Runing caput: Comparison AND CONTRASTING VIEWS OF ADDICTION
Comparing and Contrasting Biblical and
Professional Views of Addiction
This paper compares and contrasts the scriptural position of dependence reding with the historical and current professional point of view. This is achieved by carefully inspecting from a scriptural position the significances and uses of footings such as advocate. advice. vino. strong drink. abstention. and others. This paper will besides show the definition. etiology. appraisal. diagnosing. effects. and intercession schemes related to dependence. Finally. the last subdivision will supply personal penetrations and applications.
Comparing and Contrasting Biblical and
Professional Views of Addiction
As the legendary emperor proudly paraded around in his new apparels. the whole crossroads knew there was a job except the bare. self-deceived swayer. Similarly. the common togss that bind most substance maltreaters are denial and destructive behaviour. Kanel ( 2007 ) summarized substance dependance as “a maladaptive form of substance maltreatment taking to clinically important damage or distress” ( p. 169 ) . Clients who present with intoxicant dependance or maltreatment have a vice-grip clasp on defences which include denial. supplanting. phantasy. projection. rationalisation. minimizing. and repression ( Kanel. 2007. pp. 174-175 ) . For illustration. Kanel ( 2007 ) asserts. “Denial is strong in these types of clients because most of them who come in for guidance are still capable of working on the occupation ; hence. they do non see themselves as addicts” ( p. 175 ) . However. denial does non cover the job nor the annihilating effects.
Nationally. research workers have estimated a astonishing 40 % of all traffic clang human deaths are alcohol related ( NIAA. 2010 ) . Research has besides demonstrated that most high school pupils “started their drug engagement with beer or vino. The 2nd phase involved difficult spirits. coffin nails. or both. ” In the 3rd phase. teens moved on to illicit drug usage ( Ksir. Hart. & A ; Oakley. 2009. p. 17 ) . In add-on. “in 2008. 51. 6 % of Americans age 12 and older had used intoxicant at least one time in the 30 yearss prior to being surveyed” ( NIDA. 2010 ) . The estimated cost of intoxicant maltreatment and alcohol addiction to the United States is in the billions—a sobering thought. particularly in our current economic hurt ( NIAA. 2010 ) .
The intent of this paper is to compare and contrast the scriptural position of dependence reding with the historical and current professional point of view. This end will be achieved by carefully inspecting from a scriptural position the significances and uses of footings such as advocate. advice. wisdom. program. aim. direction. and aid every bit good as words related to dependence which include vino. strong drink. desire. self-denial. and abstention.
Second. this paper will compare and contrast the professional position of reding versus scriptural guidance as related to dependence. This subdivision will show the definition. etiology. appraisal. diagnosing. effects. and intercession schemes related to dependence. Finally. the last subdivision will supply personal penetrations and applications. Biblical Wordss Related to Reding
To hold on the message of a vocal. it is necessary to dissect the wordss. Likewise. to grok the doctrine and intent of reding. the significance of the words related to it must be defined and understood. Harmonizing to a scriptural worldview. the first word to be defined is “counsel. ” Counsel
The word “counsel” in the Bible is derived from different Hebrew. Aramaic. and Grecian words. The word definitions were derived from the Blue Letter Bible ( 2010 ) web site which provides the significances of the words from Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible. A sample of Old Testament ( OT ) usages from the New King James Version ( NKJV ) and the King James Version ( KJV ) are as follows:
a. Ya‘ats ( verb ) —means “to advise. to confer with. devise. or program. ” David gleefully proclaimed. “I will bless the LORD who has given me advocate ( ya‘ats ) ” ( Psalm 16:7 NKJV ) . David identified the Lord as being the beginning of good advocate.
b. Dabar ( noun ) —refers to “a stating or address. ” The advocate ( dabar ) of Balaam led the Israelites off from the Lord which resulted in terrible judgement ( Numbers 31:16 ) . From this Hebrew use. guidance can be understood as much more than merely listening to clients. Listening plays a big portion in set uping a on the job confederation. but reding besides involves the counsellor providing verbal input. albeit. better advocate than Balaam’s.
c. ‘Etsah ( noun ) —means “advice or intent. ” This word is kindred to the Grecian word boulle. Clinton and Ohlschlager ( 2002 ) discovered that. “The word occurs more than a 100 times in the Septuagint. where it is used 74 times to interpret the Hebrew word etzah” ( p. 59 ) . Use of this word in both Psalm 33:10-11 and Psalm 1 demonstrate that there are fundamentally two types of advocate: either ungodly or godly. “The LORD bringeth the advocate ( ‘etsah ) of the pagan to zero: He maketh the devices of the people of none consequence. The advocate ( ‘etsah ) of the LORD standeth for of all time. the ideas of His bosom to all generations” ( Psalm 33:10-11 KJV ) . This word is besides used in 2Samuel 15:31. 34. 1Kings 12:8. Psalm 1:1. 33:10-11. Proverbs 20:5. and Isaiah 11:2.
d. Tachbulah ( noun ) —conveys the thought of “direction. counsel. or good advice. ” ( See Proverbs 11:14. )
e. Melak ( Aramaic-noun ) —means “advice. ” ( See Daniel 4:27. ) The New Testament ( NT ) was originally written in Greek. The undermentioned Grecian words are translated into the English word “counsel” :
a. Sumbouleuo ( verb ) —means “to advocate. to rede. or exhort. ” The kernel of the advocate ( sumbouleuo ) of Jesus to nominal trusters in Laodicea was to turn from their mercenary complacence and open their Black Marias to true familiarity with Him ( Rev. 3:18. 20 ) . This word besides means “to consult
together or to plot” as used in Matthew 26:4 and Matthew 28:12.
