Ally’s father was sent to prison when she was 12 for the trafficking of narcotics; her brother was arrested when she was 13 for possession of methamphetamines. By the age of 18, Ally has been arrested three times for possession of marijuana. Which theory best describes Ally’s experience?

a. Differential association theory
b. Strain theory
c. Labeling theory
d. Opaque theory

a. Differential association theory
The term deviance can be defined as:

a. The act of notifying authorities when criminal acts are occurring.
b. A violation of established contextual, cultural, or social norms, whether folkways, mores, or codified law.
c. Social reward for the violation of norms.
d. The regulation and enforcement of norms.

b. A violation of established contextual, cultural, or social norms, whether folkways, mores, or codified law.
The term deviance can be defined as:

a. the act of notifying authorities when criminal acts are occurring.
b. a violation of established contextual, cultural, or social norms, whether folkways, mores, or codified law.
c. the regulation and enforcement of norms
d. social reward for the violation of norms.

b. a violation of established contextual, cultural, or social norms, whether folkways, mores, or codified law.
What is the difference between a violent crime and a hate crime?

a. A violent crime is based on a person’s race, religion, or other characteristics.
b. A violent crime is punishable in a court of law; a hate crime is not.
c. A hate crime is punishable in a court of law; a violent crime is not.
d. A hate crime is based on a person’s race, religion, or other characteristics.

a. A violent crime is based on a person’s race, religion, or other characteristics.
Jake receives a promotion at his law firm after winning an important case. This is an example of a:

a. Positive informal sanction
b. Negative informal sanction
c. Positive formal sanction
d. Negative formal sanction

c. Positive formal sanction
Which theorist studied the power elite, and the influence they had over society?

a. Karl Marx
b. Carl Sagan
c. Emile Durkheim
d. C. Wright Mills

d. C. Wright Mills
The term crime can be defined as:

a. A behavior that violates official law and is punishable through formal sanctions.
b. A harmful action directed at the authorities.
c. A sequence of events leading to incarceration.
d. An unintended consequence of necessary action.

a. A behavior that violates official law and is punishable through formal sanctions.
Functionalist Emile Durkheim believed some deviance within society was:

a. Necessary; it challenged people’s views.
b. Dangerous; it encouraged disruptive behavior.
c. Insignificant; deviance within society is largely ignored.
d. Instrumental; it encouraged the population to rebel.

a. Necessary; it challenged people’s views.
Which of the following is not a branch of the U.S. Criminal Justice System?

a. The police
b. The jury
c. The courts
d. The corrections system

b. The jury
The term secondary deviance can be defined as:

a. When positive formal sanctions cause an individual to deviate from society’s expectations.
b. When a violation of norms does not result in any long-term effects on the individual’s self-image or interactions with others.
c. When negative informal sanctions encourage an individual to seek more positive behavioral choices.
d. When a person’s self-concept and behavior begin to change after his or her actions are labeled as deviant by members of society.

d. When a person’s self-concept and behavior begin to change after his or her actions are labeled as deviant by members of society.
Which of the following is an example of a negative informal sanction?

a. Mario being sent to jail after robbing a CVS.
b. Beatrix being booed off stage after telling an offensive joke during her comedy routine.
c. Eleanor being given a “Teacher of the Year” award for her work as a high school English teacher.
d. Meredith receiving compliments on her hair after visiting the salon.

b. Beatrix being booed off stage after telling an offensive joke during her comedy routine.
Social control is:

a. An arrangement of practices and behaviors on which society’s members base their daily lives.
b. A system that has the authority to make decisions based on law.
c. A label that describes the chief characteristic of an individual.
d. The regulation and enforcement of norms.

d. The regulation and enforcement of norms.
Strain theory:

a. Argues that morality is based on wealth.
b. Asserts that motivation and personal responsibility are the key factors in living a healthy lifestyle.
c. Addresses the relationship between having socially acceptable goals and having socially acceptable means to reach those goals.
d. States individuals learn deviant behavior from those close to them who provide models of and opportunities for deviance.

c. Addresses the relationship between having socially acceptable goals and having socially acceptable means to reach those goals.
In first grade, Scott is unfairly singled out by his teacher for bad behavior, partly because his older brothers had behavioral problems themselves. Throughout grade school, Scott gains a reputation as a “problem” child. Scott eventually drops out of school, thinking he was born to fail anyway. Which school of thought best fits Scott’s experience?

a. Strain theory
b. Control theory
c. Differential association
d. Labeling theory

d. Labeling theory
Bernie Madoff, recently sentenced to 150 years in prison for creating a ponzi scheme which caused clients to lose millions of dollars, engaged in which form of crime?

a. Street crime
b. Corporate crime
c. Violent crime
d. Institutional crime

b. Corporate crime
True or False: Deviance is always considered a crime?

a. True
b. False

b. False
As of 2008, how many adults in the United States are in jail or prison?

a. 1 in 1000
b. 1 in 500
c. 1 in 100
d. 1 in 10

c. 1 in 100
Differential association
Edwin Sutherland
Control theory
Travis hirschi
Strain theory
Robert Merton
Cultural deviance theory
Clifford shaw and Henry McKay
conflict theory
a theory that examines social and economic factors as the causes of criminal deviance
control theory
a theory that states social control is directly affected by the strength of social bonds and that deviance results from a feeling of disconnection from society
corporate crime
crime committed by white-collar workers in a business environment
corrections system
the system tasked with supervising individuals who have been arrested for,
convicted of, or sentenced for criminal offenses
court
a system that has the authority to make decisions based on law
crime
a behavior that violates official law and is punishable through formal sanctions
criminal justice system
an organization that exists to enforce a legal code
cultural deviance theory
a theory that suggests conformity to the prevailing cultural norms of lower-class society causes crime
deviance
a violation of contextual, cultural, or social norms
differential association theory
a theory that states individuals learn deviant behavior from those close to them who provide models of and opportunities for deviance
formal sanctions
sanctions that are officially recognized and enforced
hate crimes
attacks based on a person’s race, religion, or other characteristics
informal sanctions
sanctions that occur in face-to-face interactions
labeling theory
the ascribing of a deviant behavior to another person by members of society
legal codes
codes that maintain formal social control through laws
master status
a label that describes the chief characteristic of an individual
negative sanctions
punishments for violating norms
nonviolent crimes
crimes that involve the destruction or theft of property, but do not use force or the threat of force
police
a civil force in charge of regulating laws and public order at a federal, state, or community level
positive sanctions
rewards given for conforming to norms
power elite
a small group of wealthy and influential people at the top of society who hold the
power and resources
primary deviance
a violation of norms that does not result in any long-term effects on the individual’s self-image or interactions with others
sanctions
the means of enforcing rules
secondary deviance
deviance that occurs when a person’s self-concept and behavior begin to
change after his or her actions are labeled as deviant by members of society
self-report study
a collection of data acquired using voluntary response methods, such as questionnaires or telephone interviews
social control
the regulation and enforcement of norms
social disorganization theory
a theory that asserts crime occurs in communities with weak social ties and the absence of social control
social order
an arrangement of practices and behaviors on which society’s members base their daily lives
strain theory
a theory that addresses the relationship between having socially acceptable goals and having socially acceptable means to reach those goals
street crime
crime committed by average people against other people or organizations, usually in public spaces
victimless crime
activities against the law, but that do not result in injury to any individual other than the person who engages in them
violent crimes
crimes based on the use of force or the threat of force
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