In the chemical equation A + B ? C + D, which of the chemicals would be termed the reactant(s)?
A) A only
B) B only
C) A and B
D) C and D
E) C only
A and B
In the chemical equation A + B ? C + D, which of the chemicals would be termed the product(s)?
A) A only
B) B only
C) A and B
D) C and D
E) C only
C and D
The sum of the thousands of chemical reactions that occur within the body is called ________.
A) metabolism
B) hydrolysis
C) phosphorylation
D) oxidation
E) reduction
metabolism
Metabolism is a term that describes ________.
A) all work done by a living organism
B) all chemical reactions that take place within an organism
C) only chemical reactions that release ATP from living cells
D) the energy released from chemical bonds in living cells
E) the extraction of nutrients from biomolecules
all chemical reactions that take place within an organism
Which of the following is a correct description of an anabolic pathway?
A) Proteins are transcribed from DNA in the nucleus.
B) Proteins are degraded by mRNA in the cytoplasm.
C) Glycogen is synthesized in the cytosol from glucose.
D) The primary site of the synthesis of triglycerides is in the liver.
E) The primary site of the breakdown of triglycerides is in the adipose tissue.
Glycogen is synthesized in the cytosol from glucose.
The addition of a phosphate group to a substrate is called ________. The enzyme that catalyzes this reaction is referred to as a ________.
A) proteolysis : peptidase
B) phosphorylation : phosphatase
C) proteolysis : kinase
D) phosphorylation : kinase
E) hydrolysis : hydrase
phosphorylation : kinase
The addition of two hydrogens and two electrons to NAD+ is an example of what type of chemical reaction?
A) hydrolysis
B) oxidation
C) condensation
D) phosphorylation
E) reduction
reduction
Chemical reactions that involve the formation of peptide bonds between amino acids that produce water as a byproduct are called ________ reactions.
A) hydrolysis
B) phosphorylation
C) condensation
D) oxidation
E) reduction
condensation
Chemical reactions that involve the production of a phosphate bond are called ________ reactions.
A) condensation
B) phosphorylation
C) dephosphorylation
D) oxidation
E) reduction
phosphorylation
Chemical reactions that involve the breaking of a phosphate bond are called ________ reactions.
A) condensation
B) phosphorylation
C) dephosphorylation
D) oxidation
E) reduction
dephosphorylation
In a reduction reaction, which of the following is most likely added to the reactants?
A) water
B) neutrons
C) oxygen
D) electrons
E) phosphate
electrons
During what type of reaction are electrons removed from the reactant?
A) oxidation
B) reduction
C) phosphorylation
D) electrocution
E) deelectronofication
oxidation
What type of reaction occurs when a saturated fatty acid becomes unsaturated?
A) oxidation
B) reduction
C) lipolysis
D) phosphorylation
E) hydrolysis
oxidation
If the energy change of a reaction (?E) is positive, then ________.
A) the reactants had more energy than the products
B) the products had more energy than reactants
C) energy has been released as a byproduct
D) no energy was added to the reaction
E) the reactants had the same energy as the products
the products had more energy than reactants
Which of the following is true of an endergonic reaction?
A) The change in energy of the reaction is positive.
B) The reaction proceeds spontaneously.
C) The only product of the reaction is heat.
D) The only product of the reaction is water.
E) Endergonic reactions never occur.
The change in energy of the reaction is positive.
The kinetic energy of a molecule can be increased by ________.
A) increasing its mass
B) increasing its temperature
C) decreasing its mass
D) decreasing its temperature
E) decreasing its velocity
increasing its temperature
The energy that is stored within an object for later use is referred to as ________.
A) kinetic energy
B) thermal energy
C) potential energy
D) radiant energy
E) kinesthetic energy
potential energy
Which of the following statements about chemical equilibrium is FALSE?
A) At equilibrium, the rate of formation of products equals the rate of formation of reactants.
B) At equilibrium, the concentration of products equals the concentration of reactants.
C) Increasing the amount of reactant will increase the production of product.
D) Decreasing the amount of product will increase the production of product.
E) Adding an enzyme will not alter the equilibrium.
At equilibrium, the concentration of products equals the concentration of reactants.
When an enzyme-catalyzed reaction is at equilibrium, ________.
