Street kids constitute a marginalized group in most societies. In the universe, 1000000s of kids live in the streets. In many parts, most of these kids use psychotropic substances and malnurition is the major job for them. Therefore, we aimed to look into biochemical parametric quantities of street kids.
Methods: This survey includes 100 healthy and 50 street kids whose ages range from 10-17. cell blood count, vitamin E, C, A and vitamin B1, B2, B6, malondialdehyde, glutathione peroxidase, coenzyme Q10, ferritin parametric quantities were studied in blood samples. Besides HbsAg, Anti-HCV, Anti-HIV and superoxide dismutase degrees were detected.
Consequences: Levels of cell blood count, vitamin B1, B6 and C were found different and statistically important between two groups ( severally p & amp ; lt ; 0.001, P & A ; lt ; 0.01 ) . Glutation peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and HbsAg degrees were rather of import statistically ( P & A ; lt ; 0.005 ) .
Decisions: Antioxidant vitamin degrees and some parametric quantities of street kids have shown a sensible difference from that of controls. It is thought that this difference is based on malnutrition and their dependence job. Furthermore, HbsAg degree being important harmonizing to the controls might depend both on their drug use by the same injectors, and their deficiency of inoculation since most of them do non go to schools where the regular hepatitis inoculations are made, which is for the benefit of controls.
Cardinal words: Children, vitamin, antioxidant, coenzyme, peroxidase, dismutase.
Street kids form an incongruous group in societal footings. Millions of kids of the universe live in the streets. It endangers the mental, physical, societal and emotional province of these kids since they are subjected to harmful environmental conditions and risky substances invariably. Some of these kids use intoxicant and other physico-active substances. Therefore, malnutrition is a often encountered status ( Pomm J, 2005 ; Scanlon TJ et Al, 1998 ) . Anthropometric surveies conducted every twelvemonth on street kids show that the frequence for chronic malnutrition is 30-35 % as it is 8-10 % for acute malnutrition. The inclination for malnutrition additions particularly when the kids are ill. Another factor for these kids to endure from malnutrition is that the lack of micronutrients such as Fe, I and vitamin A ( UNHCR, 2011 ) . Oxidative emphasis is defined as the addition in oxidizers and/or the lessening in the antioxidant capacity. Small measures of free groups are produced during the metabolic procedures of the organic structure of healthy people. Under normal fortunes, these free groups are neutralized by antioxidants produced as monocots and that are taken by diet, and the oxidant-antioxidant balance is maintained ( Uttara et al, 2009 ; Erel, 2004 ) .
Reactive O species may take to nucleic acerb base alterations or break of lipoids, proteins and DNA dual spiral in order. This consequences in chromosomal mutants and cytotoxicity ( Halliwell, 1984 ; Ames et Al, 1993 ; Marotta et Al, 2007 ) . There are strong defense mechanism mechanisms in beings which prevent the harmful effects of free groups. These systems are called antioxidant defence mechanisms ( Ames et al, 1993 ) . It should be noted that most of the antioxidant systems do non move through merely one mechanism, but they take consequence through several mechanisms. One of the major endogenous mechanisms includes enzymes. Some of these enzymes such as superoxide dismutase ( SOD ) , catalase, and glutathione peroxidase ( GSH-Px ) have a major function in intracellular defence against the injuries of O groups in aerophilic cells. Distribution of SOD enzyme in beings should be taken into consideration together with catalase enzyme ; because of the fact that the attendant merchandise of a reaction catalyzed by SOD is one of the toxic merchandises of O, and its accretion is prevented by catalase ( Stehbens, 2004 ) . It is the enzyme responsible for remotion of hydroperoxides from the cells ( Czucjezko et al, 2003 ) . GSH-Px is the most of import enzyme that protects lipoids from peroxidation across intracellular distance. Therefore, this enzyme, that takes portion particularly at cytosolic compartment of the cell, protects construction and map of the cell ( Baskol et al, 2007 ) . Lack of ECA vitamins which are endogenously moving antioxidants is highly of import since they are closely related with nutrition. The cardinal map of vitamin E is to protect the lipoids of workss from oxidative amendss ( break of the lipoids ) as it is largely found in fatty workss. GSH-Px and vitamin E present auxiliary consequence on each other against free groups. Vitamin E prevents the synthesis of peroxides as the enzyme removes the already present 1s.