b. Boule ( noun ) —means “counsel. intent. design. finding. or decree. ” This word is used in Luke 7:30. Acts 2:23. Ephesians 1:11. and Hebrews 6:17. Noted Grecian bookman Ken Wuest ( 1947 ) adds that boulle agencies. “To desire. which desire comes from one’s reason…counsel to the consequence that the psyche might happen a certain safety in the Lord Jesus” ( p. 123 ) .
c. Bouleuo ( verb ) —means “to give advocate. to aim. or to find. ” The thought of advocate being “advice or the act of giving advice” is a common yarn binding most of these words together. Tachbulah. boulle and bouleuo include “purpose” and “direction” to further elaborate the significance. While good advocate includes advice-giving. Clinton and Ohlschlager ( 2002 ) promote an attack that helps the client discover truth instead than merely stating them what the truth is. Pulling from Proverbs 20:5. they assert. “Truth drawn out of the client’s ain life tends to be more profoundly understood and more actively embraced. and it motivates and sustains the alteration process” ( p. 204 ) . Advice
The following word “advice” is translated from two different Hebrew words and a Grecian word.
a. Dabar ( noun ) and ‘etsah ( noun ) —are Hebrew words that are besides translated as “counsel” in the OT as described above.
b. Gnome ( noun ) —this Grecian word means “view. purpose. or ground. ”
c. Webster’s lexicon ( 1983 ) defines advice as “counsel ; an sentiment offered as worthy to be followed in a peculiar situation” ( p. 29 ) . Plan
“Plan” and “purpose” are both translated from the Hebrew word machashabah ( noun ) which is found in Proverbs 16:3. Proverbs 20:18 and Jeremiah 29:11. In the New Testament. the Grecian word prothesis ( noun ) means “purpose. a predestination. or a setting forth” and is used in Romans 8:28 ; and 9:11.
Another word related to guidance is “instruction. ” Examples from the Old Testament and New Testament are as follows:
a. Muwcar ( noun ) —Hebrew intending “discipline or correction” as in Proverbs 19:20.
b. Paideia ( noun ) —this Grecian word refers to the “training up” of kids into maturity. As it relates to trusters. it is “instruction with the purpose at increasing virtuousness. ” A cardinal transition where this word is used is 2Timothy 3:16. Wisdom
Wise advocate is non-negotiable for success in the curative relationship. “Wisdom” is defined in the Hebrew and Greek below:
a. Chokmah ( noun ) —this Hebrew word besides means “shrewdness or prudence. ” There is a prophetic mention to the Messiah in Isaiah 11:2 indicating that He would hold the “Spirit of wisdom ( chokmah ) ” upon Him.
b. Sophia ( noun ) —Mounce ( 1993 ) defines this word as “wisdom. in general. cognition. acquisition. scientific discipline or enlightenment” ( p. 419 ) . This word can be found in James 3:16-17 where wisdom from God is contrasted with earthly. diabolic wisdom.
Finally. organizing a assisting relationship is necessary for client alteration ( Horvath & A ; Luborsky. 1993. p. 561 ) . The Hebrew words ‘ezrah and azar every bit good as the Grecian words boetheia. sullambano. and epikouria. all fundamentally average “to aid. ” Psalm 60:11 concludes that aid ( ‘ezrah ) from adult male is useless. True aid is merely from the Lord. Christian counsellors can boldly see God’s throne of grace to have grace for the right aid ( boetheia ) to widen to clients ( Hebrews 4:16 ) .
As linking dot-to-dots will organize an image. uniting these words together will supply a image of reding from a scriptural worldview. In kernel. there are two types of advocate: either godly or ungodly. Godly. wise advocate originates from God and accomplishes His intents. Ungodly. unwise advocate is “earthly. animal. demonic” and fulfills the programs of this present age ( James 3:15-17 ) . The end of Christian guidance includes God’s ageless program for psyches to come in a relationship with Jesus and turn in Him. The precedence of the advocate of Jesus is intimacy with Him above achieving stuff wealth and earthly satisfaction ( Revelation 3:18. 20 ) . In contrast. secular guidance has the temporal end of human satisfaction and self-realization ( Clinton & A ; Ohlschlager. 2002. p. 77 ) .
Bufford ( 1997 ) considers the difference in ends as the most of import factor separating Christian from secular guidance ( p. 120 ) . For illustration. say a client’s unwanted gestation was doing hurt in her life. A secular counsellor would supply abortion as an option ( Feldman. 2008. p. 57 ) . A competent Christian counsellor would help the client to position issues through the lens of Bible and would non propose abortion as an option ( AACC codification of moralss. 2004. p. 7 ) . Rather. the Christian counsellor would provide other options such as acceptance. para-church ministries. and other thoughts to back up the determination of transporting the babe to term.
Fulfillment. satisfaction. and peace are the byproducts of reverent advocate. When Moses appropriated the advocate of his father-in-law Jethro. he was able to pull off his overpowering duties more expeditiously and to hold peace of head ( Exodus 18:19 ) . Another illustration of reding in Scripture is in 2Samuel 15. Ahithophel was one time King David’s counsellor. Ahithophel’s occupation was to supply advice to the male monarch in order for him to do wise determinations in war programs and to understand the head of the Lord in other practical affairs.
