There are some people do not understand what exactly is plagiarism. Plagiarism is defined as people who believe doubling somebody’s idea or exercise still is they thought or produced of it and even copy it without paraphrasing and citation. (Collins Advanced Learners English Dictionary, 4th De. 2003). In most schools, students may be punished or get O mark if they are discovered to plagiarism. We can separate plagiarism into two categories which are intentional or unintentional. In fact, they are resulted for the same treatments. Piety (2002 cited in Bombard and Egregious, 2005, p. ) believes that most cultures disagree with plagiarism as a good thing but recognizes that some cultures take a more serious aspect of it. Therefore, there are some international students cannot easily to adapt this culture and they are determined to plagiarism in universities in English speaking countries. Also, some people may not care about their assessments but some people may get many stresses from it. The reasons why they decide to plagiarism will be presented below based on different cultures, different forms of pressure and procrastination. Evidence indicates that plagiarism amongst biomedical dents is fairly common.
Because the offenses in question usually involve academic assignments, they are typically classified as instances of academic dishonesty. Such transgressions can result in negative consent ounces for the student and these can range from failure for the assignment to expulsion from the university. When plagiarism occurs in the context of conducting scientific research, whether perpetrated by students or by professionals, it rises to the level of scientific misconduct; a much more serious crime. Regrettably, a general consensus is now emerging that plagiarism in the medical sciences has become a matter of great concern.
Consider the evidence, when searching the Pumped database for articles on plagiarism, the database yields over 700 entries (as of this writing) with more than half of them representing articles that were published within the last decade. Also, journals are increasingly expanding their instructions to authors to include guidelines on plagiarism and related matters of authorship. Yet, perhaps the most alarming development has been the availability of text similarity software, such as tablets, that allows users to search for plagiarism in journal articles.
Given these developments, it is not surprising that a recently published survey shows plagiarism as one of the areas of greatest concern for biomedical journal editors. The causes underlying many cases of plagiarism are believed to be the same as those associated with the other two major forms of scientific misconduct, fabrication and falsification. For example, one major factor believed to operate is the pressure to publish. The reality is that for many working scientists, the number of published papers authored continues to be one of the primary means by which research productivity is measured.
Moreover, the quality of a publication is another important factor that comes into play, for the most desirable outcome is for papers to appear in the so-called high-impact journals. Of course, carrying out scientific research can be very rewarding intrinsically and the joy we experience when we are engaged in this noble process is probably the very reason why many of us chose science as a career. However, as we all know, good science requires a lot of patience, hard work, and a good dose of creative, methodological skill. In addition, scientific research has become very costly in terms of human and laboratory resources.
Our tenacity and dedication will usually pay off, as when we are able to obtain data that verifies our hypotheses. But as every scientist knows, such a happy ending does not always occur. For example, what at first might look like a promising avenue of investigation can sometimes end up being a dead-end. In a worst case scenario, months of toiling in the laboratory may only yield a limited payout as when results turn out marginal or null and, therefore, not likely to be publishable. Or perhaps a subtle mistake early in the experiment can render as useless months of otherwise meticulous laboratory work.
These are some f the many scenarios that are thought to lead otherwise well-meaning scientists to tamper with their data. Because plagiarism and self-plagiarism are thought to be far more common than fabrication and falsification, it is important to explore these transgressions in some detail. The reader should note that these offenses can sometimes have legal implications, as when they violate copyright law. However, because these cases rarely, if ever, reach the legal stage when they involve scholarly journals, will confine my treatment of these malpractices within the ethical domain rather than within the legal one.
My hope is that, by raising the readers’ awareness of these offenses, their occurrence can be prevented. DEFINITION/ MEANING/ DESCRIPTION Plagiarism is the “wrongful appropriation” and “purloining and publication” of another author’s “language, thoughts, ideas, or expressions,” and the representation of them as one’s own original work. The idea remains problematic with unclear definitions and unclear rules. The modern concept of plagiarism as immoral and originality as an ideal emerged in Europe only in the 18th century, particularly with the Romantic movement. Plagiarism is noninsured academic dishonesty and a breach of journalistic ethics.
It is subject to sanctions like expulsion. Plagiarism is not a crime per SE but in academia and industry it is a serious ethical offense, and cases of plagiarism can constitute copyright infringement. At LLC, plagiarism is defined as ‘the deliberate or reckless representation of another’s words, thoughts, or ideas as one’s own without attribution in connection with submission Of academic work, whether graded or otherwise. ” plagiarism is the act of “taking someone else’s work or ideas and passing them off as one’s own. Commonly referred to as stealing or copying, plagiarism is a serious offense, often resulting in severe consequences.
