What is radiation? Radiation is away In which energy moves from one place to another for example energy radiates away when a stone dropped in the water in circular waves while sound energy radiates from speakers mouth to listeners ear and heat energy radiates from sun to earth. Figure 1. Radiation Beneficial uses of radiation Beneficial uses of radiation include medicine, security devices, household products and industries Medical uses: There are many uses of radiation in medicine but the most common use is x ray to e whether the bones are broken or not and this area of x ray Is called radiology and there are further divisions of radiology where radiations used which include mammography, computerized tomography and nuclear medicine.
There are also some additional areas where we can use radiation which include cancer and commonly called therapy. A specialty in nuclear medicine is nuclear medicine therapy. A common example of nuclear medicine therapy Is the use of radioactive iodine to treat thyroid problems, Including thyroid cancer. It also used in oncology which Is the branch who works on treatment of cancer. Security devices Figure 1. 2 x ray view There are few commonly used security machines which contain x rays In them which help important departments to identify metal.
Cabinet x-ray systems are one of the more common dive Ices used for security. They are found primarily at airports (the devices that carry-on bags are sent through for x-ray examination), although you might see them at the entrances to some federal and state agencies and courthouses. The unit use low dose, continuously x ray beam which is also known as fluoroscope. Figure 1. 3 metal detector House hold products Smoke detector is an item at our home which contains radiations in it but not harmful to anyone’s health.
Smoke detectors sometimes contain a small amount of a radioactive source (americium-241 ) within a metal chamber. In a smoke detector, the radioactivity in the source emits a constant stream of alpha particles that are sensed by a small radiation detector, causing a small current. If smoke comes between the source and the detector, the current Is decreased, leaving nothing for the detector to sense and the alarm goes off. Figure 1. 4 smoke detector Industries product sterilization, quality control, static elimination, and electricity generation.
The radiation sources used for these processes include radiation-producing machines and sealed-source radioactive materials. Figure 1. 5 uses of radiations in industry Alternatively not so beneficial uses of radiation Poor immunity, disrupted white blood cell activity, poor liver function, inflamed cells, poor quality muscle mass and fluid imbalances are a few negative side effects of X-Rays, CT Scans, Emir’s & Pet Scans. Effects of X rays on bad immune Figure 2. DNA damage, harmful rays which use in industries can alternatively affect workers which cause cell mutation, cell suicide and random cell division. Figure 2. 2 affected DNA by radiations Cancer It’s estimated that about 0. 4 percent of all cancers in the United States may be attributable to the radiation from CT studies. A surge in the use of CT scans in the last 25 years has led to millions of patients per year being unnecessarily exposed to dangerous radiation that increases their risk of cancer, according to a paper published in the New England Journal of Medicine.
Figure 2. 4 CT scan Genetics and birth defects can caused by radiations if you go under image scan when you are pregnant because sometime it make change in makeup of cells which increase the chances of cancer. Figure 2. 4 birth defects caused by radiation ISOTOPES QUESTION a) What is an isotope? An isotope is an atom with same number of protons, but differing number of neutrons. Isotopes are different form of single element for example carbon 12 and carbons 14 are both isotopes of carbon one with six neutrons and one with 8 but are with 6 number of protons. What is difference between stable and unstable atom? Unstable isotopes can spontaneously undergo changing, transforming them into other isotopes of same or different element while stable do not. C) What is meant by natural abundance of isotopes Natural abundance is the measure of the average amount of given isotope naturally occurring on the Earth for example there are two natural isotopes of boron 8-10 and 8-11 and the natural abundance of 8-10 is 19. 9% and 8-11 80. 1%. D) Explain how to calculate the atomic mass of an element containing a mixture of isotopes.