Proverbs 20:18 ( NKJV ) instructs. “Plans ( machashabah ) are established by advocate ( ‘etsah ) ; by wise advocate ( tachbulah ) pay war. ” However. Ahithophel betrayed David by going Absalom’s counsellor. Therefore. David prayed that Ahithophel’s advocate would be turned to foolishness. God honored David’s petition. and the Lord’s advocate and intent was accomplished ( 2Samuel 15-17 ) . Ultimately. God’s advocate will stand everlastingly. whereas the sentiments and programs of adult male will go through off ( Psalm 33:10-11 ) . Biblical Wordss Related to Addiction
a. Yayin ( noun ) —means “wine. ” Sometime after he departed from the Ark. Noah became intoxicated by vino. Noah’s intoxicated status elicited a deficiency of inhibitory control because he “was uncovered within his tent” ( Genesis 9:21 KJV ) . As a consequence. his boy Ham seemingly engaged in some kind of inappropriate behaviour ( Genesis 9:22-25 ) . Lot’s girls introduced vino into their program to execute inappropriate behaviour with their male parent ( Genesis 19:32-35 ) . These two illustrations present the negative side of vino maltreatment which coincides with sobering warnings in other transitions ( californium. Proverbs 20:1 ; 23:31-35 ) . Bible besides displays vino as an illustration of joy. The Lord provides “wine that makes glad the bosom of man” ( Psalm 104:15a NKJV ) .
b. Oinos ( noun ) —In the NT. this Grecian word means “wine. ” Vine and Bruce ( 1981 ) expound. “The imbibing of vino could be a stumbling-block and the Apostle enjoins abstention in this regard. as in others. so as to avoid giving an juncture of faltering
to a brother ( Romans 14:21 ) ” ( p. 219 ) . In contrast. Paul encourages Timothy to “no longer imbibe merely H2O. but use a small vino for your stomach’s interest and your frequent infirmities” ( 1Timothy 5:23 NKJV ) .
a. Shekar ( noun ) —is an OT Hebrew word significance. “strong drink or elating spirits. ” While executing priestly responsibilities in the Tabernacle. Aaron and his boies were out to imbibe vino or strong drink under punishment of decease ( Leviticus 10:19 ) .
b. Sikera ( noun ) —In the NT. this word means. “intoxicating drink which is different from vino. ” It was made of a mixture of sweet ingredients. John the Baptist did non imbibe vino or strong drink. but he was filled with the Holy Spirit from his mother’s
uterus ( Luke 1:15 ) .
a. Teshuwqah—This OT word means “desire. yearning. or hungering. ” God confronted Cain by bodying wickedness as a stooping king of beasts ready to destruct him. who’s “desire [ is ] for you. but you should govern over it” ( Genesis 4:7b NKJV ) .
b. Chamad—In Exodus. this Hebrew word significance “desire. to take pleasance in. or to please in” is translated as “covet. ” being utilized in a negative sense. For illustration. the 10th commandment indicates that persons are non to “covet” anything that belongs to a neighbour ( Exodus 20:17 ) .
c. Zeloo—This NT Greek word means “to be heated for or to be zealously sought after. ”
This word is either used in a good or evil manner. depending upon the context. For
illustration. James rebukes trusters for wanting things with a iniquitous motivation ( James 4:2 ) . In contrast. Paul exhorts trusters to want religious gifts ( 1Corinthians 14:1 ) .
d. Epithumeo—This Greek word significance “to long for. to crave after. a craving. to hold a desire for. or to seek things forbidden” is presented in either a negative or positive visible radiation. depending upon the context. For illustration. Jesus revealed to His adherents that “many Prophetss and righteous work forces desired to see what you see” refering the land of God.
However. the use of this word may besides denote a iniquitous desire as in Romans when Paul disclosed that he became cognizant of his iniquitous nature when the commandment declared. “You shall non covet ( epithumeo ) ” ( Romans 7:7 ) . The Bible appears to bespeak that lecherousness ( epithumeo ) and love are reciprocally sole ( 1John 2:15-17 ) . Self-denial
a. ‘Aphaq—This OT Hebrew word means “to clasp back. chorus. or to keep oneself. ” Bible instructs that a wise individual will forbear from taking the popular way of the crowd and doing iniquitous picks ( Proverbs 1:8 ) .
b. Egkrates—means “to exercising self-determination. to carry on one’s ego temperately. or to exhibit self-control. ” Paul draws upon the competitory border required to win in athletic events to animate trusters to exert self-denial as he describes. “Everyone who competes [ for the award ] is temperate in all things” ( 1Corinthians 9:25a NKJV ) . Paul reveals that the ability to attest self-denial is the byproduct of the work of God’s Spirit within a believer’s life ( Galatians 5:23 ) .
a. Nazar—means “to separate. consecrate. or to give. ” For illustration. work forces who had consecrated themselves to God with a Nazarite vow “must give up ( nazar ) vino and other alcoholic drinks” ( Numbers 6:3a NLT ) . Though certain persons may take to take a vow that requires abstention. Miller ( 1995 ) asserts. “Nowhere in Bible is abstinence from intoxicant prescribed as a general rule” ( p. 78 ) . He cautions. “Alcohol is now known. for illustration. to damage encephalon tissue. and steps of encephalon damage are correlated with sum even in the ‘moderation’ range” ( Miller. 1995. p. 78 ) .
