In life threatening starvation, the kidneys synthesize glucose by __________.
deaminating amino acids
A byproduct of protein catabolism, __________ constitutes approximately one-half of all nitrogenous waste.
Which organ system does not excrete waste?
The cardiovascular system
Which of the following is not a function of the kidneys?
They release waste into the bloodstream.
The __________ is not an organ of the urinary system.
Which of the following is not true about the anatomy of the urinary system?
The kidneys are at equal heights within the pelvic cavity.
The medial concavity of the kidney is called the __________, which admits the renal nerves, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and ureter.
A patient enters a hospital after a motorcycle accident. He complains of mid-back pain. X-rays reveal both rib and pelvic fractures. His emergency room examination includes urinalysis. Which of the following findings from the urinalysis would most likely suggest trauma to the kidneys from the accident, but not to the urinary bladder?
The __________ innervation of the kidneys reduces urine production, while the function of its __________ innervation is unknown.
The innermost connective tissue layer protecting the kidney and assisting in staving off infection is known as the __________.
A single lobe of a kidney is comprised of __________.
one pyramid and the overlying cortex
A renal pyramid voids urine into the __________.
Which of the following correctly traces blood flow from the renal artery into the renal cortex?
Segmental a. > interlobar a. > arcuate a. > interlobular a.
The transition from an afferent arteriole to an efferent arteriole occurs in the __________.
The average person has approximately __________ nephrons per kidney.
Which of the following correctly traces blood flow from the renal cortex to the renal vein?
Interlobular v. > arcuate v. > interlobar v. > renal v.
Blood plasma is filtered in the __________.
Which of the following form the inner layer of the glomerular capsule and wrap around the capillaries of the glomerulus?
Which of the following is not composed of cuboidal epithelium?
The thin segment of the nephron loop
Which of the following are primarily responsible for maintaining the salinity gradient of the renal medulla?
In the nephron, the fluid that immediately precedes urine is known as __________.
Glucose and amino acids are reabsorbed from the glomerular filtrate by the __________.
proximal convoluted tubule
In a healthy kidney, very little __________ is filtered by the glomerulus.
Which of the following would reduce the glomerular filtration rate?
Vasoconstriction of the afferent arteriole
The mechanism of stabilizing the GFR based on the tendency of smooth muscle to contract when stretched is known as __________.
the myogenic mechanism
In response to a drop in overall blood pressure, __________ stimulates constriction of the glomerular inlet and even greater constriction of the outlet.
Assuming all other values are normal, calculate the net filtration pressure in a patient with a drop in capsular hydrostatic pressure to 8 mmHg.
20 mm Hg out
Renin hydrolyzes angiotensinogen, which is released from the _________, to form angiotensin I.
Because of the great deal of active transport that occurs here, the __________ of one’s nephrons collectively account for about 6% of one’s daily resting ATP and caloric consumption.
proximal convoluted tubules
Which of the following is not reabsorbed by the proximal convoluted tubule?
Total saturation of protein transporters for a given solute in the renal tubules would result in __________.
appearance of that solute in the urine
Which of the following is a direct result of antidiuretic hormone?
Decreased urine volume
Aldosterone acts on the __________.
distal convoluted tubule
Natriuretic peptide inhibits __________ reabsorption by the collecting duct, which _________ urine output.
In the thick segment of the ascending limb of the nephron loop, K+ reenters the cell from the interstitial fluid via the _________. K+ is then secreted into the tubular fluid.
Which of the following is not a method by which atrial natriuretic peptide reduces blood volume and pressure?
Preventing sodium loss in the urine
Hypocalcemia stimulates __________.
Which renal structure is responsible for producing hypertonic urine by reabsorbing water while allowing metabolic wastes and NaCl to pass through?
The urine is most likely to be hypotonic when the __________.
body’s water volume is high
Which of the following does not contribute to water conservation?
The countercurrent multiplier recaptures __________ and is based on fluid flowing in the __________ direction in two adjacent tubules.
sodium; the opposite
The overall purpose of the countercurrent exchange system is to __________.
supply salt and urea to the renal medulla
Which of the following induces renin secretion, constricts afferent arterioles, and reduces GFR and urine volume?
Normal urine from a healthy person should not contain __________.
The pigment responsible for the color of urine is called __________.
To meet the definition of polyuria, the minimum daily output of urine is __________.
Prior to chemical tests for glycosuria, clinicians checked for sweetness of the urine as a sign of __________.
Loop diuretics reduce body water content by acting on the __________.
countercurrent multiplier system
A hospital patient produces 4 mL/min of urine with a urea concentration of 8 mg/mL. Venous blood draw reveals urea concentration of 0.4 mg/mL. What is the percentage of cleared urea from glomerular filtrate?
Which two substances are most useful for determining a patient’s glomerular filtration rate?
Inulin and creatinine
Creatinine has a renal clearance of 140 mL/min. Why is this?
It is secreted by the renal tubules.
Which of the following is not found in the ureter?
The __________ muscle is located in the urinary bladder.
The __________ is not a portion of the urethra.
internal urethral sphincter
Micturition is another term for __________.
the elimination of urine
The ureters pass anterior to the bladder and enter it from below.
Albuminuria is a common sign of diabetes mellitus.
Diseases that affect the descending corticospinal tracts may limit inhibition of the sacral somatic motor neurons and thus could result in urinary incontinence.
Ethyl (drinking) alcohol stimulates the secretion of ADH, thereby reducing reabsorption by the collecting duct.
Parathyroid hormone increases phosphate excretion by the proximal convoluted tubule as well as promotes synthesis of calcitriol.
The countercurrent multiplier mechanism for water conservation was discovered by limiting studies to humans and thus hypothesizing how form determines function.
The thick segment of the nephron loop is impermeable to water.
Glomerular filtration occurs because glomerular oncotic pressure overrides glomerular blood pressure.
Angiotensin-converting enzyme is found only in the kidneys and converts angiotensinogen to angiotensin I.
Cells in the cleft between the afferent and efferent arterioles and among capillaries of the glomerulus are known as mesangial cells.
Glomerular capillaries suffer little damage from hypertension because of the protective influence of the afferent arterioles.
The fenestrated endothelium of the capillary has pores small enough to exclude blood cells from the filtrate.
The most toxic of our metabolic wastes are nitrogenous wastes.
The __________ is not a portion of the urethra.
internal urethral sphincter