A) there is no net change in the amount of reactants or products
B) the reaction is proceeding at its maximum rate
C) the reaction is prevented from occurring
D) there are equivalent amounts of substrate and enzyme present
E) there are equivalent amounts of substrate and product present
there is no net change in the amount of reactants or products
Start with the following chemical reaction at equilibrium: A – B. If you add product B to the system from a separate pathway, then what change in the reaction occurs?
A) Because the reaction is at equilibrium, there will be no change in rates of either the forward or reverse reaction.
B) Because the reaction is at equilibrium, the rates of both the forward and reverse reactions increase.
C) The rate of the forward reaction increases.
D) The rate of the reverse reaction increases.
E) The rate of the forward and reverse reactions both decrease.
The rate of the reverse reaction increases.
The enzyme carbonic anhydrase catalyzes the following reaction:
CO2 + H2O – H2CO3, then H2CO3 dissociates reversibly to form H+ + HCO3-
When tissue becomes more active, carbon dioxide increases due to its production in ________, causing hydrogen ion concentration to ________.
A) the cytosol : increase
B) the cytosol : decrease
C) mitochondria : increase
D) mitochondria : decrease
E) both the cytosol and mitochondria : decrease
mitochondria : increase
Molecules must have sufficient potential energy to overcome the ________ and, thereby, allow the reaction to proceed.
A) transformation state
B) mass action
C) transitional energy barrier
D) activation energy barrier
E) kinetic energy
activation energy barrier
Once a molecule is already in motion, conversion of that molecule’s kinetic energy into potential energy occurs as a consequence of ________.
A) the collision of molecules
B) an increased temperature
C) its transition state
D) its transfer state
E) mass action
the collision of molecules
Decreasing temperatures will ________ the frequency of collisions between molecules, thereby ________ the reaction rate.
A) increase : decreasing
B) decrease : decreasing
C) not alter : not changing
D) increase : increasing
E) not alter : increasing
decrease : decreasing
As the ________ energy of a molecule increases with temperature, the molecule will ________ more frequently with other reactants, thereby increasing reaction rate.
A) potential : oxidize
B) kinetic : hydrolyze
C) kinetic : collide
D) potential : hydrolyze
E) activation : collide
kinetic : collide
As the energy required to overcome the activation energy barrier increases, the reaction rate will ________.
A) decrease
B) increase
C) occur more frequently
D) remain unaltered
E) depend solely upon temperature
decrease
Enzymes act as ________ to increase reaction rate.
A) an energy source
B) reactants
C) products
D) catalysts
E) intermediates
catalysts
Which of the following would NOT increase the rate of a chemical reaction?
A) increasing the concentration of reactants
B) increasing the temperature
C) increasing the activation energy barrier
D) adding a catalyst
E) adding an enzyme
increasing the activation energy barrier
Enzymes are what class of molecule?
A) trace metals
B) nucleic acids
C) proteins
D) carbohydrates
E) lipids
proteins
How do enzymes increase the rate of chemical reactions?
A) changing the equilibrium of the reaction
B) bringing the substrates together to undergo collision
C) adding potential energy to the reaction
D) adding kinetic energy to the reaction
E) converting kinetic energy to potential energy
bringing the substrates together to undergo collision
Which of the following statements about enzymes is FALSE?
A) An enzyme shows specificity for its substrate(s).
B) An enzyme can be used over and over again because it is not changed in the chemical reaction.
C) Enzymes are necessary to cause certain reactions to occur in cells that cannot occur in the absence of enzymes.
D) Some enzymes require the presence of trace metals to be active.
E) Once a substrate binds to an enzyme, it can leave the active site unaltered.
Enzymes are necessary to cause certain reactions to occur in cells that cannot occur in the absence of enzymes.
In the induced-fit model for enzyme activity, the substrate alters the ________ of the ________ site on the enzyme.
A) conformation : allosteric
B) conformation : inactive
C) activity : active
D) conformation : active
E) shape : allosteric
conformation : active
The rate at which an enzyme-catalyzed reaction occurs can be increased by ________.
A) decreasing substrate concentration
B) releasing the cofactor that was bound to the enzyme
C) increasing enzyme concentration
D) decreasing temperature
E) changing the enzyme’s conformation, thereby reducing its affinity for the substrate
increasing enzyme concentration
The measure of how many product molecules can be produced by an enzyme per unit of time is referred to as that enzyme’s ________.