b. Apexo—means “to keep one’s self off. chorus. or abstain. ” The Bible Teachs that God’s will is for trusters to “abstain ( apexo ) from sexual immorality” ( 1Thessalonians 4:3 ) . In fact. trusters are commanded to “abstain from every signifier of evil” ( 1Thessalonians 5:22 NKJV ) . Scholars inquiry whether a peculiar drug may be deemed as immorality. necessitating complete abstention. Miller ( 1995 ) offers. “If a certain drug serves no good and utile intent. and there is no known ‘safe’ degree of usage which does non do injury ( or hazard of injury ) to the individual. so the usage of that drug might be regarded in itself as sinful” ( p. 81 ) . He concludes. “As in the scriptural position of intoxicant. the appropriate usage of chemicals is by and large accepted in society” ( p. 81 ) . Comparing and Contrasting Biblical Views with Professional Views Addiction Defined
As the rudder steers a ship. a counselor’s theory guides the guidance procedure. To efficaciously maneuver the curative session of clients with dependences. counsellors must understand the kineticss of dependence. Addiction is defined as “self-destructive behaviours that include a pharmacological constituent. The most rigorous application would restrict the term dependence and the comrade label of nut to persons with a physiological dependance on one or more illegal drugs. ” ( DiClemente. 2003. p. 3 ) . Addiction involves “an intensifying form affecting tolerance ( e. g. . looking to be comparatively unaffected by ordinary doses ) and dependance ( e. g. . trusting upon the drug to map or experience normal ) ” ( Miller. 1995. p. 82 ) . Still. over the past two decennaries. the definition of dependence has broadened to include “any substance usage or reenforcing behaviour that has an appetitive nature. has a compulsive and insistent quality. is suicidal. and is experienced as hard to modify or stop” ( DiClemente. 2003. p. 4 ) .
Gambling. shopping. picture games. cyberspace erotica. negative position of organic structure image. and even work may be included under the umbrella this wide definition of dependence ( LaBerge. 2009. p. 13 ) . The scriptural definition of dependence coincides with the expanded definition. comparing dependence with accustomed self-involved behaviours which produce religious bondage. Welch ( 2001 ) clarifies.
Addiction is bondage to the regulation of a substance. activity. or province of head. which so becomes the centre of life. supporting itself from the truth so that even bad effects don’t conveying penitence. and taking to farther alienation from God. To turn up it on the theological map. look under wickedness ( p. 35 ) . Etiology
Counselors with clients who present with symptoms of intoxicant and drug dependence demand to hold competences such as an apprehension of dependence. intervention cognition. how to suitably incorporate intervention modes. appraisal. showing. and diagnostic penetration ( Treatment Improvement Exchange. 2010 ) . Scholars debate the beginning of dependence. as observed by the assortment of proposed theoretical accounts of dependence. The theoretical accounts of dependence include: the disease ( genetic/physiological ) theoretical account. coping/social larning theoretical account. personality/intrapsychic theoretical account. compulsive/excessive behaviour theoretical account. and the conditioning/reinforcement theoretical account ( DiClemente. 2003. pp. 9-18 ) . The disease theoretical account posits that alcohol addiction is the direct consequence of familial influences.
Yet. research workers demonstrate that “genetic factors account for about ‘half the hazard for alcohol addiction. ’” ( Van Der Walde. Urgenson. Weltz. & A ; Hanna. 2002. p. 146 ) . Miller ( 1993 ) noted how a pure disease theoretical account does non give any function to the psychological factors in intervention ( p. 132 ) . Still. at that place appear to be two types of alcohol addiction which research workers present as grounds for a familial influence. Van Der Walde et Al. ( 2002 ) describe. “The foremost is a terrible signifier of early-onset alcohol addiction. which frequently presents before age 21 and is characterized by a high denseness among first-degree relatives” ( p. 146 ) . The 2nd signifier “does non look until in-between age and seems to be triggered by negative life events such as loss of a important other or other environmental influences” ( Van Der Walde et Al. . 2002. p. 146 ) .
The social/environment theoretical account emphasizes an individual’s deficiency of get bying accomplishments in response to life’s stressors in concurrence with vicarious acquisition of maladaptive behaviours from others ( DiClemente. 2003. p. 13 ) . The get bying theoretical account theorizes that persons who are unable to cover with life stressors seek to get away through their dependence. trusting upon the dependence for comfort ( DiClemente. 2003. p. 13 ) . Pangle ( 2010 ) observes. “There seems to ever be an emotional hurt associated with dependence. This emotional hurt finds relief [ or so the addict thinks ] in blunting out and happening a impermanent ‘escape’ from the hurting involved” ( personal communicating. January 28. 2010 ) .
Hester and Miller ( 2003 ) mention several get bying skill shortages such as the “lack of equal accomplishments to modulate positive and negative temper provinces every bit good as to get by with social-interpersonal state of affairss. including work. rearing. or matrimonial relationships” ( p. 213 ) . Refering the societal acquisition facet of this theoretical account. “several surveies have shown that kids and parents tend to exhibit similar imbibing patterns. bespeaking that experimental acquisition plays some function in ulterior intoxicant use” ( Ellis & A ; Zucker. 1997. p. 222 ) . Soberingly. Dawson. Goldstein. Chou. Ruan. and Grant ( 2008 ) demonstrate that “individuals who started imbibing before 15 old ages of age were significantly more likely to see the incidence of intoxicant dependance and intoxicant maltreatment in maturity than those who delayed induction of imbibing until 18 or older” ( p. 2155 ) .
The personality/intrapsychic theoretical account seeks a connexion between the intrapsychic struggles within an person or personality traits such as impulsivity. with substance maltreatment ( DiClemente. 2003. pp. 11-12 ) . The compulsive/excessive behaviour theoretical account links “addiction with ritualistic compulsive behaviours like repeated hand-washing or cleansing rituals” ( DiClemente. 2003. p. 16 ) .
The conditioning/reinforcement theoretical account relies upon support theory to explicate the etiology of dependence. For illustration. the intermittent agenda of support allotted for slot machines assures habit-forming use for many frequenters ( Tavares. Zilberman. & A ; El-Guebaly. 2003. p. 23 ) .
The current literature appears to disown the position that physiological dependance is the cardinal component that determines whether a individual has an dependence. Alternatively. the accent has become the psychological constituent that develops and maintains dependence. Ksir et Al. ( 2009 ) reveal. “Psychological dependance. based on support. is progressively accepted as the existent drive force behind repeated drug use” ( p. 36 ) . They indicated that tolerance and physical dependance do non play as a major function as psychological dependance ( Ksir et al. . 2009. p. 36 ) .