As a reduction agent and a free extremist scavenger, ascorbic acid provides a preservative consequence against reactive O species. Furthermore, ascorbic acid is a functional compound that can move as a free extremist resource ( Ames et al, 1993 ; Halliwell, 1987 ) . It is found that & amp ; Icirc ; ?-carotene can stamp down vest O, clean superoxide extremist, and have an antioxidant map by responding straight with peroxy groups ( Dimascio et al, 1993 ) .
In this research, it is aimed to analyze the wellness conditions of street kids which have become a outstanding societal job. In this context, parametric quantities to be studied will unwrap how their wellness is affected by the environmental conditions. It is further aimed to find how volatile organic compounds affect the oxidant degrees particularly in kids who are drug maltreaters. Compounds such as thinner consist of volatile compounds like benzine, methylbenzene, white spirit, etc. Extensive exposure to these compounds may take to alterations in several mechanisms of the organic structure although the issue is non to the full understood. Therefore, we aimed to look into biochemical parametric quantities of street kids.
Materials and Methods
50 street kids between the ages of 10-17 and 100 healthy kids are included in the survey. Questionnaire signifiers on demographic features of the survey groups when held. Street kids were found in organic structure weight was 51.8 & A ; Acirc ; ±10.7. Healthy voluntaries were weight 53.7 & A ; Acirc ; ±13.8. Weight, there was no difference between the groups. Street kids were chosen among those addicted to substances for at least 2 old ages.
The bulk of street kids, kids who commits a offense by the constabulary in the kids.
Merely a little fraction of kids were found by the municipality of Gaziantep. Municipalities, every bit good as child support and constabularies were on this topic. At the same clip allowed for the undertaking were included in the governor ‘s office.
The municipality every bit good as child support and constabularies were on this topic. At the same clip allowed for the undertaking were included in the governor ‘s office. Healthy voluntaries taking no medical specialty, healthy kids who were selected from everyday scrutinies. This permission was received from the governor ‘s office every bit good as for kids and their households were included in the cheque. For this undertaking, the figure of Gaziantep University, the local moralss commission it was decided to 06. 2008 /115. This survey by the research office of Gaziantep University ( SHMYO.06.01 ) is supported.
Blood samples are studied for clinical count blood cell ( RBC, HGB, HCT, MCH, MCHC, PLT, MPV ) utilizing the method of optical maser device Sysmex K1000 set. Vitamin E, C, A, B1, B2, B6, malondialdehyde ( MDA ) , GSH-Px and coenzyme Q10 are studied utilizing HPLC method ; ferritin utilizing chemiluminescence method ( Immulite 2000 ) ; and press, iron-binding capacity are studied utilizing spectrophotometric method. ELISA method is used for the finding of serum HbsAg, Anti-HCV, Anti-HIV parametric quantities, and of SOD degrees in the hemolysate prepared beforehand. Working parametric quantities mean and standard divergences were calculated. Groups were compared utilizing Student ‘s t-test. In add-on, pearson correlativity analysis was performe ( Habbema et al, 2002 ) .
The differences between haematology consequences sing RBC, HBG, HCT and MPV degrees are found to be statistically important in both of the groups ( P & A ; lt ; 0.003, P & A ; lt ; 0.002, P & A ; lt ; 0.001 ) . The difference in vitamin B1, vitamin B6, and vitamin C degrees of both groups were besides found to be statistically important ( p & A ; lt ; 0.005, P & A ; lt ; 0.01 and p & amp ; lt ; 0.05 ) . The differences in antioxidant degrees ; viz. , glutathione peroxidase and SOD, and HbsAg degrees were besides found to be statistically important ( p & A ; lt ; 0.01, P & A ; lt ; 0.001, severally ) .
As a consequence, some of the antioxidant and vitamin degrees of the street kids every bit good as some of their haematology parametric quantities presented statistically important differences ( P & A ; lt ; 0.05, P & A ; lt ; 0.001 ) .
Studied parametric quantities and relevant statistical consequences of street kids and healthy kids included in the survey are given in below tabular arraies as arithmetic mean and standard divergence. As a consequence of independent t-test, statistical P values are added in the tabular arraies. In table 1, a important difference is observed between the degrees of vitamin B1, B6, and C of the two groups ( P & A ; lt ; 0.005, P & A ; lt ; 0.01, P & A ; lt ; 0.05 ; severally ) .
