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Chapter 2: Persuasion. STRUCTURE AND LANGUAGE
Repeatable quotation marks
“The merely individual truly lament about alteration is a babe with a wet nappy” . ( Anon. )

“Persuading people is a affair of paying attending to four things–who says what to whom and how they say it. ” ( Lasswell. 1948. )
Lasswell tells us that communicator variables ( who ) . message content variables ( what ) . audience variables ( to whom ) and talking techniques. together with usage of media history ( how ) . for differences between good and bad addresss.

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We like to believe that we are ever rational. that we are persuaded by thoughts carefully considered. Yet our cognition of persuasive techniques in advertisement shows us that others ( at least ; if non ourselves! ) are persuaded by things peripheral to rational statements.

Many people approach attorneies to screen out their bad determinations. They say–“He appeared a believable. echt person–I’m afraid I didn’t travel into it excessively exhaustively. ” “I idea because other people like authorities curates and university professors had money invested in it–it would be all right. ” Petty & A ; Cacioppo ( 1981 ) and Chaiken ( 1980 ) have developed theories to explicate why people don’t ever take a rational path to persuasion. In Petty & A ; Cacioppo’s ( 1981 ) Elaboration Likelihood Theory we take a “central route” to persuasion. analyzing the reason of the statements for a class of action if we are really intelligent. or believe a batch about determinations. or cognize a batch about the subject and have plentifulness of clip and are interested. If. on the other manus. we are rushed and the issue isn’t awfully of import to us we use Heuristics ( Chaiken. 1980 ) or “quick determination rules” . We take the “peripheral route” to being persuaded. by trusting on our ain emotions. on how we feel. on what experts say. on what other people are making. if the issue isn’t really of import to us. or we are tired or distracted. So. how we are persuaded depends on the sort of people we are. how much involvement we have in the affair. and how much clip we have to see it.

Consequently. when we are trying to carry others in order to hold our statements appeal to everyone we will necessitate to develop a cardinal path to persuasion based on reason and carefully considered thoughts together with a heuristics-based peripheral path to persuasion based on “expert” sentiment. statistics about Numberss of other people who have taken up the thought and “feel good” images. such as pleasant staff. comfy milieus and attractive packaging in order to cover the most frequent ways people come to be persuaded.

To prove these two theories you might believe about why you choose to purchase the trade name of toothpaste you by and large buy. Have you used a cardinal or a peripheral path to persuasion? Similarly. analyze how you come to organize your sentiments on mercy killing or Aboriginal land rights.



Key schemes in persuasive speech production
A Persuasive Speaker:
• appears believable.
• urges hearers to take between options.
• calls for committedness from hearers.
• frequently relies on eliciting emotions to travel audiences to action. • directs attempts to groups instead than persons.

A Persuasive Speaker Does This By:
• being introduced as a believable figure who has experience. cognition or wisdom in the country. • placing the message with the values. beliefs and involvements of the audience. • making common values. demands and involvements in his or her audience. • making word images which provide vivid images that help elicit strong feelings to travel people to action. ( Martin Luther King has us visualizing the hot Sun reflecting on the slaves as they hoe the long rows of cotton. )

• making clear options and rebuting opposing statements. ( Whitlam’s “It’s time” address says clearly “It will be good with us and bad with the others”. ) • Giving grounds for the picks they want the audience to do. • utilizing Antithesis: puting one thought off against another. Indicating out resistance to assist the audience see picks clearly. ( Listen for On the one manus. and so on the other or for direct comparing of picks in such speeches. )

Persuasive talkers use a figure of linguistic communication devices to prosecute their audience. maintain their attending. do the issues stand out clearly and back up their points.



Introduction to the field:
Persuasion is involved in most of our communicating as we try to promote others to portion our attitudes. feelings. beliefs and behaviour – to portion in our position of the universe. As good. advertisement and public speech production depend upon persuasion. Lasswell’s ( 1948 ) theoretical account of persuasion lists the variables involved while Petty & A ; Cacioppo’s ( 1986 ) Elaboration Likelihood Model and Chaiken’s ( 1987 ) Heuristics Model explains why sometimes we follow the statements in great item and on other occasions we’re persuaded by calendered booklets or pretty misss instead than by the item of statement. The Who or
communicator variables

trustiness and attraction.

involves the

communicator’s credibleness. expertness.