Yet. Roberts and Koob ( 1997 ) contend that dependence is the byproduct of the double procedures of support and neuroadaptation. They explain. “Working together. these factors appear to actuate the initial. short-run ( i. e. . ague ) response to a drug and the constitution of the long-run ( i. e. . chronic ) craving for the drug that characterizes addiction” ( p. 102 ) .
It has been argued that the five theoretical accounts of dependence described above do non turn to the etiology and the intervention scheme of the dependence in a comprehensive manner. DiClemente ( 2003 ) asserts. “There is besides no individual developmental theoretical account or remarkable historical way that can explicate acquisition of and recovery from addictions” ( p. 19 ) . For case. the prevailing position refering alcohol addiction coincides with the disease theoretical account “which person either ‘has’ or does non hold and which has an inevitable patterned advance to more and more imbibing. so the merely acceptable intervention end is entire abstinence” ( Ksir et al. . 2009. p. 430 ) . The aetiologic position straight impacts intervention as seen with Alcoholics Anonymous ( AA ) which subscribes to the disease theoretical account. holding entire abstention as the end ( Ksir et al. . 2009. p. 430 ) . Evidence-based research besides demonstrates effectivity of psychosocial attacks and indicates that the disease theoretical account is excessively limited in its position and application ( Miller. 1993. p. 132 ) . Still. Miller ( 1993 ) contends. “Dispositional disease positions have remained queerly intermingled with moralistic attitudes toward people who are alcoholic. ” seeing alkies as prone to lie and deny their job ( p. 131 ) .
Therefore. this research worker leans more toward a biopsychosocial theoretical account which allows for more of a comprehensive position of the etiology and an eclectic attack to intervention. That is. “a descriptive theoretical account based on continua of badness and an etiologic theoretical account embracing host. agent. and environmental factors” ( Miller. 1993. p. 135 ) . Alternatively of sing alcohol addiction as a disease like diabetes ( you either have it or you don’t ) . this research worker favors utilizing the analogy of holding high blood pressure which is “genetically influenced yet rather antiphonal to psychosocial factors” ( Miller. 1993. p. 134 ) .
Refering the “bio” portion of the biopsychosocial position. Bible seems to back certain facets of the disease theoretical account. However. the illness finally appears to be sin ( Isaiah 1:5-6 ) . That is. an dependence such as alcohol addiction is the symptom of the wickedness disease ( Galatians 5:21 ) . Jesus refers to the disease theoretical account as an illustration of humanity’s quandary and combines this “sin disease model” with what seems to be the moral theoretical account with the call to repentance—which is the intervention ( Mark 2:17 ) . The “psycho” coincides with where Scripture instructs trusters to “renew” their heads. placing the association between idea and behaviour ( Ephesians 4:23 ) . The “social” component is observed in how Paul warns. “Do non be misled: ‘Bad company corrupts good character’” ( 1Corinthians 15:33 NLT ) . For illustration. a individual ought non hang out at the saloon. or he will most likely drink.
The Scriptural aetiologic position of dependence begins with an individual’s construct of ego. God. and other relationships. For illustration. an nut could be viewed as a individual who is unwilling to come to footings with his inaccurate position of ego. God. and other relationships. In contrast. a psychologically healthy individual is person who has an accurate apprehension of ego and does non concentrate on ego. McMinn ( 1996 ) instructs that “To be healthy. we need to travel beyond a preoccupation with self” ( p. 46 ) . An unhealthy self-concept green goodss damaging consequences. At one extreme. Nebuchadnezzar’s hyperbolic position of ego led to blind fury and insanity ( Daniel 3:18-19 ; 4:30-34 ) . On the other side of the spectrum. McMinn ( 1996 ) described a adult male with a low position of ego which brought away destructive behaviours such as imbibing intoxicant overly ( p. 47 ) . A healthy position of ego does non do a individual to be lifted up with pride nor to be brought down to a lasting status of wallowing in arrant self-loathing.
Isaiah developed a balanced sense of ego when he gained an accurate vision of God. Isaiah’s brush with God produced echt brokenness. forgiveness. and a sense of godly competency to carry through the high call of God ( Isaiah 6:1-8 ) . The primary component that contributed to Isaiah’s healthy sense of ego was his unfastened acknowledgment of demand. McMinn ( 1996 ) asserts that “there is merely one manner to religious wellness. and that requires us to acknowledge that we need God” ( pp. 48-49 ) . Therefore. people who have a healthy sense of ego recognize their ain religious poorness and despairing demand for God. The subjective. experiential detection of “need” for God is an appropriate craving or “thirst. ” Jesus pointed to Himself as the lone One who truly satisfy this thirst ( John 4:13-14 ) . Appraisal
A individual who describes an egg as a double object composed of shell and egg white is losing the yolk. hence missing the complete definition. Similarly. clinicians who do non include religious appraisal in garnering informations will miss a holistic. “whole person” position of their clients. For illustration. Hodge ( 2005 ) asserts that “human existences are an incorporate entity. dwelling of organic structure. psyche. and spirit” ( p. 316 ) . This triune apprehension of a human being’s composing is consistent with a scriptural worldview ( 1Thessalonians 5:23 ) . Still. it is non entirely Christian clinicians who recognize the demand to include a client’s religious background within the reding scene. Hodge ( 2006 ) reveals. “Growing consensus exists that religious appraisal is an of import facet of holistic service provision” ( p. 317 ) .