A) specificity
B) cofactor rate
C) affinity
D) catalytic rate
E) coenzyme rate
catalytic rate
Which of the following is NOT a mechanism for regulating the flow of molecules through metabolic pathways?
A) changing the amount of enzyme that a cell has available
B) allosteric regulation of enzymes
C) isolating enzymes within a particular organelle
D) covalent regulation of enzymes
E) changing the potential energy of reactants and products
changing the potential energy of reactants and products
Which of the following would decrease the rate of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction?
A) increasing the concentration of enzyme
B) increasing the affinity of the enzyme for its substrate
C) increasing the concentration of substrate
D) increasing the concentration of product
E) increasing the kinetic energy
increasing the concentration of product
Some enzymes require trace metals to function as cofactors. What do the trace metals do?
A) Trace metals must be present in the enzyme in order for the enzyme to bind substrate.
B) Trace metals are necessary for the transfer of electrons between substrates.
C) Trace metals are necessary for the transfer of uncharged chemical groups between substrates.
D) Trace metals provide energy for the reaction.
E) Trace metals covalently modulate the enzyme.
Trace metals must be present in the enzyme in order for the enzyme to bind substrate.
Coenzyme A is derived from which of the following vitamins?
A) niacin
B) vitamin A
C) vitamin C
D) riboflavin
E) pantothenic acid
pantothenic acid
What are coenzymes?
A) inorganic molecules derived from trace metals that function in the transfer of a chemical group
B) organic molecules derived from vitamins that function in the transfer of a chemical group
C) inorganic molecules derived from vitamins that function in the transfer of a chemical group
D) organic molecules derived from trace metals that function in the transfer of a chemical group
E) protein complexes that function as enzymes with more than one active site
organic molecules derived from vitamins that function in the transfer of a chemical group
The greater the attractive forces between substrate and enzyme, that enzyme is said to have a higher ________ for the substrate.
A) repulsion
B) catalytic rate
C) coenzyme activity
D) cofactor activity
E) affinity
affinity
Which of the following describes the strength of binding between a protein and a ligand?
A) chemical specificity
B) affinity
C) saturation
D) competition
E) lock-and-key mode
affinity
Affinity is a measure of ________.
A) the rate of an enzyme catalyzed reaction
B) the rate of a metabolic pathway, from initial substrate to final product
C) the degree of phosphorylation of a molecule
D) the strength of interactions between a ligand and binding site
E) the rate of electron flow down the electron transport chain
the strength of interactions between a ligand and binding site
Which of the following statements best describes allosteric regulation?
A) A modulator molecule loosely binds to a protein, altering its activity.
B) Rate of protein synthesis is changed by binding of a regulator molecule to the promoter sequence.
C) A phosphate group is attached to a protein, changing its activity.
D) Coenzymes bind to a protein, changing its activity.
E) A trace metal binds to an enzyme and a substrate, linking the two together
A modulator molecule loosely binds to a protein, altering its activity.
If the graph of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction shows a sigmoidal relationship between substrate concentration and reaction rate, then what can be said about the reaction?
A) It is endergonic.
B) It is exergonic.
C) It is allosterically regulated.
D) It is covalently regulated.
E) It is part of an oxidation-reduction process.
It is allosterically regulated.
In allosteric regulation, the modulator molecule binds to the ________.
A) catalytic site of the enzyme by weak, reversible interactions
B) regulatory site of the enzyme by weak, reversible interactions
C) catalytic site by covalent bonds
D) regulatory site by covalent bonds
E) cofactor by weak, reversible interactions
regulatory site of the enzyme by weak, reversible interactions
Regulation of an enzyme through reversible binding of a modulator to a regulatory site on an enzyme is specifically called ________.
A) allosteric regulation
B) covalent regulation
C) the induced-fit model
D) the lock-and-key model
E) pH regulation
allosteric regulation
Regulating an enzyme through protein kinase-induced phosphorylation of that enzyme is an example of ________.
A) allosteric regulation
B) covalent regulation
C) the induced-fit model
D) feedback inhibition
E) cofactor regulation
covalent regulation
Which of the following enzymes covalently modulates another enzyme?
A) DNA polymerase
B) protein kinase
C) RNA polymerase
D) catalase
E) phosphatase
protein kinase
A protein kinase catalyzes which of the following types of chemical reactions?
A) phosphorylation
B) dephosphorylation
C) condensation
D) oxidation
E) hydrolysis
phosphorylation
Which of the following statements about end-product inhibition is FALSE?