Many people think of plagiarism as copying another’s work or borrowing someone else’s original ideas. But terms like “copying” and “borrowing” can disguise the seriousness of the offense: ACCORDING TO THE MERRIAM-WEBSTER ONLINE DICTIONARY, TO “PLAGIARISM” MEANS: -to steal and pass off (the ideas or words of another) as one’s own: -to use (another’s production) without crediting the source -to commit literary theft -to present as new and original an idea or product derived from an existing resource In other words, plagiarism is an act of fraud.
It involves both stealing someone else’s work and lying about it afterward. Plagiarism is the use of someone else’s written work as your own, especially when proper credit is not given to the original author. In some cases, students don’t understand plagiarism. In others, students intentionally plagiarism to avoid creating their own work. In an instructional setting, plagiarism occurs when a writer deliberately uses someone else’s language, ideas, or other original (not common-knowledge) material without acknowledging its source.
This definition applies to texts published in print or on-line, to manuscripts, and to the work of other student writers. Most current discussions of plagiarism fail to distinguish sis between: submitting someone else’s text as one’s own or attempting to blur the line between one’s own ideas or words and those borrowed from another source, and carelessly or inadequately citing ideas and words borrowed from another source. Such discussions conflate plagiarism with the misuse of sources.
Ethical writers make every effort to acknowledge sources fully and appropriately in accordance with the contexts and genres of their writing. A student who attempts (even if clumsily) to identify and credit his or her source, but who misuses a specific citation format or incorrectly uses quotation marks or other forms of identifying material taken from other sources, has not popularized. Instead, such a student should be considered to have failed to cite and document sources appropriately.
Poor citations and the misuse of sources are not the only problems one encounters when checking footnotes. A more serious problem is plagiarism. Several years ago someone on the Internet discussion group Humanist Forum raised the question of academic legalism and asked how common is plagiarism and how can it be identified? After a few short responses it appeared that most people of the contributors had a tale to tell, but none seemed very clear about exactly how plagiarism should be identified. Defining plagiarism is fairly easy.
The Compact Edition of the Oxford English Dictionary says: The action or practice of popularizing; the wrongful appropriation or purloining, and publication as one’s own, of the ideas, or the expression Of ideas (literary, artistic, musical, mechanical, etc. ) Of another. A purloined idea, design, passage, or work. (COED 1971: 21 92) According to the same dictionary, to purloin means: To make away with, misappropriate, or take dishonestly; to steal, esp.. Under circumstances which involve a breach of trust; to pilfer, filth; And a purloiner is: a petty thief, a pilferer.
Hence the common definition of plagiarism is theft. All of this seems straightforward. But, experience teaches that both students and many faculty are very apt at excusing misdemeanors. The problem is that while some people are genuinely confused, many have a vested interest in muddying the water because plagiarism can be a very profitable business which can lead to employment, promotion and regular salary increases all at the taxpayer’s expense costing millions of dollars every year.
Unfortunately, while there are some good books on plagiarism, such as Thomas Mallow’s Stolen Words: Forays into the Origins and Ravages of Plagiarism (New York: Ticking ; Fields, 1989), very little has been written about academic plagiarism. This article develops ideas originally posted by myself to The Humanist Forum, on the Internet, in 1993, in response to the discussion created by the original question. I believe that it is important for the scholarly community to provide Lear examples of what counts as plagiarism.
To help clarify the situation the following definition is proposed: Plagiarism is the deliberate attempt to deceive the reader through the appropriation and representation as one’s own the words and work of others. Academic plagiarism occurs when a writer repeatedly uses more than four words from a printed source without the use of quotation marks and a precise reference to the original source in a work presented as the author’s own research and scholarship. How this works in practice is explained below.
First, however, it is necessary to remind readers hat the academic plagiarist IS like the successful embezzler. A bank clerk who takes SSL 00,000 for one account is clearly likely to be caught fairly quickly. Therefore, the skilled embezzler steals $100 from 1,000 accounts over a ten year period on the assumption that few people will miss $10 a year. The embezzler also attempts to disguise illegal transactions so that should they be discovered they look like a genuine mistake or appropriate bank charge rather than theft. Successful academic plagiarism are unlikely to copy entire books.