Insert Table 1
Table 2 gives the antioxidant degrees and anti-hepatitis degrees of street kids and the control group. As for the antioxidants, the difference between glutathione peroxidase and SOD degrees are found to be statistically important than that of healthy kids ( P & A ; lt ; 0.01, P & A ; lt ; 0.01 ; severally ) . HBsAg degrees compared to healthy kids, street kids were important ( p & A ; lt ; 0.001 ) .
Insert Table 2
Clinical haematology consequences for both of the groups are given in Table 3. RBC, HBG, HCT, and MPV degrees are found to be significantly different ( p & A ; lt ; 0.003, P & A ; lt ; 0.002, P & A ; lt ; 0.001 ; severally ) .
Although many inquiries with societal content were asked, the demographic informations were non included in the rating because of the fact that it would be more ethical and proper for a sociologist to measure the consequences. Therefore, merely the age, tallness, and weight informations were taken into consideration.
Insert Table 3
Correlation analyses for street kids have shown that ; There is a significantly positive correlativity between vitamins B1 and B2, and vitamin B6 ( P & A ; lt ; 0.05 ) . Levels of vitamins B6 and E, and vitamin A present a statistically important positive correlativity between them ( p & amp ; lt ; 0.01 ) .Vitamin C is found to hold a important positive correlativity with MDA, Anti-HCV, HBsAg and Anti-HIV ( P & A ; lt ; 0.01 ) . Besides, there is a positive correlativity between MDA degrees and HBsAg every bit good ( P & A ; lt ; 0.05 ) . There is a negative correlativity between serum Fe and vitamin B2, and SOD ( P & A ; lt ; 0.05, P & A ; lt ; 0.01 ) . Vitamins A and E are negatively correlated with coenzyme Q10 ( P & A ; lt ; 0.05 ) .
Even though there are some demographic surveies sing the street kids, there are merely few surveies in which the biochemical facet of these kids are investigated ( Turkmen et al, 2004 ) . Therefore, we consider this survey to be valuable though in demand of support with new undertakings.
5 % of the universe & A ; acirc ; ˆ™s population ( 350-400 million ) are HbsAg bearers and 1/3 of them are seropositive ( antigen or antibody positive ) in HBV. Similar Numberss are besides valid in our state. Approximately 5 % of the population is bearers of HbsAg, and 1/3 is seropositive. Persons with HbsAg positive province for more than six months are considered as bearers of HBV infection. The bulk of the bearers are formed by inactive bearers ( Alavian, 2007 ) . It is reported that hepatitis B virus can do the release of reactive O species and pro-oxidant cytokines such as tumour mortification factor alpha by triping the phagocytic cells while it can besides impact the pro-oxidant and anti-oxidant balance by suppressing the antioxidant enzymes such as SOD ( Waris and Ahsan, 2006 ; Tanikawa and Torimura, 2006 ) . In patients with hepatitis C ; MDA, SOD, GHS-Px enzyme activities in red blood cells are compared to the control group, and increased MDA and SOD enzyme activities together with reduced GSH-Px activity are observed ( Ko et al, 2005 ) . These consequences are non consistent with the consequences of our survey. In a survey sing antioxidant defence in 100 kids with chronic viral hepatitis B and C, significantly decreased catalase and SOD degrees with regard to the control group, and increased GSH-Px degrees are observed, which indicates deficient antioxidant defence ( Chrobot M et Al, 2000 ) .
Our survey supports the survey of Chrobot et Al. Sing the antioxidant degrees, a statistically important addition in GSH-Px degrees of the experimental group, and a lessening in SOD degrees with regard to the control group is observed ( p & A ; lt ; 0.01 and p & amp ; lt ; 0.01 ; severally ) . HbsAg degrees of the street kids, on the other manus, are found to be significantly different between the two groups ( P & A ; lt ; 0.01 ) .
Another survey besides presents similar consequences with our survey. In this survey, Se, glutathione concentrations, and GSH-Px enzyme activities in patients with hepatitis B and C are compared to the control group, and it is found that Se and glutathione concentrations are decreased as the GSH-Px enzyme activity is somewhat increased ( Czucjezko et al, 2003 ) .
