiasm
(C) Optic nerve
(D) Olfactory bulbs
(B) Optic chiasm
Which of the following structures is not part of the central nervous system?
(A) Mammillary body
(B) Optic chiasm
(C) Optic nerve
(D) Optic tract
(C) Optic nerve
Which of the following glands can be observed on the ventral surface of the sheep brain?
(A) Pituitary gland
(B) Pineal gland
(C) Olfactory bulb
(D) Mammillary body
(A) Pituitary gland
Which of the following structures attach the pituitary gland to the brain?
(A) Pia mater
(B) Optic chiasm
(C) Hypothalamus
(D) Infundibulum
(D) Infundibulum
All three regions of the brain stem can be observed on the ventral surface of the brain.
True
False
True
The cerebellum is present on the ventral surface of the sheep brain.
True
False
False
x

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