A) The last product of a metabolic pathway inhibits the activity of an enzyme earlier in that path.
B) It usually involves allosteric modulation of an enzyme.
C) It is an example of negative feedback.
D) The enzyme modulated is often the rate-limiting enzymes.
E) The amount of product produced is increased by this process.
The amount of product produced is increased by this process.
What type of enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of another enzyme, thereby altering that enzyme’s activity?
A) Dehydrogenase
B) Phosphorylase
C) Protein kinase
D) Synthase
E) Cofactor
Protein kinase
During end-product inhibition, ________.
A) the initial substrate of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction inhibits the rate-limiting enzyme via allosteric regulation
B) the product of the rate-limiting step of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction inhibits the rate-limiting enzyme via covalent regulation
C) the product of the rate-limiting step of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction inhibits the rate-limiting enzyme via allosteric regulation
D) the final product of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction inhibits the rate-limiting enzyme via allosteric regulation
E) the final product of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction inhibits the rate-limiting enzyme via covalent regulation
the final product of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction inhibits the rate-limiting enzyme via allosteric regulation
What is the most important energy-transferring compound in cells?
A) glucose
B) fructose
C) protein
D) adenosine triphosphate
E) deoxyribonucleic acid
adenosine triphosphate
In skeletal muscle, ATP can be synthesized by transferring a phosphate group from creatine-P to ADP to form ATP and creatine. In this example, ATP was synthesized by what process?
A) oxidative phosphorylation
B) substrate-level phosphorylation
C) oxidation
D) reduction
E) condensation
substrate-level phosphorylation
The complete oxidation of glucose releases how many kcal of energy for every mole of glucose?
A) 686
B) 7
C) 266
D) 420
E) 98
686
The reaction whereby energy is released from an ATP molecule can be described by which of the following?
A) ATP reduction
B) ATP oxidation
C) ATP hydrolysis
D) ATP synthase
E) ATP hydrogenation
ATP hydrolysis
How much energy is required to produce 1 mole of ATP?
A) 7 kcal
B) 686 kcal
C) 266 kcal
D) 420 kcal
E) 98 kcal
7 kcal
Where does glycolysis occur?
A) cytosol
B) mitochondrial matrix
C) mitochondrial intermembrane space
D) mitochondrial inner membrane
E) lysosomes
cytosol
Which of the following associations between metabolic pathway and location in the cell is INCORRECT?
A) glycolysis : cytosol
B) electron transport system : inner mitochondrial membrane
C) transcription : nucleus
D) lipid synthesis : smooth endoplasmic reticulum
E) Krebs cycle : mitochondrial intermembrane space
Krebs cycle : mitochondrial intermembrane space
ATP is synthesized by substrate-level phosphorylation during which of the following?
A) glycolysis only
B) conversion of pyruvate to lactate only
C) Krebs cycle only
D) glycolysis and the Krebs cycle only
E) glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and during conversion of pyruvate to lactate
glycolysis and the Krebs cycle only
Which of the following does NOT occur in mitochondria?
A) Krebs cycle
B) oxidative phosphorylation
C) consumption of oxygen
D) production of carbon dioxide
E) conversion of pyruvate to lactate
conversion of pyruvate to lactate
The final product of glycolysis under aerobic conditions is pyruvate. What happens to pyruvate under aerobic conditions?
A) Pyruvate is converted into acetyl CoA in the cytosol, and the acetyl CoA then enters the mitochondrial matrix.
B) Pyruvate enters the mitochondrial matrix where it is converted into acetyl CoA.
C) Pyruvate is converted to lactic acid in the cytosol.
D) Pyruvate is converted to lactic acid in the mitochondrial matrix.
E) Pyruvate provides electrons to the electron transport chain.
Pyruvate enters the mitochondrial matrix where it is converted into acetyl CoA.
With the 38 moles of ATP that are generated within a cell from 1 mole of glucose, what percentage of the energy released from glucose is lost as heat?
A) 25%
B) 33%
C) 40%
D) 60%
E) 70%
60%
In the presence of oxygen, the process of glycolysis produces which of the following products?
A) 1 pyruvate
B) 1 lactate
C) 2 pyruvate
D) 2 lactate
E) 2 glycerol
2 pyruvate
Where are the enzymes of glycolysis located within the cell?
