Introduction

organize a stable emulsion. The emulsion is so fed into a spray drier where it is converted to a dried atom.

Microencapsulation is the technique by which the Numerous wall stuffs or encapsulating agents are sensitive ingredients are packed within a coating or wall available for nutrient application. Gums arabic, hydrolyzed stuff. The wall stuff protects the sensitive ingredient starches, and emulsifying starches are most normally used ( or nucleus ) against inauspicious reaction, prevents the loss of as wall stuffs ( Kenyon, 1995 ; Reineccius, 1988 ; Shahidi volatile ingredient, and controls release of the ingredient & A ; Han, 1993 ) . Some proteins such as whey proteins ( Risch, 1993 ; Shahidi & A ; Han, 1993 ) . In add-on, micro- ( Sheu & A ; Rosenberge, 1995 ) , sodium caseinate ( Hogan, encapsulation can change over liquids into free- owing powers, McNamee, Riordan, & A ; Sullivan, 2001 ) , and gelatin which are easy to manage. ( Bruschi, Cardoso, Lucchesi, & A ; Gremiao, 2003 ) are besides Microencapsulation has found many applications in used as wall stuffs. Typically, the effectual wall nutrient industry. Important applications are to surface color- stuffs for spray drying should hold functional proper- emmets, avors, vitamins, and other sensitive nutrient ingredients ties, including good emulsification, movie forming, high in order to increase their shelf life ( Dziezak, 1988 ; Shahidi solubility, low viscousness at high concentrations and low cost & A ; Han, 1993 ) . Assorted techniques are employed to belongingss ( Reineccius, 1988 ; Trubiani & A ; Lacourse, 1988 ) . microencapsulate nutrient ingredients. Spray-drying is the Gum Arabic, a natural works exudates polysaccharide of most frequently used technique in the nutrient industry ( Gibbs, acacia, is a well-known effectual wall stuff for many Kermasha, Alli, & A ; Mulligan, 1999 ; Reineccius, 1988 ) . In old ages and is still the good pick as wall stuff due to its this procedure, the sensitive ingredient was assorted or stable emulsion and good volatile keeping. Problems homogenized in a solution incorporating wall stuff to associated with the usage of gum Arabic in microencapsula- tion are high cost and limited supply. Emulsifying starches are starches derived functions with lipotropic group, i.e.emulsification belongingss ( Trubiani & A ; Lacourse, 1988 ) . ( Bangkok, Thailand ) . Modified tapioca amylum was However, emulsifying starches have some restrictions. They prepared harmonizing to the method described in exhibit hapless avor protection against oxidization and have Section 2.2 in the research lab of Department of Food off avor ( Reineccius, 1988 ) . Krishnan, Kshrisagar, and Science and Technology of Thammasat University Singhal ( 2003 ) studied the efficaciousness of succinylated waxy ( Pathumthani, Thailand ) . Trans-b-carotene ( pulverization ) was maize amylum, maltodextrin and gum arabic as wall obtained from Sigma Chemical Company ( St. Louis, stuffs for encapsulation of cardamon oleoresin by USA ) . All other chemicals used in this survey were of spray drying. They reported that succinylated waxen maize analytical class.

Starch and maltodextrin had a lower protection to cardamom oleoresin during storage as compared to gum 2.2. Sample readying Arabic.

Maltodextrins are hydrolyzed starches produced by partly hydrolysis of amylum with acid or enzymes. Acid modified tapioca amylum was prepared from Hydrolyzed starches have the advantages of being low native tapioca amylum harmonizing to the process of cost, bland in avor, and good avor protection against Loksuwan ( 2005 ) ( Thailand Petty Patent No. 2146 ) . oxidization. Hydrolyzed starches are reported to better Tapioca amylum was added to 3 N H2 SO4 in a ratio of shelf life of orange oil ( Anandaraman & A ; Reineccius, 1986 ) 1:5 w/v. The mixture was stirred magnetically for 3 H at and carrot provitamin A ( Wagner & A ; Warthesen, 1995 ) . These 60 1C. After hydrolysis the amylum slurry was cooled and writers besides reported that storage stableness of nucleus neutralized with concentrated Na2 CO3. The acid modified stuffs increa sed as hydrolyzed starches DE increased. amylum was filtered, washed with three volumes of distilled Problems associate with the usage of hydrolyzed starches in H2O, followed with 100 milliliters ethyl alcohol ( 95 % ) . The amylum microencapsulation are deficiency of emulsification belongingss was so dried at 70 1C for nightlong. The dried amylum and hapless avor keeping ( Reineccius, 1988 ) . Many was land utilizing a research lab liquidizer. Prior to micro- researches have used hydrolyzed starches in concurrence encapsulation, the modified amylum was suspended in with other wall stuffs or emulsifying agents to better distilled H2O ( 29 % w/w ) and heated under steam force per unit area their emulsifying features. Mixtures of maltodextrins for 5 min to obtain gelatinized amylum paste. Pure trans- or maize sirups solids with whey proteins were reported as b-carotene was added to the gelatinized amylum paste in a effectual wall stuffs for microencapsulation of ethyl ratio of 1:580 w/w, on dry starch footing. The mixture was caprylate ( Sheu & A ; Rosenberge, 1995 ) . Barbosa, Borsarelli, so homogenized to obtain an aqueous emulsion and Mercadante ( 2005 ) reported that maltodextrin with ( feed liquid ) and instantly fed to the spray-dryer emulsifier Tween 80 had the ability to encapsulate a higher ( Armfield FT 30, Armfield Technical Education Co. , sum of bixin than maltodextrin entirely. A blend of gum Hampsshier, England ) . The recess and mercantile establishment air tempera- Arabic: maltodextrins: modified amylum at a 4/6:1/6:1/6 ture were maintained at 17075and9575 1C, severally.

