Which of these characteristics is shared by algae and seed plants?
Chloroplasts

(Both algae and seed plants have cells with chloroplasts.)

Select the correct statement describing the life cycle of angiosperms.
Double fertilization in the life cycle of seed plants results in the production of a diploid zygote and a triploid endosperm nucleus.
Select the correct statement about the life cycle of a fern.
Plant gametophytes are haploid multicellular bodies.

(Plant gametophytes very in size, but they are haploid and multicellular in all plants and in the life cycles of nonvascular and seedless vascular plants.)

Which of these facts provides the best support for the hypothesis that plants evolved from green algae?
The chloroplasts of plants and green algae all have both chlorophyll a and b.
Select the correct statement contrasting gametophytes and sporophytes.
Sporophytes are diploid, whereas gametophytes are haploid.
What is thought to be the correct sequence of the following events during the Carboniferous period?

1. Vascular plants become more prevalent.
2. Megaphylls with large surface areas become more prevalent.
3. Atmospheric CO2 levels decline dramatically.
4. Global cooling occurs, leading to widespread glaciations.

1,2,3,4
The adaption that made possible the colonization of dry land environments by seed plants is most likely the result of the evolution of ….
Pollen

(In bryophytes and seedless vascular plants, flagellated sperm must swim through a film of water to reach the egg cells. In seed plants, the use of airborne pollen to bring gametes together is a terrestrial adaption.)

The major difference between angiosperms and gymnosperms comes from the….
Presence or absence of a protective covering over the ovule
(Angiosperms have a protective covering over the ovule. Gymnosperms do not. All of the other traits listed are shared by both groups.)
Arrange the following structures from largest to smallest, assuming that they belong to two generations of the same angiosperm.

1. Ovary
2. Ovule
3. Egg
4. Carpel

4,1,2,3
Arrange the following terms from most inclusive to least inclusive.

1. Embryophytes
2. Green Plants
3. Seedless Vascular Plants
4. Ferns

2,1,3,4
Arrange the following in the correct sequence, from earliest to most recent, in which these plant traits originated.

1. Sporophyte dominance, gametophyte independence
2. Sporophyte dominance, gametophyte dominance
3. Gametophtye dominance, sporophyte dependence

3-;1-;2
Most fungi are…
Decomposers

(Fungi obtain nutrients from nonliving organic matter.)

Fungi release digestive enzymes into their….
Surroundings

(Fungi then absorb the digested nutrients.)

Basidia produce spores by a process known as ….
Meiosis
Which of the following is a difference between plants and fungi?
Fungi are heterotrophic, and plants are autotrophic.

(Fungi are heterotrophic and absorb their nutrients, and plants are photosynthetic.)

What sexual processes in fungi generate genetic variation?
Karyogamy and Meiosis

(During karyogamy, the haploid nuclei fuse, and meiosis produces genetic variation in several ways.)

Fungi form mutualistic relationships with plant. Which of the following is an example of such a relationship?
-Endophtyes can help increase heavy metal tolerance in plants.
-Fungi can help increase drought tolerance in plants.
-Endophtyes in leaves produce toxins that deter herbivores.
-Fungi can help increase heat tolerance in plants.
Fossil fungi date back to the origin and early evolution of plants. What combination of environmental and morphological change is similar in the evolution of both fungi and plants?
Colonization of land and loss of flagellated cells
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