A) inner mitochondrial membrane
B) outer mitochondrial membrane
C) lysosome
D) cytosol
E) nucleus
cytosol
In the presence of a limited oxygen supply, pyruvate is converted to what?
A) lactate
B) acetyl CoA
C) NADH
D) ATP
E) glucose
lactate
How many ATP are generated per acetyl coenzyme A going through the Krebs cycle followed by the electron transport system?
A) 2
B) 3
C) 12
D) 24
E) 36-38
12
Which of the following statements about the Krebs cycle is FALSE?
A) The initial substrate is acetyl CoA.
B) Three NADs are reduced to NADH + H+.
C) Two FADs are reduced to FADH2.
D) Carbon dioxide is produced.
E) One ATP (GTP) is formed by substrate phosphorylation.
Two FADs are reduced to FADH2.
In terms of energy production, the Krebs cycle is significant because it ________.
A) directly produces large amounts of ATP
B) breaks down glucose
C) reduces the coenzymes NAD and FAD for oxidative phosphorylation
D) produces acetylcoenzyme A for fatty acid synthesis
E) provides acetylcoenzyme A for glucose synthesis
reduces the coenzymes NAD and FAD for oxidative phosphorylation
Which of the following statements about oxidative phosphorylation is FALSE?
A) More ATP can be produced when NADH provides electrons to the electron transport chain than when FADH2 provides electrons.
B) Hydrogen ion movement from the mitochondrial matrix to the intermembrane space activates the enzyme ATP synthase.
C) As electrons move down the electron transport chain, released energy is used to transport hydrogen ions across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
D) Oxygen is reduced to water.
E) The components of the electron transport chain are located on the inner mitochondrial
membrane.
Hydrogen ion movement from the mitochondrial matrix to the intermembrane space activates the enzyme ATP synthase.
What is the final acceptor of electrons in the electron transport?
A) pyruvate
B) carbon dioxide
C) water
D) oxygen
E) glucose
oxygen
Where is the electron transport chain?
A) cytosol
B) outer mitochondrial membrane
C) inner mitochondrial membrane
D) intermembrane space of the mitochondria
E) mitochondrial matrix
inner mitochondrial membrane
Chemiosmotic coupling refers to ________.
A) chemical coupling between substrate and enzymes
B) chemical coupling of each reaction within the mitochondria
C) coupling of the Krebs cycle to the electron transport chain
D) the harnessing of energy from the reactions of the electron transport chain to make ATP
E) the transfer of a phosphate group from one molecule to another
the harnessing of energy from the reactions of the electron transport chain to make ATP
Hydrogen ions activate the enzyme ATP synthase by moving from ________.
A) cytosol to inner mitochondrial membrane
B) inner mitochondrial membrane to cytosol
C) cytosol to outer mitochondrial membrane
D) mitochondrial matrix to intermembrane space
E) intermembrane space to mitochondrial matrix
intermembrane space to mitochondrial matrix
Each time an electron is passed between the molecules of the electron transport chain, ________.
A) energy is gained
B) energy is released
C) an ATP molecule is produced
D) oxygen accepts the electrons
E) carbon dioxide is produced
energy is released
What is the first component of the electron transport chain that accepts electrons from an NADH molecule?
A) flavin mononucleotide
B) cytochrome b
C) cytochrome a3
D) coenzyme Q
E) flavin adenine dinucleotide
flavin mononucleotide
What is the first component of the electron transport chain that accepts electrons from an FADH2 molecule?
A) flavin mononucleotide
B) cytochrome b
C) cytochrome a3
D) coenzyme Q
E) flavin adenine dinucleotide
coenzyme Q
ATP synthase is able to use the potential energy that originates from ________ to produce ATP.
A) the hydrogen gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane
B) the phosphorylation of cytochromes
C) the sodium gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane
D) complex I
E) complex IV
the hydrogen gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane
Under low oxygen conditions, ________ must unload its electrons to allow glycolysis to continue the production of ATP.
A) FADH2
B) lactate
C) NAD+
D) NADH
E) pyruvate
NADH
What is the net energy yield for the anaerobic metabolism of one glucose molecule?
A) two molecules of ATP and two NADH
B) two molecules of NADH and 0 ATP
C) two molecules of ATP and 0 NADH
D) 36 molecules of ATP and 0 NADH
E) two molecules of ATP and three NADH
two molecules of ATP and 0 NADH
Under anaerobic conditions, what is pyruvate converted to and where does this occur?