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Was reported to supply a better protection of cardamon Experiments were performed in triplicate. The spray-dried oleoresin than gum Arabic ( Krishnan, Bhosale, & A ; Singhal, pulverizations were collected, maintain in plastic bags wrapped with 2005 ) . aluminium foil and stored in desiccators incorporating silicon oxide Preliminary survey in our research lab has shown that the gel at room temperature.efficacy of acid modified amylum for encapsulation required Solution of maltodextrin ( 29 % w/w ) and native tapiocathe amylum pre-swelling and gelatinization. This can be starch ( 20 % w/w, due to restrict of viscousness ) in distilled waterachieved by autoclaving of the modified amylum slurry under were used for comparing survey. Pure trans-b-carotene wassteam force per unit area. This procedure consequences in formation of amylum added to maltodextrin and native tapioca amylum solutionspaste. The aim of this survey was to measure the in the ratio of 1:580 and 1:400 w/w, on dry footing, potency of acid modified tapioca amylum after treated with severally. The homogenisation and spray drying wereheat under steam force per unit area as wall stuffs for encapsula- performed in the similar mode above. tion of b-carotene. The microstructure and physicochem- ical belongingss of encapsulated pulverization were investigated. 2.3.Determination of dextrose tantamount ( DE ) andThese consequences were compared to those of its native amylum viscousness and commercial maltodextrin.

DE of modified amylum produced by acerb hydrolysis was2. Material and methods determined utilizing the method of Lane and Eynon ( 1923 ) . Viscosity ( hertz ) of samples was measured utilizing Brook-2.1. Materials field Digital Viscometer ( Model DV-II+ , Brookfield Engineering Laboratories, Inc. , Stoughton, USA ) . Solu- Native tapioca amylum was purchased from local market tions of modified tapioca amylum ( 29 % w/w ) , native amylum ( Thailand ) . The wet content was approximately 8 % . ( 20 % w/w ) , and maltodextrin ( 29 % w/w ) in distilled H2O Moisture content was determined harmonizing to the method were prepared. The samples were so placed in a H2O described in Section 2.9. Maltodextrin ( Star-Dri 240-S, DE bath with gently stirred. The viscousness was measured when 24 ) was a gift from Burley Jucker Specialties Ltd. the temperature of sample reached 80 1C.

Particle size distribution of the samples was measured utilizing an AquaLab ( CS2, USA ) .The atom size distributions of the spray dried pulverizations were determined utilizing Laboratory trial screen ( AS 200 figure, 2.10. Statistical analysis ASTME 11, Retsch, Germany ) . The information reported in all tabular arraies are mean of triplicate

Optical microscope findings. Analysis of the information was carried out utilizing ANOVA ( SPSS plan version 10.0 for Windows ) .An optical microscope ( Polarizing Microscope Axios- Differences between agencies were tested utilizing the Duncan’s kop-po, Zeiss ) was used to look into the provender liquids multiple scope trials at Po0.05.before spray drying and the spray dried pulverizations. Thepicture was taken at 200 magnification.

