is not readily absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract.
is not found in many proteins.
is not used by the animal in biosynthesis.
can be made by the animal’s body from other substances.
must be ingested in the diet.
blood clotting and vitamin C
synthesis of cell membranes and vitamin D
normal vision and vitamin A
production of white blood cells and vitamin K
protection of skin from cancer and vitamin E
stores food but does not digest it
has only a single opening
is capable of extracellular digestion
absorbs food molecules but does not produce hydrolytic enzymes
functions in digestion but not absorption
facilitates intracellular digestion.
allows digestive enzymes to be more specific.
allows extensive branching.
allows for specialized regions with specialized functions.
excludes the need for extracellular digestion.
Mechanical digestion of proteins is more important than chemical digestion.
The stomach has a high pH which allows for the activation of digestive enzymes.
Protein digestion begins in the small intestine with the activation of trypsinogen to trypsin
Proteins that are consumed in the diet are absorbed as individual amino acids following digestion.
Carbohydrates are fully digested after passage through the stomach .
Carbohydrate absorption occurs primarily in the large intestine.
Bile salts from the gall bladder are essential to the digestion of carbohydrates.
Carbohydrate digestion begins in the mouth with salivary amylase.
Free fatty acid absorption occurs in the small intestine.
Bile salts from the pancreas are essential to the digestion of fats
Fat digestion begins in the stomach with the activation of trypsinogen to trypsin.
Fats are fully digested after passage through the mouth and stomach.
begins the hydrolysis of proteins in the stomach.
splits maltose into monosaccharides.
is manufactured by the pancreas.
is denatured and rendered inactive in solutions with low pH.
helps stabilize fat-water emulsions.
initiate the chemical digestion of lipids in the stomach.
initiate the mechanical digestion of lipids in the stomach.
initiate the digestion of protein in the stomach.
delay digestion until the food arrives in the small intestine.
are normally an ingredient of gastric juice.
emulsify fats in the duodenum.
are manufactured by the pancreas.
increase the efficiency of pepsin action.
a sufficient colony of H. pylori.
a thick, mucous secretion and active mitosis of epithelial cells.
a high level of secretion by chief cells.
a high level of secretion from parietal cells.
secretions enter the stomach from the pancreas.
loop of henle
ADH; posterior pituitary gland
aldosterone; adrenal medulla
oxytocin; posterior pituitary gland
alsosterone; adrenal cortex
all of the amino acids required to make proteins
those that cannot be made in the diet
those that contain nitrogen
obtained only by eating plants
obtained only by eating animals
permits extracellular digestion
has teeth and tentacles to help with ingestion
has specialized compartments
allows elimination of undigested wasteds
splits polypeptides into amino acids
splits fats into fatty acids and glycerol
activates pepsinogen into pepsin(active enzyme)
initiates the development of stomach ulcers
separating individual fat molecules from each other
dissolving fats in water
dispersing big droplets of fats to small droplets
triggering the secretion of pancreatic lipase
inhibit activity in the small intestine
increase fat storage in fat cells
reduce glucose levels in the blood
stimulate the liver to release glucose