Moving around from place to place Kin ordered, political arrangements Refers to family, your extended family Seniors and elders were chiefs, holders of knowledge because they had lots of life knowledge Worked alongside parents to learn work They would provide strategy and which direction to go to follow the hunt NO VIOLENCE, everyone was respected Kin ordered societies Similar to nomadic societies Hunting and gathering Divided based on gender Men hunted and women gathered Not because women weren’t strong or capable enough to hunt but were valued and needed in the society (couldn’t get hurt) Matriarchal, matrilineal, matricidal

Never married from your own clan, only from a neighboring clan Groom came to live with the bride’s community It can always be proven who your mother is, you don’t give birth alone, all the women gathered to help Women had power because they had an economic say, women had more value than men Needed to keep the community going, give birth The hunt only was worth 35% and the gathering was 65%, gathering was what was more important Men would hand over what they killed to the women, the women got It to decide who got more and who got less Aboriginal Families after British and French Colonization 1 OFF

Europeans leave families in Europe because they never intended to settle, they had the expectation to go back Settled permanently in Canada and began to have new families Between 1608 and the mid sass’s they don’t go back, they began to marry in traditional aboriginal ceremonies aboriginal women, left their women back home to suffer The catholic churches started to look at this in New France Thought the aboriginals were barbarians because they didn’t believe in J Emergence of missionaries to civilize aboriginal peoples Did this through force, but the women weren’t falling for it because they lose all heir rights (who wants that! , lose sense of autonomy, become husband’s property They prayed upon was the men, aboriginal men were enticed by this idea of conversion because they would get more power than they already had and power from the Europeans Europeans didn’t understand how important the aboriginal women were to the fur trade, they at first only talked to the men about it Women spoke different languages, they couldn’t understand women making business deals Europeans imposed the ideas to the aboriginal men to beat their wives if they refused any instructions Women responded by running away, destroy things (I. , food so no one could eat it) and fighting back Indian Act 1876 and State Sanctioned Violence Reserves in the sass’s Before the Indian act the violence against aboriginal women is done through the church and their practices, not through the law At this time the law allows it Aboriginals taught the Europeans how to survive and then they used it against them Wanted to through aboriginal peoples off the land and to units to be able to be contained and controlled First destroyed family structure and any of their ways of life (matriarchy) Status Indian – Aboriginal father and an Aboriginal mother Non-status

Indian – Aboriginal mother and an Aboriginal father A lot of non-status Indians (no vote, no property, no buying/drinking alcohol, no university) People would Just give it up so they could live Residential Schooling (asses-1996) Both status and non-status aboriginals were forced to go “beat the Indian out of the child” Central part was violence, a very low level of education that was done through a boarding school system for Aboriginal kids The parents were forced to send their kids, if you lived on the reserves the children had to go to a faraway school, saw babe once or twice a year for a couple hours Catholic and protestant officials as well as the government Illegal to speak Aboriginal languages, and illegal to practice aboriginal religious customs Most closed in sass’s/ass’s, but was replaced with new policy… The ass’s scoop Takes place in the sass’s Jean-Christie was in charge of Aboriginal Affairs, his idea All aboriginal adults are legally and mentally incompetent Not civilized, not Christian, are reclaimed others look after them financially, as well as being in charge of looking after all medical decisions over them Technically a minor, can’t be a minor and a parent

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As the wards of the state they can now go and take the Aboriginal children Put the kids in white foster homes, which resulted in bad beatings and abuse (sexually as well-raped), some killed from the abuse Foster families are paid to do this-it’s a business Aboriginal Women’s View of Family Violence Aboriginal women see family violence and men violence as a reaction to colonial relations, specifically this has been a response to European patriarchal domination, a complete disrespect for Aboriginal cultures as well as the governments legal control and regulation of Aboriginal peoples. The family is the heart of the community, it is a support system financially, physically and emotionally. Aboriginal women recognized the family is there for nourishment and protection from racism in the outside world, but is also a site for violence. They do not usually disclose violence because it would bring public shame to the family and the community They tend to stay in abusive relationships in fear they cannot survive without the family. They also believe no one will believe them or help them once they are not in the relationship or speak about the abuse they have faced (CASE would come and take their kids)


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