Which type of fibers are found in the hypoglossal nerve (CN XII)?
motor to the muscles of the tongue
After a trauma, Jeremy has loss of vision in his right eye. He appears to have normal vision in the left eye. Based on this information, where has Jeremy’s injury occurred?
either to his right eye or his right optic nerve
What do cranial nerves I, II, and VIII have in common?
They all transmit special sensory impulses.
Of the cranial nerve pairs listed below, which nerve, along with XI and XII, relays only somatic motor impulses?
The spinal root of which cranial nerve pair innervates the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles?
Damage to which cranial nerve pair can cause deafness and problems with equilibrium?
Sensory fibers of which cranial nerve pair pass through the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone?
Which of the cranial nerves listed below provides innervation to one of the extrinsic eye muscles?
Mixed cranial nerves containing both motor and sensory fibers include all of the following except the
The cranial nerves that have neural connections with the tongue include all of the following except the
A person who cannot blink or smile could have damage to which cranial nerve?
To avoid double vision, which of the following groups of cranial nerves must be functioning correctly?
III, IV, and VI
The only cranial nerve that travels into the abdomen is the
Disorders of balance may follow trauma to which nerve?
The vagus nerve (CN X) is the only cranial nerve pair found inferior to the diaphragm.
How many cervical spinal nerves are there?
Dorsal rami __________.
branch from spinal nerves to innervate the deep/intrinsic muscles of the back
Sensory impulses from the skin would be transmitted into the spinal cord on the
dorsal root of spinal nerves.
Contraction rate of the diaphragm is controlled by which nerve?
Spinal nerves are
present in 31 pairs.
The phrenic nerve receives fibers from
A nerve plexus is formed by interconnected dorsal and ventral rami of spinal nerves.
A fracture of the humerus that injures the radial nerve could cause which deficit?
loss of function of digital and carpal extensors
The musculocutaneous nerve __________.
innervates the biceps brachii, brachialis, and coracobrachialis muscles
What is one of the primary clinical benefits of the distribution of dermatomes?
Dermatomes can help pinpoint the level of spinal injuries.
Which spinal nerve relays motor impulses to most of the muscles of the posterior forearm?
The tibial and common fibular nerves branch from the ________ nerve.
The major nerve plexus to the upper limbs is the
brachial plexus.
Which of these nerves does not arise primarily from the brachial plexus?
The primary nerve to muscles of the anterior thigh is the
One of the largest branches of the sacral plexus is the sciatic nerve.
A dermatome is an area of skin that is innervated by the cutaneous branches from one spinal nerve pair.
*Children that have had chicken pox may experience a reactivation of this viral infection in adulthood, which is known as
hypoglossal nerve (XII)
*functions to control tongue movements during speech and swallowing
*a type of mechanoreceptor that monitors blood pressure
*receptor sensitive to chemicals in solution
*sensory end organ that responds to stimuli from the external world
general sensory receptors
*sensory neurons that monitor touch, pressure, vibration, pain, and temperature
*considered this title because they are widely distributed over the body
*sensitive to stimuli arising from visceral organs (where nerve endings are situated)
*respond to changes and stimuli within the body’s internal environment
*also called visceroceptor
lumbar plexus
*L1-L4 spinal nerves involved in it
*could become paralyzed if these nerves are damaged
*sensitive to mechanical forces, such as stretch, pressure, or vibration
mixed nerve
*a nerve containing fibers of both sensory and motor neurons; all spinal nerves are mixed nerves
motor neurons
*(To skeletal muscle) belong to the somatic division of the nervous system
muscle spindle
*Complex, spindle-shaped receptor in skeletal muscles that senses muscle stretch
*encapsulated receptors
*respond to harmful stimuli that result in pain
peripheral nervous system (PNS)
*portion of the nervous system consisting of nerves and ganglia that lie outside the brain and spinal cord
*all of the special senses (taste, smell, vision, hearing, and eq) are part of the afferent division of this
*specialized receptor cells that respond to light energy
*rod cells and cone cells
*Receptor that senses movement in the musculoskeletal system; more specifically, proprioceptors sense stretch in muscles, tendons, and joint capsules
spinal nerves
*31 pairs that attach to the spinal cord
*receptor sensitive to temperature changes
Trigeminal Nerve
*branches of this cranial nerve are desensitized when a dentist gives a shot of Novocain which prevents pain impulse transmission from the teeth and gums
*contains these classes of nerve fibers: somatic motor and general somatic sensory
*last nerve in thoracic series
*It lies inferior to the 12th rib
vestibulocochlear nerve
*transmits afferent impulses for the special senses of hearing and balance
lamellar corpuscle
*deep pressure
*encapsulated receptors
Bulbous corpuscle
*encapsulated receptors
tactile corpuscle
*touch, light pressure
*encapsulated receptors
*found in dermal papillae of hairless skin, particularly of nipples and fingertips
hair follicle receptor
*hair movement
*unencapsulated receptors
tendon organ
*encapsulated receptors
epithelial tactile complexes
*light touch
*unencapsulated receptors
free nerve endings
*pain and temperature
*unencapsulated receptors
Both the parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions are part of the somatic motor nervous division.
True or False
cribriform plate fracture
* can puncture the meninges and the epithelial lining of the nasal mucosa. Such an injury can result in loss of the cerebrospinal fluid, which will drip from the nose
injury to the right eye or the right optic nerve
can cause blindness in the right eye, while the vision in the left eye remains normal.
injury to optic tract
will cause vision loss to both eyes.
superior oblique muscle
*as the muscle inserts into the back of the sclera, it will roll the front half of the eye downward. This is important because CN IV is called the “trochlear nerve”
*the trochlear nerve innervates the superior oblique muscle, and the superior oblique muscle can cause the eye to move inferiorly because the muscle inserts in the back part of the eye, causing the front of the eye to move downward
peripheral neuropathy
*vitamin B deficiency and diabetes can cause this
abnormal sensation of numbness, burning, or tingling
*temporarily occurs when the peripheral nerve serving the region is compressed
*when the phrenic nerve induces abrupt, rhythmic contractions of the diaphragm. commonly originates from sensory irritation of the diaphragm or stomach
*painful stimuli from the diaphragm, which is carried on the somatic sensory fibers of the phrenic nerve, can be perceived as coming from the skin of the shoulder area which is innervated by the same spinal segments
compression of lumbar spinal nerves
*compression of this by a herniated disc causes a major disturbance in gait because the femoral nerve innervates muscles that flex the thigh at the hip and muscles that extend the leg at the knee. other symptoms are pain or anesthesia of the anterior thigh and of the medial thigh if the obturator nerve is impaired
*characterized by stabbing pain over the course of this nerve
*often occurs when a herniated lumbar disc presses on the sacral dorsal roots within the vertebral canal.
*wounds to the buttocks or posterior thigh can sever the sciatic nerve, in which case the leg cannot be flexed at the knee (hamstrings paralyzed)and the foot cannot be moved at the ankle. When only the tibial nerve is injured, the paralyzed muscle in the calf cannot plantar flex the foot, and a shuffling gait results
when the common fibular nerve is damaged, dorsiflexion is lost and the foot drops into plantar flexion. The common fibular nerve is susceptible to injury in the superolateral leg where it superficially is located and easily crushed against the neck of the fibula
nerve injuries
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scapular winging
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