Instead they take sentences and paragraphs from many books while t the same time providing false leads that make their borrowings look like genuine mistakes or poor footnoting. ORIGIN In the 1st century, the use of the Latin word plagiarism (literally kidnapper), to denote someone stealing someone else’s work, was pioneered by Roman poet Martial, who complained that another poet had “kidnapped his verses. ” This use of the word was introduced into English in 1601 by dramatist Ben Johnson, to describe as a plagiary someone guilty of literary theft. The derived form plagiarism was introduced into English around 1620.
The Latin plain;iris, “kidnapper”, and platinum, “kidnapping”, has the tot playa (“snare”, “net”), based on the Indo-European root *-plan, “to weave” (seen for instance in Greek pipeline, Bulgarian “near” pleat, Latin plectra, all meaning “to weave”). The word plagiarism is derived from the Latin word plagiary, which means to kidnap or abduct. The word plagiarism is derived from the Latin word plagiary, which means to kidnap or abduct. The word began to be used in the English language sometime during the 1 6005. He word plagiarism derives from Latin roots: plagiarism, an abductor, and plagiary, to steal.
An example of plagiarism would be copying this definition and pasting straight into a report. Plagiarism is a very ancient art. Shakespeare stole most of his historical plots directly from Holiness. Laurence Sterne and Samuel Taylor Coleridge were both accused of plagiarism. The extent of Coleridge plagiarism has been debated by scholars since Thomas De Quinces, himself an accomplished borrower, published an expos in Tat’s Magazine a couple of weeks after Coleridge death. Oscar Willed was repeatedly accused of plagiarism: hence the celebrated exchange with Whistler: “l wish I’d said that, James. “Don’t worry, Oscar, you will. ” In modern times, plagiarism is not limited to lazy and dishonest students. Martin Luther King plagiarisms part of a chapter of his doctoral thesis. George Harrison was successfully sued for plagiarism the Chiffon’s’ Hess So Fine for My Sweet Lord. Alex Haley copied large passages of his novel Roots from The African by Harold Coriander. Princess Michael was accused of plagiarism over her book on royal brides. Jason Blair, then a reporter for the New York Times, plagiarisms many articles and faked quotes.
In 1997, less than six months after winning the Booker prize, Graham Swifts Last Orders was at the centre of accusations that the author had crossed the line between inspiration and plagiarism by “directly imitating” an earlier work, the 1930 novel As I Lay Dying by William Faulkner. Confronted with the accusations, Swift said his book was an “echo” of Faulkner. Originality has mattered a great deal in the last 200 years, though the importance we attach to it may be declining. TTS Elite’s The Waste Land was critical. To read The Waste Land is also to read Shakespeare, Chaucer, Webster and many others.
According to one critic, Eliot practices a “verbal kleptomania”. In that sense, then, all culture is plagiarism. “l can sum up my thoughts on this in two lines,” said violist Julian Barnes of the Swift-Faulkner affair. “When Brahms wrote his first symphony, he was accused of having used a big theme from Beethoven’s Ninth. His reply was that any fool could see that. ” Couturier is right about standards being different in the past, but it was much further in the past that he thinks. In ancient and medieval Europe, there was something of a double standard about plagiarism.
Many authoress genres like religious texts were freely copied and incorporated into later works, “good writing” usually meant slavishly imitating a small number of respected authors (Cicero being the sot important), and scholarship meant demonstrating mastery of the ancient greats. On the other hand, poets and playwrights have always jealously defended their words. This began to change during the Renaissance when original scholarship became more respected and individual accomplishment was recognized in many more fields that it had been previously (for example, this is when painters began signing their works).
Why this happened is an enormous subject that I won’t go into right now. The point here is that, by the mid asses, accusations of plagiarism and stealing ideas were common in every creative lied including the sciences. An accusation of stealing someone else’s words or ideas and passing them off as your own was one of the worst insults imaginable and grounds for lawsuits and duels. Just as a sidebar, the word “plagiarism,” in the sense we use it today, first appeared in English in the various battles among Shakespeare and his peers. The mighty and majestic Oxford English Dictionary credits Ben Johnson with being the first to use it in print.
The form they used was “plagiary,” which is a Latin term for a type of kidnapper or illegitimate slaver. The first English copyright law was passed in 1709. It had as much to do with protecting the rights of publishers against book piracy as it did with protecting the author’s rights against unscrupulous printers, but author’s rights developed very quickly. James Boswell, best known as Samuel Johnny’s biographer, was a lawyer who argued one of the important cases over how long copyrights lasted for an author and his or her heirs (it was twenty one years at the time).
