Over geologic time, the concentration of O2 in Earth’s atmosphere has increased. During the end of the _______ period, the O2 concentration decreased significantly and resulted in _______.
A. Carboniferous; mass extinction
B. Cretaceous; the rapid evolution of lineages
C. Devonian; the rapid evolution of lineages
D. Cretaceous; mass extinction
E. Permian; mass extinction
E. Permian; mass extinction
Which group of organisms has been most affected by periods of increased glaciation?
A. Land plants
B. Microbial autotrophs
C. Land mammals
D. Birds
E. Marine life
E. Marine life
The increase in the concentration of CO2 in Earth’s atmosphere over the past 100 years
A. is primarily caused by the burning of fossil fuels by humans.
B. is a result of a decrease in the rate of CO2 uptake by photosynthesis.
C. is occurring very slowly.
D. will result in lower sea levels.
E. will likely decrease the average temperatures on Earth.
A. is primarily caused by the burning of fossil fuels by humans.
Coal is the fossilized remains of
A. ginkgos.
B. grasses.
C. flowering plants.
D. pine trees.
E. tree ferns and horsetails.
E. tree ferns and horsetails
Mass extinctions occurred at the end of each of the following periods except the
A. Ordovician.
B. Permian.
C. Cretaceous.
D. Silurian.
E. Devonian.
D. Silurian
Gondwana is
A. the northern part of the supercontinent after it broke in two.
B. the supercontinent that encompassed all continents.
C. North and South America combined.
D. Africa and Europe combined.
E. the southern part of the supercontinent after it broke in two.
E. the southern part of the supercontinent after it broke in two.
What is the most likely result of increased oxygen concentration on insects?
A. Extinction
B. Decrease in sexual reproduction
C. Increase in body mass
D. Decrease in body mass
E. Increase in wing length relative to body size
C. Increase in body mass
Which would be the best way to determine the absolute age of a collection of sedimentary rocks that are thought to be between 50 and 200 million years old?
A. Carbon-14 dating
B. Paleomagnetic dating
C. Plate tectonics
D. Stratigraphy
E. Potassium-40 dating
B. Paleomagnetic dating
Consider the following series of strata in undisturbed sedimentary rocks:
(1) Richmond is found below Talos and above Pitts; (2) Pitts is found above Somas; (3) Garett is above Talos. Based upon the principles of stratigraphy, where would you be most likely find the oldest fossils?
A. Talos
B. Garret
C. Richmond
D. Somas
E. Pitts
D. Somas
Around 5 million years ago, Earth was in the _______ era, and the _______ period.
A. Paleozoic: Permian
B. Mesozoic; Triassic
C. Cenozoic; Tertiary
D. Cenozoic; Quaternary
E. Mesozoic; Cretaceous
C. Cenozoic; Tertiary
The Cambrian explosion took place over _______ years.
A. about a hundred thousand
B. more than fifty million
C. a few thousand
D. about ten million
E. about a million
B. more than fifty million
The ratio of 14C to its stable isotope, (12C), is relatively constant in living organisms and their environment, however, this ratio changes once an organism dies. In a fossil less than 50,000 years old you would expect the ratio of 14C to 12C to be
A. higher, because dead organisms generate 14C.
B. lower, because the 14C is not replenished after death.
C. equal.
D. impossible to determine; fossils less than 50,000 years old cannot be dated using this method.
E. higher, because the 12C is not replenished after death.
B. lower, because the 14C is not replenished after death.
The half-life of 14C, a radioactive element of carbon, is approximately 5,000 years. The ratio of 14C to 12C in a fossil 25,000 years old would be about _______ that of a living organism today.
A. 1 to 32
B. 1 to 8
C. 1 to 5
D. the same as
E. 5 to 1
A. 1 to 32
Which of the following about oxygen is true?
A. It is made through respiration.
B. It was prevalent in the atmosphere of early Earth.
C. It is not toxic to cells.
D. It made aerobic metabolism possible.
E. It made photosynthesis possible.
D. It made aerobic metabolism possible.
Plates of Earth’s crust
A. are fused into one mass.
B. can move via continental drift.
C. are composed of molten lava plates.
D. are known as the “magma.”
E. can move via paleomagnetism.
B. can move via continental drift.
For every described currently living species of organism, there are about ________
fossil species.
A. 100
B. 1/100
C. 1/6
D. 6
E. 2
C. 1/6
In the process of _______, the _______ oceanic plate is forced _______ continental plate.
A. subduction; thinner; under
B. subduction; thicker; above
C. subduction; thicker; under
D. continental drift; thicker; above
E. continental drift; thinner; under
A. subduction; thinner; under
What led to the mass extinction at the end of the Cretaceous period?
A. The breakup of a supercontinent
B. All of Earth’s continents coming together to form a supercontinent
C. Human activity
D. A meteorite striking Earth
E. An increase in the concentration of Earth’s oxygen
D. A meteorite striking Earth
Scientists divide geological time into eras and periods. The _______ is most inclusive, and the boundaries are based on _______.
A. Era; changes on fossils
B. Period; meteor impact craters
C. Period; the presence of 14C
D. Period; changes in glaciation
E. Era; changes in sea level
A. Era; changes on fossils
In the _______ period, fishes diversified and evolved jaws and club mosses, horsetails, and tree ferns became common. The earliest fossil terrestrial vertebrate and insects date from this period and there was a mass extinction at the end of the period that may have been caused by meteorite impacts.
A. Devonian
B. Precambrian
C. Triassic
D. Silurian
E. Quaternary
A. Devonian
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