A) acetyl coenzyme A in the mitochondria
B) acetyl coenzyme A in the cytosol
C) lactate in the mitochondria
D) lactate in the cytosol
E) fatty acid in the cytosol
lactate in the cytosol
Under anaerobic conditions, which of the following is a final product of glucose catabolism?
A) pyruvic acid
B) lactic acid
C) carbon dioxide
D) acetyl coenzyme A
E) water
lactic acid
How is glucose stored in muscle and liver cells?
A) starch
B) glycogen
C) cellulose
D) lipids
E) amino acids
glycogen
Glycogen in muscle is used to ________.
A) contribute to the maintenance of blood glucose
B) convert glucose to amino acids
C) convert glucose to fats
D) fuel the activity of that muscle exclusively
E) both fuel muscle activity and maintain blood glucose
fuel the activity of that muscle exclusively
What organ contains glucose-6-phosphatase?
A) brain
B) heart
C) liver
D) skeletal muscle
E) all organs in the body
liver
What is the function of glucose-6-phosphatase?
A) catalyze addition of one phosphate group to glucose
B) catalyze removal of one phosphate group from glucose
C) catalyze addition of six phosphate groups to glucose
D) catalyze removal of six phosphate groups from glucose
E) catalyze the removal of the phosphate group from glucose and add it to ADP to form ATP by substrate-level phosphorylation
catalyze removal of one phosphate group from glucose
Which of the following molecules is NOT converted to glucose through the process of gluconeogenesis?
A) glycerol
B) lactate
C) amino acids
D) pyruvate
E) fatty acids
fatty acids
What is glycogenolysis?
A) the synthesis of membrane carbohydrates
B) the breakdown of glycoproteins
C) the synthesis of glycogen from glucose
D) the breakdown of glycogen to glucose
E) a form of gluconeogenesis
the breakdown of glycogen to glucose
Which of the following molecules is a substrate for gluconeogenesis?
A) amino acids only
B) glycogen only
C) glycerol only
D) amino acids and glycerol only
E) amino acids, glycogen, and glycerol
amino acids and glycerol only
Gluconeogenesis refers to synthesis of ________ and occurs in ________.
A) glycogen : the liver
B) triglycerides : adipose tissue
C) glucose : liver
D) fatty acids : adipose tissue
E) glucose : all organs
glucose : liver
The conversion of triglycerides to glycerol and fatty acids is called ________.
A) triglycerolysis
B) glycolysis
C) gluconeogenesis
D) lipolysis
E) liposuction
lipolysis
A substantial amount of ATP is generated from the metabolism of long carbon chains called ________.
A) glycogen
B) fatty acids
C) glycerol
D) glucose
E) amino acids
fatty acids
Metabolism of fatty acids that results in the accumulation of acetyl CoA can lead to a buildup of ________.
A) ketones
B) ATP
C) glycerol
D) lactate
E) amino acids
ketones
Beta-oxidation of a 14-chain fatty acid results in how many acetyl CoA molecules?
A) 1
B) 2
C) 4
D) 7
E) 14
7
Where does beta-oxidation of fatty acids occur?
A) cytosol
B) smooth endoplasmic reticulum
C) mitochondrial matrix
D) mitochondrial intermembrane space
E) peroxisome
mitochondrial matrix
Before converting amino acids into intermediates for energy metabolism, they must first undergo ________.
A) denaturation
B) deamination
C) detoxification
D) depeptidization
E) oxidation
deamination
Any nutrient that is not synthesized by the body and must, therefore, be acquired through the diet is a(n) ________ nutrient.
A) essential
B) primary
C) secondary
D) non-essential
E) consumptive
essential
The amine group removed from an amino acid must be converted to ________ before being eliminated from the human body.
A) uric acid
B) ornithine
C) keto acid
D) urea
E) ammonium
urea
Insulin levels in the blood are elevated in response to which of the following?
A) increased blood glucose levels
B) decreased blood fatty acids
C) decreased blood triglycerides
D) fasting for 12 hours
E) sleep
increased blood glucose levels
Which of the following is not an action of insulin on liver cells?
A) increase glucose uptake
B) activate glycogen synthetase
C) activate glucokinase
D) inhibit glucose-6-phosphatase
E) increase gluconeogenesis
increase glucose uptake
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