By the beginning of the nineteenth century, the concept and the law were very similar to what they are today. Even footnotes were being used in a form very similar to what they are today. What has changed since then has been the issue of enforcing copyrights across borders. Most European countries concluded agreements to prevent book piracy (we should probably thank Napoleon for making that possible by dramatically reducing the number of countries in Europe). The United States was the odd man out.
We refused to give any protection to foreign authors and publishers until 1891 and we didn’t sigh on to the Berne Convention until 1988. HARMFUL EFFECT A. TO ONE’S SELF Academic Discipline Educational institutions, especially colleges and universities, regard plagiarism s a serious breach of academic honesty and integrity. They warn their students of serious consent ounces for popularizing the work of others. Students who are guilty of plagiarism face at the least a failing grade in the course for which they committed the offense. Other possible consequences include suspension or even expulsion from the school they attend.
Lack of Critical Thinking When students or instructors present others’ work as their own, they fail to develop and use critical thinking skills, which are necessary for learning and success in life. Destroyed Student Reputation Plagiarism allegations can cause a student to be suspended or expelled. Their academic record can reflect the ethics offense, possibly causing the student to be barred from entering college from high school or another college. Schools, colleges, and universities take plagiarism very seriously. Most educational institutions have academic integrity committees who police students.
Many schools suspend students for their first violation. Students are usually expelled for further offences. Destroyed Academic Reputation The consequences Of plagiarism have been widely reported in the world Of academia. Once scarred with plagiarism allegations, an academia’s career can be ruined. Publishing is an integral part of a prestigious academic career. To lose the ability to publish most likely means the end of an academic position and a destroyed reputation Self-sabotage In many cases, intentional plagiarism only consider the external effects of cheating.
However, whether you get caught or not, plagiarism has some critical consequences. First, you deprive yourself of the intended learning objectives of an assignment, paper or report by not conducting thorough search and formulating an original document. You can also damage relationships with peers and instructors. Dutiful students may be upset if they put forth great effort and watch you cut corners. If an instructor finds that you have popularized, he develops a sense of distrust is more likely to scrutinize your work going forward.
Failure High schools and colleges normally have stated polices that outline discipline processes for plagiarism. It is normally up to instructors to catch you and begin the discipline process. The penalty sometimes varies based on the significance of the assignment. On a simple homework assignment, you may simply receive a zero on the work. On a major paper or project, you may fail the project or the class on a first offense. If the first offense results in project failure, a subsequent offense may lead to automatic class failure. Instructors often lay out their specific procedures in class syllabi.
Suspension or Expulsion Your high school or college normally gets involved if incidents of plagiarism are repeated or severe. This stems from one or more instructors reporting these incidents through the school’s formal disciplinary reporting processes. At the high school level, a school board hearing is commonly held to determine whether a student’s conduct violated the code to an extent requiring suspension or expulsion from school. In college, a judiciary board usually adjudicates the student’s disciplinary hearing if he reaches the stage in the conduct code justifying a suspension or expulsion hearing.
Transcript Notation In a 2007 article, Middlebury College Professor William Harris pointed out that college administrators had ramped up penalties for plagiarism to help curb the growing epidemic. One such consequence many colleges have added is official notation on your transcript if you are found guilty or judged to have popularized while in school. Harris indicated that students at some schools had little opportunity for a fair trial even in cases of “accidental” plagiarism where the student simply failed to include quotes on borrowed phrases.
Still, such penalties are intended to deter students since transcripts can impact their ability to transfer or get into graduate school. Grades At almost all institutions, students’ grades will suffer from plagiarism. Instructors typically assign an F to a popularized document, and many instructors fail the student for the course. Suspension Another common practice, especially at the post-secondary level, is to suspend students for the semester in which they are caught popularizing.
Some schools even go as far as expelling the student permanently Financial Aid Continued receipt federal financial aid is based upon a certain percentage of successfully completed course work. Students who receive If’s or who are suspended for entire semesters will likely be affected in financial aid eligibility. Private scholarship eligibility could also be affected. Reputation Schools maintain student records, and instructors share information informally. Students who are caught popularizing may develop reputations as cheaters.