Consequences and treatment

Scaning negatron microscopy 3.1. Dextrose tantamount ( DE ) and viscousness Scanning negatron microscope ( SEM ) ( JEOL JSM-6301F, DE is a step of grade of hydrolysis of amylum Jeol Ltd. , Tokyo, Japan ) was used to analyze the morpholo- molecule, which related to cut downing sugar production. The gical belongingss of the spray-dried pulverizations. Powder atoms low DE value means lower sum of cut downing sugar produced. The modified amylum obtained in this investiga- were attached to the SEM stubs of 10 0 diameter utilizing a two- sided adhesive tape. The samples were so sputter coated tion had DE value of 2, bespeaking that grade of hydrolysis with gold and examined at 500,1000, and 1500 was really low. This means that the acid-modified amylum magnifications. An acceleration potency of 5 kilovolt was used obtained in this probe contained less sum of low during micrograph. molecular weight sugar than maltodextrin with DE value of 24. In other words, this modified amylum contained many

Analysis of entire and surface provitamin A of spray-dried amylose molecules with shorter concatenation length, as the consequence pulverization of acerb hydrolysis.

Consequences from the measuring of viscousness showed that. The method of Desobry, Netto, and Labuza ( 1997 ) with at 29 % w/w maltodextrin had lower viscousness ( 13.8 hertz ) slight alteration was used to analyse the entire provitamin A than modified tapioca amylum ( 133.8 hertz ) . At 29 % the native and surface provitamin A. starch solution was excessively syrupy to mensurate its viscosity.Total provitamin A: Powder ( 50 milligram ) was weighed into the Therefore, the viscousness of native amylum was measured at 125 ml- ask, dispersed in H2O ( 2.5 milliliter ) and extracted with 20 % w/w, which was found to be 31,880 hertz. hexane ( 25 milliliter ) . After agitating ( 500 revolutions per minute ) for 30 min at room temperature, the hexane fraction was measured at 454 nanometers

Particle size distribution with spectrophotometer.

Surface provitamin A: Powder ( 50 milligram ) was weighed into the The atom size distributions of spray-dried pulverizations or inquire and extracted with 25 milliliters hexane. After agitating at microcapsules utilizing Laboratory trial screen are shown in 100 revolutions per minute for 15 s, sample was centrifuged at 1000g for. The weight per centum informations were plotted against the 1 min. The supernatant was measured at 454 nanometer with atom diameter in micrometers. Modified tapioca amylum had spectrophotometer. wider atom size distribution, toward the smaller diameters, as compared to its native amylum and maltodex-

Cold H2O solubility of spray-dried pulverizations trin. The most prevailing diameters for modified tapioca amylum were 75-150 m ( 55.8 % ) , for native amylum were The method of Singh and Singh ( 2003 ) with little 106-250 m ( 69.7 % ) and for maltodextrin were 106-250 thousand alteration was used to analyse cold H2O solubility of ( 80.0 % ) . The larger pulverization atom sizes of maltodextrin spray dried pulverizations. One gm of pulverization was assorted with can be explained by agglomeration or caking of pulverization 100 milliliter of H2O utilizing a magnetic scaremonger at room temperature atoms, which were observed in this sample. for 30 min. A 30-ml aliquot of starch solution was transferred to a 50-ml extractor tubing and centrifuged ( Hettich 3.3. Optical microscope Zentrifugal Universal 16R, German ) at velocity 430g for 15 min. A 10-ml aliquot of the supernatant was evaporated Light micrographs of provender liquids and spray-dried on a steam bath and dried in an oven at 110 1C for nightlong.

Determination of wet content and H2O activity ALSs. The modified tapioca amylum showed decomposition of some granules ; merely a few amylum granules still exhibited The wet content of the samples was measured Maltese cross as compared with the native amylum. This by hot air oven at 105 1C for 16 h. The H2O activity consequence indicated that steam force per unit area intervention caused alterations in farinaceous construction of acerb modified amylum. In the instance of maltodextrin, wholly decomposition of amylum granules was observed.

SEM of spray-dried pulverization Spray-dried pulverizations prepared from modified tapioca amylum, native tapioca amylum, and maltodextrin were observed for farinaceous construction utilizing SEM. Results clearly showed important differences in size and form. Microcapsules from modified tapioca amylum showed spherical form with extended bent surface, while those from native tapioca amylum showed drying procedure ( Rosenberg, Kopelman, & A ; Talmon, 1985, rounded form, smooth surface with no obvious dents. 1990 ) . The extended bent surfaces of modified tapioca Modified tapioca amylum had granules size runing from o5 amylum was likely attributed to starch granule disrupted to 30 millimeters, while native tapioca amylum had more homo- resulted in more susceptible to shrinkage during the drying geneous granules runing in size from 2 to 18 millimeter. phases. The SEM micrograph of spray-dried maltodextrin Formation of bent surfaces of spray-dried atoms was showed spherical forms with smooth and some dented attributed to the shrinking of the atoms during the surfaces, and a more heterogenous size, which chiefly

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