The advantages and disadvantages of these commonly used De-scalars Ethnic Acid (Acetic Acid) Citric Acid Sulfuric Acid Ethnic Acid Advantages: Ethnic acid is non-toxic and is a weak acid [4], meaning it will not do any damage to most surfaces as it does not corrode or bind to other metals, therefore can be easily removed through washing or rinsing it [2]. Disadvantages: Ethnic Acid is the slowest De-scales of the three acids, and is therefore the least effective.

It also may cause an unpleasant smell, and can have a negative effect on the taste of coffee [6] meaning one would need to spend longer time rinsing and cleaning the machine thoroughly to ensure that the taste of the coffee is not affected. Citric acid leaves behind zero toxic residues and has Just enough acidic concentration to decals without etching or damaging household surfaces in any way and there are no volatile compounds or products that harm the environment. Disadvantages: Because citric acid is a weak acid, it won’t remove heavy build-up of scale very quickly.

It is also a powder hence it must be dissolved for use. It also works best with hot water meaning there will be higher energy consumption. Even when used with hot water, citric acid is not as effective at decaling as Sulfuric acid. Sulfuric Acid Sulfuric acid is the fastest De-scales – It dissociates into hydroponics ions more readily in aqueous solution than the others, therefore giving a greater concentration of atoms that are able to react with the calcium in lime scale. It is safe to use because it does not produce chlorine gas [5], which can be toxic.

Sulfuric acid also has a low volatility. Disadvantages: Sulfuric Acid can be an irritant to eyes or skin and is the most expensive of the De- scalars. Q) How these De-scalars remove limeades Limeades forms when hard water is heated above 61 co or when it is left to evaporate on surfaces such as taps and soreheads. Hard water is water that contains high quantities of calcium and magnesium ions. These hardness minerals, in the form of Alicia carbonate and magnesium carbonate, precipitate out of hard water to form limeades [1].

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Therefore, to clean or remove limeades, something needs to dissolve or soften calcium carbonate and/or magnesium carbonate, so it can easily wash away. Acids cause mineral deposits such as rust to oxides, thereby weakening them and making it possible to simply wash them away. Lime scale removers work by chemically reacting with the lime scale to form safe chemicals and ions. Lime scale is Calcium Carbonate, and when broken down by strong acids, produces Calcium o remove the Call from the area.


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