Which of the following is the largest laryngeal cartilage?

arytenoid cartilage
epiglottis
thyroid cartilage
cricoid cartilage

thyroid cartilage
Which of the following forms a lid over the glottis?

arytenoid cartilage
cricoid cartilage
thyroid cartilage
epiglottis

epiglottis
Which of the following structures is commonly referred to as the Adam’s apple?

corniculate cartilage
thyrohyoid ligament
laryngeal prominence
cricothyroid ligament

laryngeal prominence
During inhalation,

the volume of the thoracic cavity decreases.
the diaphragm relaxes.
oxygen molecules move into the lungs, and carbon dioxide molecules move out of the lungs.
the diaphragm and rib muscles contract.
air moves up the trachea.

the diaphragm and rib muscles contract
From which structures do oxygen molecules move from the lungs to the blood?

Trachea
Alveoli
Nose
Bronchi
Bronchioles

alveoli
Which statement is correct?

Oxygen diffuses from large blood vessels into the body’s cells.
Oxygen is released from the mitochondria as a product of cellular respiration.
As oxygen diffuses from the lungs into capillaries, blood becomes deoxygenated.
Carbon dioxide diffuses from the alveoli into surrounding capillaries.
In the blood, oxygen is bound to hemoglobin, a protein found in red blood cells.

In the blood, oxygen is bound to hemoglobin, a protein found in red blood cells.
After blood becomes oxygenated,

it does not return to the heart, but goes directly to the lungs.
it does not return to the heart, but goes directly to capillaries that supply the body’s cells with oxygen.
it returns to the heart, and is then pumped to body cells.
it returns to the heart, and is then pumped to the lungs.
it does not return to the heart, but goes to the nose and mouth.

it returns to the heart, and is then pumped to body cells
Hemoglobin

has five subunits.
is the site of cellular respiration.
is a protein that can bind four molecules of oxygen.
uses ATP to move oxygen from blood to body cells.
is found in blood plasma.

is a protein that can bind four molecules of oxygen.
As air moves from the nasal cavity to the glottis it passes through the pharynx in this order, __________.

oropharynx, nasopharynx, laryngopharynx
laryngopharynx, oropharynx, nasopharynx
laryngopharynx, nasopharynx, oropharynx
nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx

nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx
If the production of surfactant by type II alveolar cells (septal cells) is inadequate, which of these changes is expected?

respiratory distress syndrome
increased inspiratory effort
alveolar collapse
All of these changes can be expected if the production of surfactant is inadequate.

All of these changes can be expected if the production of surfactant is inadequate.
Boyle’s law states gas pressure is __________.

independent of temperature
inversely proportional to volume
directly proportional to volume
inversely proportional to temperature

inversely proportional to volume
The respiratory centers are located in __________.

the pons only
the hypothalamus
the medulla oblongata only
both the medulla oblongata and the pons

both the medulla oblongata and the pons
Which of the following structures or organs is NOT part of the upper respiratory system?
internal nares
pharynx
larynx
nasal conchae
larynx
What is the name of the respiratory tract passageway that leads directly into each lung?

trachea
larynx
bronchus
bronchiole

bronchus
Which of the following serves as a passageway for BOTH food or liquids and air?

pharynx
larynx
trachea
bronchus

pharynx
Which of these changes will decrease the effectiveness of gas exchange across the respiratory membrane?

increased thickness of the respiratory membrane
increased difference in partial pressures
increased number of alveoli
All of these changes will decrease the effectiveness of gas exchange across the respiratory membranes.

increased thickness of the respiratory membrane
The respiratory epithelium of the conducting airways consists of

moist cuboidal epithelium.
surfactant cells.
pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium.
simple squamous epithelium.
ciliated squamous epithelium.

pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium.
The larynx, trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles all make up the

internal respiratory tract.
upper respiratory tract.
alveoli of the respiratory tract.
lower respiratory tract.
respiratory mucosa.

lower respiratory tract.
The respiratory mucosa consists of

stratified squamous cells.
epithelium and underlying layer of areolar tissue.
fibrocartilage.
dense irregular connective.
All of the answers are correct.

epithelium and underlying layer of areolar tissue.
Harry suffers from cystic fibrosis and has severe breathing difficulties. His problems result from

thick secretions that are difficult to transport.
genetic mutation in cilia production.
excessive mucus secretions in the trachea.
laryngospasm.
lack of neural control of respiration.

