Dave’s boss told him that he doesn’t have to attend the company picnic (which everybody dislikes) if Dave meets his sale quota this month. Dave’s boss is using ?
Negative Reinforcement
If a stimulus plus a response results in a satisfying outcome, the probability of that response occurring again ?
Increases
In classical conditioning, the association that learning is between a ?
Neutral stimulus and an unconditional stimulus
Harold catches fish throughout the day at unpredictable intervals. Which reinforcement schedule is this?
Variable Interval
To maximize learning, a ______ should be presented on a(n) _____ schedule.
CS + USC; continuous
You call a friend on the phone and repeatedly get sent to voicemail, so you continue to call every 5-20 minutes hoping to speak to her personally. Which reinforcement schedule is this?
Variable Interval
What are innate behaviors that are triggered by a broader range of events, such as aging and the change of seasons?
Instincts
What do psychologists call a relatively permanent change in behavior or knowledge that results from experience?
learning
Classical and operant conditioning are forms of _____ learning.
Associational
Which of the following is a process by which we learn to associate stimuli and, consequently, to anticipate events?
Classical Conditioning
In _____ conditioning, an established conditioned stimulus is paired with a new neutral stimulus.
Higher Order
In the initial period of learning, ______ describes when an organism learns to connect a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus.
Acquisition (learning or developing of a skill)
Which of the following is the decrease in the conditioned response when the unconditioned stimulus is no longer presented with the conditioned stimulus?
Extinction
______ is know for using Little Albert in his studies on human emotion.
John B. Watson
In operant conditioning, what describes adding something to decrease the likelihood of behavior?
Punishment (Positive)
Which term best describes rewarding successive approximations of a target behavior?
Shaping
______ reinforcers have innate reinforcing qualities.
Primary
When an organism receives a reinforcer each time it displays a behavior, it is called ______ reinforcement.
Continuous
Who exterminated with rats to demonstrate that organisms can learn even if they do no receive immediate reinforcement?
Edward C. Tolman
Learning that occurs but is not observable in behavior until there is a reason to demonstrate it is called _____ learning.
Latent (not yet developed)
Learning that occurs while watching others and then imitating, or modeling, what they do or say is called _____ learning.
Observational
Which process involves observing a model being punished and then becoming less likely to imitate.
Vicarious punishment
In ______ reinforcement, the person or animal is not reinforced every time a desired behavior is performed.
Partial
In operant conditioning, ______ is when something is removed to increase the likelihood of a behavior.
Negative reinforcement
Which of the following is an example of instinct: unlearned knowledge that involves complex patterns of behavior?
Baby seeking food by rooting and suckling
Which of the following is an example of a reflex: an unlearned, automatic response by an organism to a stimulus in the environment?
The pupil of your eye contracting in the presence of bright light
Julian watches his grandfather repair watches. As Julian matures he imitates what his grandfather does, and then his grandfather shows him more complicated techniques. Eventually, Julian is as proficient at repairing watches as his grandfather. This exemplifies ______.
learning
Grace watches her older sister do headstands. Grace falls over when she attempts to do one herself. She watches her older sister more carefully, and notices that her sister leans backwards slightly to complete her headstand. Grace is then able to do headstands herself. Which type of learning is this?
Observational
In _____ conditioning, the unconditioned stimulus unconditionally elicits a reaction. For example, a bit of black pepper blown into eye produces a blinking response.
Classical
Grace whistles while tickling Khaleel with a feather. Eventually, Khaleel starts to squirm and giggle every time Grace whistles, even when he is not being tickled. In this example, squirming and giggling is a(n) ______.
Conditioned Response
Kieran is attempting to condition a parrot to greet him when he enters the room. He repeatedly pairs his entry to the room with a treat for the parrot. Kieran can say that ______ has occurred as soon as the parrot greets him in response to his entry.
Acquisition (learning or developing of a skill)
Dimitri and rita eat some donuts for breakfast and then spend the morning at an amusement park. After a few hours of riding the Super Looper Double Twist Dimitri feels nauseous and regurgitates the donuts. Rita is fine, but Dimitri has developed a ______ , and the next time they stop for donuts, Dimitri immediately feels ill.
Taste Aversion (strong dislike)
Mia is taught to go to sleep when the light is turned off. However, for many months Mia no longer falls asleep when the light is turned off again. This is an example of _____.
Spontaneous Recovery
If a slamming door a conditioned stimulus, then being able to distinguish between the sound of the slamming door and the sound of a heavy item being dropped would represent ________.
Stimulus Discrimination
Birds migrating, cat chasing prey, sea turtles moving toward the ocean immediately after birth, and joeys moving to the mother’s pouch immediately after birth are all examples of _____.
Instincts
Which of the following is an example observational learning ?
teaching your self yoga by watching a yoga group in the park
Kerry is conditioned to fear strawberries. Raspberries are similar to strawberries, and even though no attempt was made to make Kerry fear raspberries, she reacts with fear when she sees them. This is an example of ______.
Stimulus Generalization
Molly attempts to condition her puppy to greet her when she enters the house. She repeatedly pairs her entry to the house with a treat for the puppy. The puppy eventually acquires this ability, and Molly realizes how irritating is is for the puppy to run up to her every time she enter the house. She attempts to make the puppy stop, and eventually the puppy no longer feels motivated to greet her when she enter the house. The puppy no longer greeting her when she enters the house is an example of ______.
Extinction
which of the following is an example of stimulus generalization?
being conditioned to laugh when you see a top hat, then also laughing when you see other kinds of hats
Kicking your leg when your knee is tapped and quickly pulling your hand back when you accidentally touch a hot stove are both examples of ______.
Reflexes
In classical conditioning, the ______ is an unlearned reaction to a given stimulus. For example, if you have an allergy to pollen and sneeze, sneezing is an unlearned reaction to pollen (i.e., the stimulus).
unconditioned response
Which of the following is an example of operant conditioning?
when a dog plays dead she gets a treat in order to encourage her to repeat the behavior
Which of the following is an example of stimulus discrimination?
conditioned to drool when a
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