Furthermore. the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations ( JCAHO ) . which is the largest wellness attention recognizing organic structure in the United States. “now requires the disposal of religious assessment” ( p. 317 ) . A bulk of clients have besides expressed the desire to integrate spiritualty within the curative scene ( Hodge. 2006. p. 317 ) . Spiritualty is often at the nucleus of how clients develop their worldview and get bying accomplishments ( Hodge. 2005. p. 314 ) . This apprehension is critical for developing effectual schemes with clients addicted to alcohol and drugs.
Comprehensive. qualitative religious appraisal methods include religious histories. religious lifemaps. religious genograms. religious ecomaps. and religious ecograms. Religious histories describe a format that uses inquiries “to explore religious and spiritual subjects in the context of an empathetic dialogue” ( Hodge. 2001. p. 205 ) . For illustration. the counsellor presents open-ended inquiries with a religious subject to promote clients to verbally portion their religious narrative or narrative. Examples of inquiries a clinician may utilize include “When and in what ways do you experience near to the Divine? ” and “How is God involved in your jobs? ”
Two other appraisal tools normally used to place the badness of intoxicant jobs are “the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test ( AUDIT ) and the CAGE. These instruments are listed in the NIAAA Guide and are available in computerized versions” ( Hester & A ; Miller. 2006. p. 37 ) . These and other showing tools offer benefits such as supplying “personalized feedback to clients in a timely and visually prosecuting manner” every bit good as “specific recommendations for alteration. based on the consequences of the appraisal and other empirical grounds ( Hester & A ; Miller. 2006. p. 37 ) . Matching to the transtheoretical theoretical account ( TTM ) . “a 12-item Readiness to Change graduated table has been developed as an efficient step of three phases from the transtheoretical theoretical account: precontemplation. contemplation. and action” ( Hester & A ; Miller. 2003. p. 100 ) . Diagnosis
Before a machinist can repair a auto with engine problem. he foremost must place the job. Likewise. appropriate diagnosing precedes effectual guidance. Harmonizing to the American Psychiatric Association ( APA ) ( 2000 ) . the DSM-IV-TR describes the diagnosing for 303. 90 Alcohol Dependence as “indicated by grounds of tolerance or symptoms of Withdrawal. Particularly if associated with a history of backdown. physiological dependance is an indicant of a more terrible clinical class overall” ( p. 213 ) . The diagnosing of 305. 00 Alcohol Abuse “requires fewer symptoms and. therefore. may be less terrible than Dependence and is merely diagnosed one time the absence of Dependence is established” ( APA. 2000. p. 214 ) .
Alternatively of being viewed flatly. that is. either a individual has an intoxicant upset or non. research workers suggest that jobs or dependences be viewed as being in different dimensional stages. This perspective corresponds to the psychosocial job theory. Maddux and Winstead ( 2008 ) explain. “Psychosocial job theory sees the dimensional responses as the really jobs for which people need aid. and dimensional steps as sufficient to measure. pass on about. and remedy them” ( p. 143 ) . The unfavorable judgment that upset theory has received is because “disorder theory prescribes switching the focal point from concrete job dimensions to abstract mental disorders” ( Maddux & A ; Winstead. 2008. p. 143 ) . This is non to state that categorising upsets does non hold benefits. Vieta and Suppes ( 2008 ) expound.
Dichotomies are utile for instruction. communicating. and simplification ; unluckily. simpleness is utile. but untrue. whereas complexness is true. but useless. In clinical pattern. we may utilize current categorizations. such as DSM-IV. as categorical backgrounds that may assist in set uping intervention and forecast ( p. 165 ) . Consequences
Research workers have demonstrated that “alcohol usage can increase adolescents’ exposure to hazardous state of affairss. such as driving while intoxicated. prosecuting in unprotected sex. and facing violent exchanges” ( Hester & A ; Miller. 2003. p. 83 ) . Price and Emshoff ( 1997 ) reveal. “Children of alkies ( COA’s ) are at increased hazard for a broad scope of behavioural and emotional jobs. including dependence to alcohol and other drugs ( AOD’s ) . depression. anxiousness. school failure. and delinquency” ( p. 241 ) .
A major ground for the higher hazard of jobs in COA’s is because “cross-generational transmittal of alcohol addiction additions in likeliness to the extent that alcohol addiction invades the household system and disrupts the passage of household rites ; that is. forms of behaviour that give individuality and significance to the family” ( Jacob. 1992. p. 323 ) . Hester and Miller ( 2003 ) assert. “Persons imbibing three to four drinks per twenty-four hours have a two- to threefold hazard for accidents. shot. liver disease. malignant neoplastic disease. and hypertension” ( p. 65 ) . Bible asserts that “there is a manner that seems right to a adult male. But its terminal is the manner of death” ( Proverbs 14:12 NKJV ) . Intervention Schemes
Researchers assert that clinicians working with clients addicted to alcohol demand to “become more comfy with…brief therapy intercession technique. and motivational interviewing” ( Hester & A ; Miller. 2003. p. 69 ) . Motivational interviewing. which “aims to increase a patient’s motive to alter. has been found effectual in controlled clinical trials” ( McCarty. Edmundson. & A ; Hartnett. 2006. p. 8 ) . The phases of alteration harmonizing to the transtheoretical theoretical account ( TTM ) include precontemplation. contemplation. readying. action. and care ( DiClemente. 2003. p. 27 ) .
MI is helpful in turn toing the client’s ambivalency and tipping the decisional balance toward alteration ( Hester & A ; Miller. 2003. p. 65 ) . For illustration. MI has helped actuate clients to travel from the precontemplation phase to the contemplation phase or from the readying phase to the action phase. Four cardinal factors that define MI include showing empathy. developing disagreement. turn overing with opposition. and back uping self-efficacy ( Miller & A ; Rollnick. 2002. pp. 36-41 ) . For illustration. the counsellor conveys credence by integrating listening accomplishments such as brooding hearing. paraphrasing. and clear uping.