thick secretions that are difficult to transport.
Inhaling through the nostrils is preferred over the mouth because

it combines olfaction with respiration.
it dries out the mouth.
it allows better conditioning of the inhaled air.
less resistance to flow.
bacteria won’t be inhaled from the oral cavity.

it allows better conditioning of the inhaled air.
The ________ is shared by the respiratory and digestive systems.

pharynx
trachea
right mainstem bronchus
esophagus
windpipe

pharynx
The common passageway shared by the respiratory and digestive systems is the

pharynx.
vestibule.
trachea.
larynx.
glottis.

pharynx
The auditory tubes open into the

laryngopharynx.
larynx.
nasal cavity.
oropharynx.
nasopharynx.

nasopharynx
The glottis is

the opening to the pharynx.
the opening to the larynx.
a flap of elastic cartilage.
the soft tissue that hangs off the end of the soft palate.
part of the hard palate.

the opening to the larynx.
The vocal folds are located within the

trachea.
bronchi.
larynx.
nasopharynx.
oropharynx.

larynx
Air passing through the glottis vibrates the vocal folds and produces

ululation.
speech.
whistling.
phonation.
articulation.

phonation
During swallowing, the

epiglottis is depressed.
extrinsic laryngeal muscles contract.
intrinsic laryngeal muscles contract.
glottis closes.
All of the answers are correct.

epiglottis is depressed.
The airway that connects the larynx to the bronchial tree is the

bronchus.
trachea.
bronchiole.
laryngopharynx.
alveolar duct.

trachea
The actual sites of gas exchange within the lungs are

pleural spaces.
terminal bronchioles.
interlobular septa.
bronchioles.
alveoli.

alveoli
The respiratory membrane of the gas exchange surfaces consists of

surfactant cells.
ciliated squamous epithelium.
moist cuboidal epithelium.
pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium.
simple squamous epithelium.

simple squamous epithelium.
Blockage of pulmonary blood flow by a clot or similar obstruction is

pulmonary embolism.
COPD.
pneumothorax.
emphysema.
anoxia.

pulmonary embolism.
Asthma is

an acute condition resulting from unusually sensitive, irritated conducting airways.
caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
a collapsed lung.
characterized by fluid buildup in the alveoli.
an obstructive tumor.

an acute condition resulting from unusually sensitive, irritated conducting airways.
The unit of measurement for pressure preferred by many respiratory therapists is

mm Hg.
cm H2O.
centigrade.
torr.
psi.

torr
When there is no air movement, the relationship between the intrapulmonary and atmospheric pressure is that

atmospheric pressure is less than intrapulmonary.
they are equal.
intrapulmonary pressure is less than atmospheric.
atmospheric pressure is more than intrapulmonary.
intrapulmonary pressure is greater than atmospheric.

they are equal
External respiration involves the

binding of oxygen by hemoglobin.
utilization of oxygen by tissues to support metabolism.
exchange of dissolved gases between the blood and the interstitial fluid.
movement of air into and out of the lungs.
diffusion of gases between the alveoli and the circulating blood.

diffusion of gases between the alveoli and the circulating blood.
Air moves out of the lungs when the pressure inside the lungs is

less than the pressure in the atmosphere.
greater than the pressure in the atmosphere.
equal to the pressure in the atmosphere.
greater than intraalveolar pressure.
less than intrapulmonic pressure.

greater than the pressure in the atmosphere.
During quiet breathing,

inspiration and expiration involve muscular contractions.
inspiration and expiration are both passive.
only the internal intercostal muscles contract.
inspiration is passive and expiration involves muscular contractions.
inspiration involves muscular contractions and expiration is passive.

inspiration involves muscular contractions and expiration is passive.
________ is the amount of air that moves into the respiratory system during a single respiratory cycle.

Expiratory reserve volume
Tidal volume
Inspiratory capacity
Inspiratory reserve volume
Residual volume

Tidal volume
________ is the amount of air that you can inhale above the resting tidal volume.

