Look for cell walls under a microscope.
See if it reproduces sexually.
Determine whether it is unicellular or multicellular.
See if it is a eukaryote or prokaryote.
Figure out whether it is autotrophic or heterotrophic.
Fungal cells have cell walls, and animal cells do not.
using enzymes to digest their food.
consuming living, rather than dead, prey.
preying on animals.
cells that have mitochondria
the structural carbohydrate, chitin
nervous conduction and muscular movement
5 > 3 > 2 > 4 > 1
3 > 5 > 2 > 1 > 4
5 > 3 > 2 > 1 > 4
3 > 5 > 4 > 2 > 1
5 > 3 > 4 > 2 > 1
primary germ layers
central nervous system
They are all multicellular.
They ingest their food.
They are eukaryotes.
They are heterotrophic.
They have tissues, organs, and organ systems.
Sponges are considered animals, and they lack these levels of organization.
has bilateral symmetry
has tissue specialization
has an aggregation of sensory neurons at the anterior end
has a hard, outer covering
Cephalization is an evolutionary trend toward the concentration of sensory equipment at the anterior end. It is associated with bilateral symmetry.
Flatworms are acoelomates, even those that are not classified as acoels.
During gastrulation, the developing digestive tube of the embryo initially has a single opening, the blastopore. After the archenteron develops, a second opening forms at the opposite end of the gastrula. The mouth of many protostomes develops from the first opening, whereas in deuterostomes the mouth is derived from the second opening.
have a complete digestive system with mouth and anus, whereas pseudocoelomates have a digestive tract with only one opening.
have a body cavity, whereas pseudocoelomates have a solid body.
have a gut that lacks suspension within the body cavity, whereas pseudocoelomates have mesenteries that hold the digestive system in place.
contain tissues derived from mesoderm, whereas pseudocoelomates have no such tissue.
have a body cavity completely lined by mesodermal tissue, whereas pseudocoelomates do not.
Muscular activity of its digestive system distorts the body wall.
It possesses sensory structures at its anterior end.
It is triploblastic.
It has bilateral symmetry.
radial and determinate cleavage, blastopore becomes mouth
spiral and determinate cleavage, blastopore becomes mouth
spiral and indeterminate cleavage, blastopore becomes mouth
radial and determinate cleavage, blastopore becomes anus
spiral and determinate cleavage, blastopore becomes anus
radial or bilateral symmetry.
true tissues or no tissues.
a well-defined head or no head.
a body cavity or no body cavity.
diploblastic or triploblastic embryos.
This embryo may potentially develop into a(n)
Eumetazoans have three embryonic tissue layers.
Sponges are diploblastic animals.
The origin of all extant animal phyla can be traced to the Cambrian explosion.
All animals share a common ancestor.
Most animal phyla belong to the clade Radiata.
It is thought to have been a protist similar to a choanoflagellate.
3, 4, 1, 2
4, 2, 3, 1
3, 4, 2, 1
4, 3, 2, 1
4, 3, 1, 2
strengthen sponges’ evolutionary ties to the Eumetazoa.
mean that sponges must no longer be classified as animals.
confirm the identity of sponges as “basal animals.”
mean that extinct sponges must have been the last common ancestor of animals and fungi.
require sponges to be reclassified as choanoflagellates.
Deuterostomia now includes the Acoela.
It diverged from the rest of the Bilateria earlier than did the Acoela.
Deuterostomia is paraphyletic.
To maintain Deuterostomia as a clade, some phyla had to be removed from it.
It is actually a grade, rather than a clade.