Empathy and credence promote an atmosphere conducive for alteration. To develop disagreement. the client “rather than the counselor” is led to “present the statements for change” ( Miller & A ; Rollnick. 2002. p. 39 ) . Empathy is characteristic of the person-centered attack and is considered “the most powerful determiner of client advancement in therapy” ( Corey. 2005. p. 173 ) . Empathy disarms clients’ defences and promotes trust within the curative relationship. Empathy “involves showing the act of listening to the topic and understanding the individual’s state of affairs and the emotional reaction to it with the intent of set uping a basic trust relationship” ( Regini. 2004. p. 2 ) .
Without it. there will be no alteration. In fact. research has shown that the theoretical account of therapy is non what determines the effectivity of therapy. but the quality of the curative relationship. McKergow and Korman ( 2009 ) assert. “More of import are the curative confederation as seen by the client. commitment of the healer to their theoretical account of pick. placebo effects. and general healer competence” ( p. 46 ) . Person-centered theory presumes that the quality of the relationship between the healer and client is all that determines change
( Kirschenbaum. 2004. pp. 116-117 ) .
Research has shown that the cardinal forecaster in accomplishing a successful result in intervention is a strong curative relationship between the clinician and client ( Jennings & A ; Skovhalt. 1999. p. 4 ) . If clinicians do non set up trust in the first stage of the on the job confederation with their client. their client will be less likely to continue to the following degree that includes “shared duty for working out intervention goals” ( Horvath & A ; Luborsky. 1993. p. 563 ) . Clinton and Ohlschalger ( 2002 ) insist that trust is critical “…for without it the client excessively easy backs off from the hard challenges built-in to change” ( p. 205 ) . Trust is established when the client perceives the counsellor as lovingness. sensitive. sympathetic. and helpful ( Horvath & A ; Luborsky. p. 564 ) . Patients who do better with medicine frequently become less consistent with taking their medicines over clip. A strong confederation has been shown to assist in this country. Strauss and Johnson ( 2006 ) reveal that “patients who reported stronger confederations with their suppliers reported more positive attitudes about medicine and stigma. ( p. 220 ) .
Spiritual. psychological. and emotional wellness is interwoven within the cloth of loving relationships. The writer of Hebrews encourage trusters to “consider one another in order to stir up love and good plants. non abandoning the collection of ourselves together. as is the mode of some. but cheering one another. and so much the more as you see the Day approaching” ( Hebrews 10:24-25 NKJV ) . There are necessary times for purdah but catastrophe awaits people who wholly cut themselves off from reliable relationships. Solomon instructs. “A adult male who isolates himself seeks his ain desire. he rages against all wise judgment” ( Proverbs 18:1 NKJV ) . Therefore. clients are encouraged to fall in a little group Bible survey. a men’s group. a women’s group. a malignant neoplastic disease support group. or another group conducive to a client’s demand.
Solutions-focused brief therapy ( SFBT ) employs rapport-building techniques such as active hearing. The counsellor seeks to understand what the client wants through actively listening and reverberations back the yesteryear. nowadays. and future desires of the client. In add-on. active hearing entails rephrasing. sum uping. and inquiring inquiries. SFBT has been utile in walk-in Sessionss. Clinical interviewing techniques are “designed to travel clients off from concentrating chiefly on the job and toward a focal point on solutions. Some of these thoughts include go toing to exclusions to the job ( already bing periods when the job is non happening ) ” ( Slive. McElheran. & A ; Lawson. 2008. p. 14 ) . Other intervention schemes for clients fighting with intoxicant dependance and maltreatment include psycho-education. household therapy. behavior alteration. detoxification. and 12-step plans such as Alcoholics Anonymous ( AA ) and Narcotics Anonymous ( NA ) ( Kanel. 2007. p. 176 ) .
Hester and Miller ( 2003 ) demonstrate. “Patients go toing AA were significantly more likely to be abstentious than those non attending” ( p. 182 ) . They besides provide a sum-up of intervention schemes by order of their effectivity such as get bying accomplishments intervention ( CST ) . cue exposure intervention ( CET ) . community reinforcement attack ( CRA ) . and community support and household preparation ( CRAFT ) ( Miller & A ; Hester. 2003. pp. 218. 229-232. 237-240 ) .
Brewer ( 2008 ) presents an integrative Christian guidance grid called METAMORPH. He delineates that “METAMORPH integrative Christian guidance grid represents an eclectic attack to reding that seeks to responsibly pull upon a overplus of reding theories within the context of a Christian worldview” ( Brewer. 2008 ) . Truth drawn out from an individual’s life has the inclination to be more easy apprehended and embraced ( Proverbs 20:5 ) . For illustration. Brewer ( 2008 ) integrates pick theory techniques with explorative inquiries such as: “What do you desire? What are you making to acquire what you want? How is it working for you? Is it the right thing to make? ”
When Adam and Eve were concealing in the garden. God asked them “Where are you? ” God knew where they were. but He wanted them to go self-conscious and to see turning back to Him ( Genesis 3:9-13 ) . In similar mode. Jesus asked His adherents of import inquiries ( Matthew 16:13. 15 ) .
Refering pharmacotherapy. ordering medicines for mental upsets has been a controversial pattern particularly in Christian circles. This research worker has been rather wary in the past about any type of drug therapy. because God has “given to us all things that pertain to life and godliness” through His Godhead power ( 2Peter 1:3a NKJV ) . In add-on. Bible is sufficient to assist trusters go complete and mature. “equipped for every good work” ( 2Timothy 3:17b NKJV ) . The two old scriptural mentions did non include reference of the demand for medicines. Yet. it is interesting that shortly after. Paul describes one of the demands for godly leading as “not given to wine. ” which means to non mistreat intoxicant or to non be addicted to wine. Two chapters subsequently he instructs Timothy to personally utilize vino for a medicative intent ( 1Timothy 3:3a ; 5:23 NKJV ) .