Teachers will likely scrutinize students with reputations more carefully than other students TO OTHERS Plagiarism poisons the relationship between students and teachers by undermining the mutual trust that is an important element of the learning process. Widespread Incidents of plagiarism, such as students taking work from the Internet and presenting it as their own, force teachers to act as police investigators, constantly searching for wrongdoing. All students become suspect in such an environment, and learning becomes impossible. Suspicion and mistrust replace intellectual curiosity and trust. legalism also damages relationships between students who plagiarism and those who earn their grades honestly. Destroyed Professional Reputation A professional business person, politician, or public figure may find that the damage from plagiarism follows them for their entire career. Not only will they likely be fired or asked to step down from their present position, but they will surely find it difficult to obtain another respectable job. Depending n the offense and the plagiarist’s public stature, his or her name may become ruined, making any kind of meaningful career impossible.
Embarrassment Another effect of plagiarism is that it creates embarrassment for both the plagiarist and for those who didn’t catch the plagiarism sooner. This is especially the case when the plagiarist has passed off his work as his own and he’s been given praise, grades or admittance to a college based on popularized work. This can lead to a loss of face for the organization, but it can also lead to a loss of face for the person who got caught popularizing. Students: Understanding Plagiarism Accidentally forgetting to name a source in a parenthetical citation and providing incorrect attribution or page numbers is plagiarism.
Cutting and pasting information from a source directly into a paper without quoting or citing is also plagiarism. Patterning occurs when students copy a source’s words and try to make it appear original by changing words and phrases while omitting some parts. Whether intentional or deliberate, students who plagiarism can fail the paper and the class. Students: Getting Caught Changes in tone, font and writing style can prompt a plagiarism investigation. When instructors suspect plagiarism, they collect documentation and meet with the student to discuss the popularized work. Once the meeting occurs, students will not get a break.
Even if the student cries or bargains, the teacher must uphold the class policy to maintain integrity. Paperwork will be turned over to judicial affairs. If found guilty, students may be suspended, expelled and lose scholarships Teachers: Reactions Teachers are profoundly disappointed when students plagiarism. Some report feeling deceived and assaulted, reports Dry. Chris Anions in the article “We Never Wanted to Be Cops: Plagiarism, Institutional Paranoia, and Shared Responsibility,” appearing in the book “Popularizing Plagiarism: Identities, Contexts, Pedagogies” by Rebecca Howard and Amy Orbicular.
It can take upward of 15 hours of extra work to build a case, forcing schedule and grading delays. Teachers: Detection To simplify detecting plagiarism, some professors use Turning and Mudroom Box. These sites highlight popularized sentences, phrases and words, color coding them and matching them to the URL of the source material. Performing a Google phrase search also leads to articles in which suspect harass appear. Those who work hard to complete assignments honestly can feel betrayed by those who do not make the same effort and who may gain an unfair advantage when it comes to course grades.
A student who knowingly plagiarisms is no different than an athlete who cheats and takes banned drugs to gain an unfair advantage. The instructor Instructors spend much time and expend much effort preparing classes, carefully reading and commenting on student writing, and meeting with students. Because of this, an instructor may rightfully feel disrespected and betrayed when a student plagiarisms. TO SOCIETY Loss of Degree or Job College students who commit plagiarism face the loss of their degrees upon discovery of the offense.
College faculty members who plagiarism the work of other scholars face serious consequences as well. Professors who commit plagiarism may lose tenure and face the loss of their jobs and reputations. An academic found guilty of plagiarism faces the permanent loss of her credibility as a scholar. Plagiarism also may damage the reputation of schools as places of learning and intellectual inquiry. Legal Repercussions The legal repercussions of plagiarism can be quite serious. Copyright laws are absolute. One cannot use another person’s material without citation and reference.
An author has the right to sue a plagiarist. Some plagiarism may also be deemed a criminal offense, possibly leading to a prison sentence. Those who write for a living, such as journalists or authors, are particularly susceptible to plagiarism issues. Those who write frequently must be ever- vigilant not to err. Writers are well-aware of copyright laws and ways to avoid plagiarism. As a professional writer, to plagiarism is a serious ethical and perhaps legal issue. Monetary Repercussions Many recent news reports and articles have exposed plagiarism by ruinations, authors, public figures, and researchers.
In the case where an author sues a plagiarist, the author may be granted monetary restitution. In the case where a journalist works for a magazine, newspaper or other publisher, or even if a student is found popularizing in school, the offending plagiarist could have to pay monetary penalties. Popularized Research Popularized research is an especially egregious form of plagiarism. If the research is medical in nature, the consequences of plagiarism could mean the loss of peoples’ lives. This kind of plagiarism is particularly heinous.