In another survey sing the relation between antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation in patients infected with hepatitis B virus ; SOD, catalase, and MDA parametric quantities are evaluated. As a consequence of the survey, lessening in antioxidant enzyme activities in HBV infected patients, and lifts in MDA degrees are detected. However, these changes are non found to be linked to the viral load of the patients ( Gorenek et al, 2006 ) .
Harmonizing to the consequences of our research, it can be seen that vitamin C is significantly correlated positively with MDA, Anti-HCV, and HBsAg ( P & A ; lt ; 0.01 ) . Furthermore, there is a positive correlativity between the MDA degrees and HBsAg every bit good ( P & A ; lt ; 0.05 ) . MDA degrees of the patients and antioxidant degrees have besides a positive correlativity between them. In another survey, an oxidative emphasis is generated in order to detect the effects of it on SOD degrees and coenzyme Q10 degrees which are altered so ( Belardinelli et al, 2008 ) . Free groups can do cellular harm as they act as cut downing or oxidising agents, or in some instances as both. They besides have harmful effects on DNA, cellular proteins, and lipoids. Furthermore, they affect the Ca metamorphosis and do free intracellular Ca ion to increase uncontrollably, harming the cell or taking to its decease as a consequence ( Mccormick et al, 2000 ) .
As for the vitamin degrees, it is observed that there is a important difference in vitamin B1, vitamin B6, and vitamin C degrees of the two groups ( P & A ; lt ; 0.005, P & A ; lt ; 0.01, P & A ; lt ; 0.05 ; severally ) while no important difference is observed in the degrees of vitamin B2, vitamin A, and vitamin Tocopherol of the two groups. In paediatric patients with glycogen storage disease, a difference in vitamin A, C, and E and antioxidant enzymes is detected ( Kalkan et al, 2009 ) . Vitamin B1 and B2 have a important positive correlativity with vitamin B6 ( P & A ; lt ; 0.05 ) . Vitamins B6 and E besides present a positive correlativity with vitamin A ( P & A ; lt ; 0.01 ) .
It is observed, in a survey conducted with a group given fresh fruits and veggies that vitamin C, alpha vitamin E, beta provitamin A, vitamin A1, vitamin B6 degrees, and antioxidant degrees are altered ( Polidori et al, 2009 ) . Another survey shows low degrees of vitamin C and vitamin B in relation with the environmental pollution ( Shan et al, 2009 ) . In our survey, degrees of both of the vitamins in inquiry are found to be elevated, and it is considered that it is the consequence of life in inappropriate environmental conditions and devouring deficient sum of fruit and veggies.
It is observed that Fe degrees of the experimental group addition as the SOD degrees lessening. The ground for this is thought to be the elevated extremist production as a consequence of free Fe that is non used for the synthesis, and the relevant lessening in SOD activity which usually provides for the peroxide production. Furthermore, anemia is besides observed in these kids ; nevertheless, it is considered that the ground is non the Fe lack, but the possible lessening in the synthesis of pyrrole ring necessary for haem and for the synthesis of hematohiston which is due to deficient protein synthesis. It is besides argued that the lessening in Heme synthesis is caused by the fact that the kids may be exposed to heavy metals that hence have correspondingly inactive ALA synthase and Fe-chelatase enzymes.
As it can be seen in this research, malnutrition and inappropriate environmental conditions every bit good as mistreating drugs lead these kids to a disfunction and lack syndrome in many ways. Particularly, low degrees of vitamin B can do the break of the energy rhythm every bit good as the inefficient nervus myelinisation. As a consequence, street kids tend to be more aggressive and barbarous. Together with the environmental conditions, behavioural upsets become inevitable for these kids.
All they depend on is the enzymatic antioxidants in their immature organic structures, which may non keep for long against chronic jobs of these kids. Synthesis of these enzymes which are made up of proteins can besides be disrupted.
Another decision deduced from the survey is that this survey is important for other surveies as it sets an illustration. If another survey is to be conducted, it should affect an extended group including a sociologist, a head-shrinker, a kids constabulary, and a kids related, non governmental organisation affiliated with the local disposal. Those who are non actively involved in the undertaking may non be able to be good due to the rule of volunteerism.
Conflict of Interests
Writers have no struggle of involvements.
Writers ‘ Contributions
All writers planned and conducted the survey process and performed informations analyses and wrote.
All writers read and approved the concluding bill of exchange of the manuscript.