This researcher presently holds the position that certain drugs including medicines for encephalon chemical instabilities were given through God’s counsel to profit humanity. However. merely as there is a danger that vino may be abused and lead to tragic effects. these medicines have the potency of being abused. Clinton and Ohlschlager ( 2002 ) Teach. “They [ psychiatric medicines ] have enormous potency to assist people with jobs that can destruct their lives psychologically. medically. and spiritually. However. they must be used with attention and at the discretion of person who is skilled in their administration” ( p. 152 ) .
Drug therapies address the neurobiological disfunctions which impair emotions and behavioural operation. Medicines are non needfully the “silver bullet” in work outing all the issues which challenge persons any more than vino was the panacea for Timothy’s jobs. Rather. they may assist advance adequate emotional stableness for a client to be able to have input sing other issues. An illustration of a medicine that has been successful in the intervention of intoxicant dependence is naltrexone. which “is an opiate-antagonist medicine. Clinical tests suggest that naltrexone contributes to decreases in the frequence of imbibing and badness of backsliding among alcoholic patients” ( McCarty et al. . 2006. p. 7 ) . Personal Application
As the rudder steers a ship. a counselor’s theory guides the guidance procedure. This research worker believes that a comprehensive guidance theory begins with a scriptural worldview that evaluates psychological parts. human nature. and the systems that shape the human personality. and position of dependence through the lens of Scripture. Psychology frequently limits its focal point to the survey of the psyche. The word “psychology” is a combination of the words -ology and mind.
The postfix -ology means “the survey of. ” The Grecian word mind in the Bible agencies “a populating psyche. ” and it is besides defined as “the place of the feelings. desires. affections” ( Blue Letter Bible. 2010 ) . Therefore. psychological science is the survey of one of God’s plants. the human psyche. Theology derives intending from His word. the Bible. Averbeck ( 2006 ) proposes that the “double knowledge” of psychological science ( cognition of the human individual ) and scriptural divinity ( the cognition of God ) is necessary. He expounds. “Neither one is complete in itself ; both need the other…True wisdom is conveying the cognition of God and people together in the thick of the muss which we are and in which we live. This is what the Bible and reding are truly all about” ( p. 111 ) . Therefore. this research worker seeks to incorporate divinity and psychological science into his apprehension of dependence.
This research worker works in a psychiatric infirmary scene. Alcohol dependance and maltreatment in peculiar is common within the patient population. Jeannette Sapp. a clinician at the infirmary discloses. “Alcohol is the drug of pick for many patients because it is available. legal. and comparatively cheap. Many patients self-medicate their peculiar disorder” ( personal communicating. February 16. 2010 ) .
The phases of alteration are traveling to go hospital policy refering patient intervention. The supervisor has been promoting clinicians to see the specific phase of alteration each patient they are working with is in. This is a necessary measure since each phase of alteration has different undertakings which require appropriate corresponding intercessions ( DiClemente. 2003. p. 240 ) . DiClemente ( 2003 ) asserts. “The best manner to mirror the procedure of alteration is to hold a dynamic intervention protocol that can react to being stuck at assorted phases every bit good as to motion through the phases of change” ( p. 250 ) .
It is helpful to understand that “addictions are understood as erudite wonts that one time established become hard to snuff out even in the face of dramatic. and. at times. legion negative consequences” ( Jenkins. n. d. ) . Since dependences are learned wonts which develop through the phases of alteration. they can be unlearned and replaced with healthy and helpful wonts as the person progresses through the phases of alteration.
As applied to trusters. Christians are to cover with ambivalency refering the “tug of war” between wickedness and the new nature. and to travel along the phases. going transformed into the image of Christ from glorification to glorification by God’s Spirit ( Romans 7:7 ; 2Corinthians 3:18 ) . Clinton and Ohlschlager ( 2002 ) clarify. “The effectual Christian clinician will be a principled. biblically informed. and responsible eclectic who knows how to suit the right therapy with the right client at the right clip and the right phase of living” ( p. 176 ) .
Christian counsellors are to pattern the Godhead Counselor. Jesus. the “Wonderful. Counselor” ( Isaiah 9:6b ) . has all the qualities for advancing effectual client results: echt compassion. ability to comfort. ability to dispute. and a supplier of sanctuary for the client. Jesus said that “everyone who is absolutely trained will be like his teacher” ( Luke 6:40b ) . Christian counsellors know they will go like the best guidance instructor as they learn from the Maestro Himself ( 2Corinthians 3:18 ) . Jennings and Skovhalt ( 1999 ) identified and defined the cardinal features of maestro healers. They besides gave recognition to surveies that describe effectual healers who have properties such as compassion. sensitiveness. and committedness to their clients’ wellbeing.
These qualities describe love. Clinton and Ohlschlager ( 2002 ) insist that “the most of import guidance tool is you” ( p. 67 ) . Tripp ( 2002 ) insists. “God ne’er intended us to merely be objects of His love. We are besides called to be instruments of that love in the lives of others” ( p. 18 ) . The end of this author is to go a competent and effectual counsellor. The get downing point of reflecting His love is leting Jesus to be the “first love. ” The AACC codification of moralss ( 2004 ) which states. “Christian counsellors are dedicated to Jesus Christ as their ‘first love’” ( p. 5 ) . for He entirely can truly equip and authorise a individual to be a tool filled with the agape love everyone demands ( John 15:5 ; Acts 1:8 ) .
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