Inspiratory reserve volume
Enhanced tidal volume
Residual inhaled volume
Inspiratory capacity
Expiratory reserve volume

Inspiratory reserve volume
Increasing the alveolar ventilation rate will

hardly affect either the partial pressure or diffusion of gases.
decrease the rate of carbon dioxide diffusion from the blood to the alveoli.
increase the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the alveoli.
decrease the rate of oxygen diffusion from the alveoli to the blood.
decrease the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the alveoli.

decrease the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the alveoli.
Pulmonary ventilation refers to the

movement of dissolved gases from the blood to the interstitial space.
movement of dissolved gases from the alveoli to the blood.
utilization of oxygen.
movement of dissolved gases from the interstitial space to the cells.
movement of air into and out of the lungs.

movement of air into and out of the lungs.
Alveolar ventilation refers to the

movement of air into and out of the lungs.
movement of dissolved gases from the alveoli to the blood.
utilization of oxygen by alveolar cells to support metabolism.
movement of air into and out of the alveoli.
movement of dissolved gases from the blood to the alveoli.

movement of air into and out of the alveoli.
Henry’s law states that

gas volume and pressure are inversely proportional.
the volume of gas that will dissolve in a solvent is proportional to the solubility of the gas and the gas pressure.
gas volume and temperature are directly proportional.
gas pressure is inversely proportional to gas volume.
in a mixture of gases such as air, the total pressure is the sum of the individual partial pressures of the gases in the mixture.

the volume of gas that will dissolve in a solvent is proportional to the solubility of the gas and the gas pressure.
Dalton’s law states that

gas pressure is inversely proportional to gas volume.
gas volume and pressure are inversely proportional.
gas volume and temperature are directly proportional.
in a mixture of gases such as air, the total pressure is the sum of the individual partial pressures of the gases in the mixture.
the volume of gas that will dissolve in a solvent is proportional to the solubility of the gas and the gas pressure.

in a mixture of gases such as air, the total pressure is the sum of the individual partial pressures of the gases in the mixture.
Where is more than 70 percent of the carbon dioxide carried in the blood?

Dissolved in the cytoplasm of red blood cells (RBCs)
In the plasma, as dissolved CO2 or HCO3 –
Attached to hemoglobin
Converted to chloride

In the plasma, as dissolved CO2 or HCO3 –
Most oxygen is transported in the blood stream while it is __________.

bound to hemoglobin
dissolved in the plasma
bound to albumin
bound to carbon dioxide

bound to hemoglobin
The chloride shift occurs in order to

transport bicarbonate ions into the blood plasma.
pump hydrochloric acid out of gastric cells.
produce carbonic acid.
produce salt for the cytosol of blood cells.
force oxygen out of the blood and into tissues.

transport bicarbonate ions into the blood plasma.
Carbon dioxide and water combine to form

carbonic acid.
oxygen.
hydrochloric acid.
carbaminohemoglobin.
nitric acid.

carbonic acid
Most of the carbon dioxide in the blood is transported as

carbaminohemoglobin.
bicarbonate ions.
carbonic acid.
solute dissolved in the plasma.
solute dissolved in the cytoplasm of red blood cells.

bicarbonate ions.
Which of the following factors would increase the amount of oxygen discharged by hemoglobin to peripheral tissues?

decreased amounts of DPG
increased tissue PO2
decreased temperature
decreased pH
All of the answers are correct.

decreased ph
Carbonic anhydrase

can decrease the amount of bicarbonate ion in plasma.
is in RBCs.
is an enzyme.
can increase the amount of bicarbonate ion in plasma.
All of the answers are correct.

All of the answers are correct.
The term hypercapnia refers to

labored breathing.
an increase in pH
the cessation of breathing.
elevated PO2
elevated PCO2

elevated PCO2
The apneustic centers of the pons

inhibit the pneumotaxic and inspiratory centers.
generate the gasp reflex.
provide stimulation to the inspiratory center.
alter chemoreceptor sensitivity.
monitor blood gas levels.

provide stimulation to the inspiratory center.
The pneumotaxic center of the pons

sets the at-rest respiratory pattern.
suppresses the expiratory center in the medulla.
stimulates the dorsal respiratory group.
modifies the rate and depth of breathing.
prolongs inspiration.

modifies the rate and depth of breathing.
The Hering-Breuer reflex

functions to increase ventilation with changes in blood pressure.
is an important aspect of normal, quiet breathing.
alters pulmonary ventilation when the PCO2 changes.
alters pulmonary ventilation when the PO2 changes.
protects the lungs from damage due to overinflation.

protects the lungs from damage due to overinflation.
Stimulation of the apneustic center would result in

a shorter respiratory cycle.
decreased vital capacity.
less activity in the DRG center.
more intense inhalation.
increased respiratory rate.

more intense inhalation.
x

Hi!
I'm Niki!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out