To maintain adequate nutrition, animals require dietary access to certain amino acids. An amino acid that is referred to as “nonessential” would be best described as one that

is not readily absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract.
is not found in many proteins.
is not used by the animal in biosynthesis.
can be made by the animal’s body from other substances.
must be ingested in the diet.

can be made by the animal’s body from other substances.
Which pair correctly associates a physiological process with the appropriate vitamin?

blood clotting and vitamin C
synthesis of cell membranes and vitamin D
normal vision and vitamin A
production of white blood cells and vitamin K
protection of skin from cancer and vitamin E

normal vision and vitamin A
The gastrovascular cavity differs from the alimentary canal in that only the gastrovascular cavity _____.

stores food but does not digest it
has only a single opening
is capable of extracellular digestion
absorbs food molecules but does not produce hydrolytic enzymes
functions in digestion but not absorption

has only a single opening
An advantage of a complete digestive system over a gastrovascular cavity is that the complete system

facilitates intracellular digestion.
allows digestive enzymes to be more specific.
allows extensive branching.
allows for specialized regions with specialized functions.
excludes the need for extracellular digestion.

allows for specialized regions with specialized functions.
Which structure is not part of the alimentary canal?

Esophagus.
Salivary glands.
Stomach.
Mouth.

Salivary glands.
Which process is not required for an animal to obtain energy from food?

Secretion.
Ingestion.
Excretion.
Digestion.

Excretion.
True or false? One advantage of having a tube-like digestive tract is that digestion of all compounds can take place simultaneously down the tract.

True
False

False
True or False? The liver is a component of the alimentary canal.

True
False

False
Choose the correct statement from the list below.

Mechanical digestion of proteins is more important than chemical digestion.

The stomach has a high pH which allows for the activation of digestive enzymes.

Protein digestion begins in the small intestine with the activation of trypsinogen to trypsin

Proteins that are consumed in the diet are absorbed as individual amino acids following digestion.

Proteins that are consumed in the diet are absorbed as individual amino acids following digestion.
Choose the correct statement from the list below.

Carbohydrates are fully digested after passage through the stomach .
Carbohydrate absorption occurs primarily in the large intestine.
Bile salts from the gall bladder are essential to the digestion of carbohydrates.
Carbohydrate digestion begins in the mouth with salivary amylase.

Carbohydrate digestion begins in the mouth with salivary amylase.
Choose the correct statement from the list below.

Free fatty acid absorption occurs in the small intestine.
Bile salts from the pancreas are essential to the digestion of fats
Fat digestion begins in the stomach with the activation of trypsinogen to trypsin.
Fats are fully digested after passage through the mouth and stomach.

Free fatty acid absorption occurs in the small intestine.
Salivary amylase digests

glucose.
protein.
maltose.
monosaccharides.
starches.

starches
Pepsin is a digestive enzyme that

begins the hydrolysis of proteins in the stomach.
splits maltose into monosaccharides.
is manufactured by the pancreas.
is denatured and rendered inactive in solutions with low pH.
helps stabilize fat-water emulsions.

begins the hydrolysis of proteins in the stomach.
Upon activation by stomach acidity, the secretions of the parietal cells

include pepsinogen.
initiate the chemical digestion of lipids in the stomach.
initiate the mechanical digestion of lipids in the stomach.
initiate the digestion of protein in the stomach.
delay digestion until the food arrives in the small intestine.

initiate the digestion of protein in the stomach.
The bile salts

are normally an ingredient of gastric juice.
emulsify fats in the duodenum.
are manufactured by the pancreas.
increase the efficiency of pepsin action.
are enzymes.

emulsify fats in the duodenum.
Stomach cells are moderately well adapted to the acidity and protein-digesting activities in the stomach by having

a sufficient colony of H. pylori.
a thick, mucous secretion and active mitosis of epithelial cells.
a high level of secretion by chief cells.
a high level of secretion from parietal cells.
secretions enter the stomach from the pancreas.

a thick, mucous secretion and active mitosis of epithelial cells.
After eating a carbohydrate-rich meal, the mammalian pancreas increases its secretion of

thyroxine.
oxytocin.
glucagon.
ecdysteroid.
insulin.

insulin
Which organ in the human body filters the blood of cellular waste?

kidney
liver
large intestine
small intestine
pancreas

kidneys
What is the name of the functional unit of the kidney that consists of millions of tiny filters which filter waste products from the blood

urethra
ureter
axon
neuron
nephron

nephron
In what structure of the nephron is food reabsorbed back into the bloodstream

glomerulus
bowmans capsule
loop of henle
bladder

glomerulus
In kidneys, which hormone is most effective at causing increased numbers of aquaporins to be present in collecting duct epithelia, and what is the source of this hormone?

ADH; posterior pituitary gland
aldosterone; adrenal medulla
oxytocin; posterior pituitary gland
alsosterone; adrenal cortex
ADH; kidneys

ADH; posterior pituitary gland
Essential amino acids are

all of the amino acids required to make proteins

those that cannot be made in the diet

those that contain nitrogen

obtained only by eating plants

obtained only by eating animals

those that cannot be made in the diet
A complete digestive tract differs from a gastrovascular cavity in that only the complete tract

permits extracellular digestion

has teeth and tentacles to help with ingestion

has specialized compartments

allows elimination of undigested wasteds

has specialized compartments
In humans the first opportunity for ingested food to undergo enzymatic hydrolysis is in the

mouth
stomach
liver
small intestine
large intestine

mouth
Stomach acid (HCl)

splits polypeptides into amino acids

splits fats into fatty acids and glycerol

activates pepsinogen into pepsin(active enzyme)

initiates the development of stomach ulcers

splits polypeptides into amino acids
Bile (bile salts) function in fat digestion by

separating individual fat molecules from each other

dissolving fats in water

dispersing big droplets of fats to small droplets

triggering the secretion of pancreatic lipase

separating individual fat molecules from each other
Glucagon, the pancreatic hormone functions to

stimulate hunger

inhibit activity in the small intestine

increase fat storage in fat cells

reduce glucose levels in the blood

stimulate the liver to release glucose

stimulate the liver to release glucose
x

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