The What or message content variables involves such things as whether the content should appeal to ground or the emotions or whether you need to reply the opposing side’s statements or merely set your ain.

The Whom or the audience variables involve inquiring who your audience is. how old they are. what they know already about the subject and how involved they are. The how they say it or impart variables involves bringing. enthusiasm. media. every bit good as arrangement and administration of the statement. Should you reason inductively from peculiar instances constructing up to a decision. or should you reason deductively seting your position or chief thought up front and supply back uping grounds?

Should you set your most revealing points foremost where they will capture people’s attending or salvage them until last where they will remain in the memory because they were most late presented? Petty & A ; Cacioppo’s ( 1986 ) theoretical account along with Chaiken’s ( 1987 ) Heuristics theoretical account explains how differences in audience features lead to differences in the sort of processing of information or thought we undertake.


Kind of Processing

If the audience is:
–knowledgeable about the subject

–look at all the grounds


–explore inside informations


–investigate contrary claims

–very interested in the subject

If the audience is
–not educated or intelligent
–find the issue or subject non of import

–I will purchase the soap my female parent bargains

–haven’t got clip to believe

–use heuristics or “quick ways” or “recipes”

–the Prime Minister said it–it must be true



Key issues in the country
• Should you appeal to grounds or emotions?
• Does fear carry? ( Drink driving. AIDS campaigns. )
• Should you give both sides of the instance when you are seeking to carry? • Is it more persuasive to set the positive inside informations foremost or last? • Are fast speaking people more persuasive?
• Under what conditions is it better to allow people read your statement instead than state them? • Which is more persuasive

a missive in your letter box

person naming at your house

• What’s the grounds for your position?
• How can you inoculate person against the statement that imbibing is indispensable for a good clip? • List the persuasive messages that can be used by people seeking to carry you to: –

fall in a cult

take up smoking

get down utilizing drugs

Discussion exercising
Collect 10 magazine or Television advertizements and use Lasswell’s who says what
to whom
and how they say it
to explicate the procedure of persuasion in each instance.

Writing undertakings
Write a paragraph on the subject “Lasswell’s part to advertising” utilizing illustrations from the advertisments gathered for the exercising above.
Discuss “Charisma is the consequence of effectual leadership” and effectual leading is … . . ( 1. 500 words ) . Use essay format and construction ( p. **** )
Persuasion is defined as a procedure of actuating person through communicating to alter a peculiar attitude or behavior. Explain the cardinal features of persuasion and how a talker would utilize them to carry an audience.

Use current theories of persuasion to explicate why talkers need to change techniques harmonizing to the features of the audience.
Use the motivated sequence to build a paragraph carrying person you know to take more exercising.

Address chances
Give a address of debut to explicate why your schoolmate is a believable talker on the subject he or she has chosen.



Language to Keep Attention
Repeat of words
As in this illustration from Churchill’s celebrated address during World War II We shall non flag or neglect. We shall travel on to the terminal ; we shall contend in France ; we shall contend on the seas and oceans ; we shall contend with turning assurance and turning strength in the air ; we shall support our Island. whatever the cost may be ; we shall contend on the beaches ; we shall contend on the landing evidences ; we shall contend in the Fieldss and in the streets ; we shall contend in the hills. We shall ne’er give up. Whitlam uses a similar form in his “It’s time” address. Repeat of thoughts in groups of two.

