Personality is an individual’s alone ideas. feelings and behaviour that persist over clip and different state of affairss. It is alone set of traits that remain unchanged over a long period of clip. Personality theorists effort to depict how persons remain consistent in their ideas. feelings and behaviours. and how they differ in their personalities

Type/Constitutional/Biological Theories of personality:

Grecian doctor and philosophers Hippocrates and Galen claimed that a person’s disposition depends on comparative measures of four wits. or fluids. in the body—blood ( sanguine ) and sunniness. emotionlessness ( phlegmatic ) and composure. black gall ( melancholy ) and depression. xanthous gall ( choleric ) and crossness.

Gall and Spurzheim related bumps and depressions on the skull to personality traits in their theory of phrenology.

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William Sheldon related build to disposition. Harmonizing to his body type theory the soft. spherical endomorph is likely to be sociable and affectionate ; the difficult. muscular mesomorph is likely to be aggressive and brave ; and the additive and delicate ectomorph is likely to be restrained and happy to be entirely.

German head-shrinker Ernst Kretschmer wrote a frail. instead weak ( adynamic ) organic structure physique every bit good as a muscular ( athletic ) build were often characteristic of schizophrenic patients. while a short. rotund ( endomorphic ) physique was frequently found among manic-depressive patients.

Friedman and Rosenman gave Type A and Type B theory. that relates type to the disease.

Trait/Dispositional Theories:

Trait theoreticians try to depict basic behaviours that define personality and they assume that we each have comparatively stable personality features or dispositional properties. called traits.

Gordon Allport defined traits into three classs: central traits. cardinal traits and secondary traits. This reading emphasizes that all traits are mutualist sets of properties which come together to bring forth an consequence on behavior.

Cattell has reduced the list of personality traits into a little manageable figure by utilizing factor analysis. He established a 16-personality factor trial and identified beginning and surface traits.

More late. trait psychologists Paul Costa and Robert McCrae have developed a five-factor theoretical account of personality. nicknamed. “The Large Five” that includes the traits of openness. conscientiousness. extroversion. amenity. and neurosis.

Comparative Analysis:

1. Type is seeable while trait is nevertheless unseeable but can be manifested in the behavior. 2. Peoples can’t ever be assigned to a specific class ; we see people who are sometimes choleric. sometimes melancholy. energetic and sociable. or artistic and fond of eating. It seems to do more sense to speak about the grade of a trait that person possesses. 3. Type of personality is combination of traits.

4. In type theories. the type is instead generalised term. while trait is like a continuum where each trait has its ain significance. 5. Type theories are the earliest while Trait theories are one of the latest 1s. 6. There are about no appraisal is used based on type theory as these are less efficient. while trait based appraisals are psychometrically really sound and widely used in recruitment intent. 7. Although type theories are non so much in usage. it does demo merely how far back people have attempted to explicate the different personalities of the people they see around them.

However. whilst Hippocrates may hold been wrong about fluids act uponing our personality. there is some grade of cogency to this theory. We now know today that hormones go arounding in the blood can drastically impact the type of personality person shows.


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