Listen for this in Kennedy’s address.
And so. my fellow Americans: inquire non what your state can make for you–ask what you can make for your state. Technically this is an illustration of a chiasmus ; “a sentence with two parts in which the second is syntactically balanced against the first but with the parts reversed” ( Bradley. 1991. p. 265. ) Repeat of thoughts in groups of three:

This is called a tricolon and occurs in about all the addresss. Listen for it at the terminal of the Gettysburg reference. In a address in Parliament. Prime Minister Keating said. “ . . . . it’s bad fortune ; bad fortune for them. bad fortune for the Budget. and bad fortune for the state. ”

Using words get downing with the same sound captures the audience’s attending. Until now we have taken a joging route. From henceforth Lashkar-e-Taibas us guarantee that our path leads us quickly to a democracy. Strong verbs:

Frank Devine. authorship in The Australian Magazine ( September. 1992 p. 36. ) drew attending to Prime Minister Keating’s usage of active verbs such as asked. announced. create. addition. reconstruct. give. believe. implemented. increased. drafted. passed. progressed. commenced. commissioned. introduced and endorsed. Australians have a stating “He or she is good on his or her feet” . This has nil to make with dancing but means that a individual is able to talk extemporarily. Devine says about Prime Minister Keating’s linguistic communication:

Expression at the cumulative power and intent of all the verbs. selected by Keating on his pess. largely improvizing or accommodating written notes as he goes along. They convey an overpowering. about subliminal. message of a new epoch dawning–announced. introduced. create. drafted. commissioned. give and endorsed. Cosmopolitan metaphors

Like Light and Dark. where the visible radiation is positive and the dark is negative. Listen for this in Martin Luther King’s addresss: Now is the clip to lift from the dark and bare vale of segregation to the sunstruck way of racial justness.

In the undermentioned extract from J. F. Kennedy’s inaugural Presidential reference you can happen illustrations of most of the address devices noted above. See the usage of dusk and its intent in this address: Now the cornet biddings us again–not as a call to bear weaponries. though weaponries we need–not as a call to conflict. though embattled we are–but a call to bear the load of a long dusk battle twelvemonth in and twelvemonth out. ‘rejoicing in hope. patient in tribulation’–a battle against the common enemies of adult male. dictatorship. poorness. disease. and war itself.

Other metaphors that are frequently used are: storms and seas. disease and remedy. and household metaphors such as the university household. our brothers and sisters in Somalia. Examples of these devices occur in the addresss quoted above and in addresss by: • Cicero ( an speechmaker in Ancient Rome ) .

• Prime Minister Gough Whitlam.



• President Abraham Lincoln in the Gettysburg Address.
• Prime Minister Winston Churchill in World War II.
• President John Kennedy’s addresss and
• The Reverend Martin Luther King in a discourse called A Knock at Midnight. In groups of four identify techniques used in these addresss.
Read through the address examples on p. **** and happen and label illustrations of how linguistic communication is used in address devising.

Individual undertakings: Address Plan
Monroe’s Motivated Sequence lists the stairss contained in a successful persuasive address. These are attending. demand. satisfaction. visual image and action. Following Monroe’s sequence program a address on a subject of your pick or from the list on p. **** to carry your audience to give up smoke. 1. Attention–Get the audience’s attending and do them cognizant of the job. 2. Need–Make this job relate to the audience you are turn toing. Help them see how it affects them.

3. Satisfaction–Explain how the solution you are progressing will run into their demands. 4. Visualisation–Enable the audience to conceive of. to “see” the effects of what you describe. 5. Action–Get the audience to make something as a consequence of being convinced by your message.



Discussion exercising
While you are listening to a fellow student’s talk you realise that it is plagiarised–lifted directly from an old TIME magazine article on gun control.
What is your duty here? What do you make?
As a group compose an lineation for a two minute address on plagiarism utilizing the address program:
1. subject sentence
2. cardinal thoughts and illustrations
3. cardinal thoughts and illustrations
4. cardinal thoughts and illustrations
5. meeting expostulations to your position
6. summing up

Individual Undertaking
In order to fix yourself for utilizing paragraphs in more sustained pieces of composing. as you might in a study or an exam essay. give yourself some pattern. Use the templet on p. **** . to compose an essay on the undermentioned subject:

Essay – subject and usher to self appraisal:
Your aunt is standing for the local council and is cognizant that you have taken a class in communicating. She talks to you about your class and discovers that you have had talks on theoretical and practical facets of persuasion and on public speech production. She asks you to compose her a paper sketching the cardinal rules and schemes she needs to cognize to carry her components that she is the best campaigner with the best policies. Write your paper in the signifier of an essay in 30 proceedingss.


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