CITY&GUILDS 82 – vantage This test was composed by C©loops Foundation and downloaded from www. Incontestability. Huh . It is not an official CITY&GUILDS test, only very similar. You have 2 hours and 10 minutes to complete the paper. READING Part 1 Read the text and fill the gaps with the sentences A – H. Write the letter of the missing sentence in the box in the correct gap. There are two extra sentences you will not need. We all suspected that traffic Jams were harmful.

The Sunday Times reported that sitting in a traffic Jam for as little as one hour could be enough to trigger a heart attack. They have estimated that as many as one in 12 of 2 all heart attacks could be caused by traffic pollution. . Of the victims, 450 3 had been in traffic Just hours before they felt ill. 75 were in traffic an hour or less before their symptoms appeared, and 175 had been exposed to traffic in the preceding three days. After allowing for these factors, the researchers 4 calculated that the risk of a heart attack tripled in the first hour of exposure to traffic fumes. Cars.

These tiny particulates are to be found in pollution caused by 5 Regardless of whether patients were in cars, public transport or on bicycle increased pollution was the most likely trigger. Since the patients had more than double the risk if they were in traffic shortly before their attack Jeremy Pearson of the British Heart Foundation agreed with the German scientists, who conducted the research. A They believe that particulates are to blame. B This time, however, research has proved it to be true. C So say German scientists based on their research results. D It depends on what form of transport you pick.

E Factors such as smoking and diet should be counted in. F The researchers studied 691 heart attack sufferers. G It doesn’t matter what form of transport you pick. H The British Heart Foundation learnt this through excessive research. Part 2 In this part you will see six short texts. In each case the text is incomplete. Choose a, b, c or d to complete the text. Circle the letter of the right answer. EXAMPLE: There are less and less video players and recorders in households nowadays. People . In rather buy DVD players. DVD’s last longer than video cassettes but their prices are lower as well. ) Since b) Not only c) Because d) That’s why Eastern England will be breezy with some rain, ? . Near the coast. The rest of England and Wales will be mostly cloudy with a few brighter spells possible later on mainly in the west. Eastern Scotland will have a dry day. A) more or less b) particularly c) sometimes d) very much 2. The situation in our cities in regard to traffic is ? . Traffic Jams are increasingly frequent events of urban life beginning to affect our national economies. The loss of working hours represents a significant amount of decrease in state income. A) improving. B) developing. ) stable. D) worsening. 3. Left for Venice, I took the first plane. A friend is in trouble, I want to help. Week or so. Don’t worry. Sorry for the party, can’t be there. – Jane a) Arrive back b) Depart c) You will hear d) Be back 4. Do not leave any of your belongings unattended, keep your handbag close to you at all times. A) Beware of pickpockets b) Out of order c) Mind your step d) Keep right Mr.. And Mrs.. Johnson went on a trip abroad last summer. They flew from London to New York. There was a strict security check at the departure, and they were held up by immigration for three hours in New York.

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After arriving they found the hotel dirty and their room nothing more than a dark hole. Ђ? their passport and money was stolen from the hotel room. Altogether, they had a terrible Journey. A) On top of that b) What’s most c) During d) Therefore 6. Taught by ex-PM. Weddings, Business, Social Occasions Shy? Contact Hugo Summerset at: Chester Mews, London SIX AH Tell: 020 7235 5785 www. Houseroom’s. Co. UK a) English Grammar b) Course on Active Listening c) Public Speaking d) Organizing Special Events part 3 Read the four texts below. There are ten questions about the texts.

Decide which text (A,B,C or D) tells you the answer to the question. The first one is done for you. Teachers in Scotland have been urged not to shout at children in case it causes them “psychological damage”. Kathleen Fletcher, Scotland children czar, said teachers should not raise their voice in anger, regardless of their pupils’ behavior. “Children have got rights and the right to human dignity,” said Marshall, who controls a E. Mm budget to fight abuse. “Using words like ‘sissy can damage a pupil in a similar way to physical abuse”. Dear Ms Barrier Yesterday my little girl, Kathleen came home from school crying.

She said that you had shouted at her because another child had whispered something to her during lass. As this is not the first time, I must say, I disagree with the manner in which you treat pupils. I would appreciate if you didn’t raise your voice in anger at all since it is Don unnecessary Ana Inclement. In our Tamely, we treat Don AT our CNN large Walt dignity. Thus they are not accustomed to such abuse. Please avoid such treatment in the future. Yours sincerely M. Fletcher c Some rules of thumb for teachers: 1 . Always stay polite and pleasant during class. 2.

Do not be driven back into abuse or insult even if you are pushed. 3. Try not to lose your temper! That’s what they are trying to achieve by disruption. 4. Remember that most pupils are lovely children in the right environment. 5. Remember that your Job is to create that environment. 6. Even the most awful pupils can improve. 7. Don’t become bitter. Stay positive. Hi Amber You wrote in your posting that shouting at pupils was unnecessary. What about this case? I once shouted at a pupil who was about to throw a pair of scissors across the room in anger at another pupil.

This prevented a potentially serious incident. As I almost never shout it had impact, and he immediately saw how serious it could have en and calmed down and apologized. If I was to throw scissors aggressively I would expect to be shouted at, at the least. What would you have done in that split-second without the “right” to shout at the child? Which text: 1. Is an article in a newspaper? A 2. Describes a potentially dangerous incident? 3. Is written in reply to something? 4. Refers to an insult of the writer’s daughter? 5. Recommends ways to cope with lack of discipline?

Which text gives you the answers to the following questions? 6. What exceptions are there to the rule “not to shout at pupils”? 7. What happened to Kathleen in school? . Why is it harmful to shout at children? 9. What are disruptions for on behalf of bad pupils in the class? 10. What does Ms Fletcher think of a particular teacher? Part 4 Read the text and answer the questions. DO NOT use more than three words in your answer. I en world ‘s Deluges Dakar Almost everything is sold on eBay – it has transformed the way we shop, turning housewives into tycoons and the rest of us into obsessive bargain-hunters.

Among the 971 million items sold on the site last year were huge quantities of antiques, cars and consumer electronics. A French computer programmer launched eBay in September 1995 as a central location for trading collectors’ items: coins, stamps, back issues of comics and the like. But soon everyone was visiting the new site and its shares were valued at $234 at the peak of the dotcom bubble. Its value fell following the dotcom crash, but shares are giving eBay a stock market value of $ban – greater than of General Motors. Unlike other dotcom companies, eBay still thrives. Last year about $23. Ban-worth of goods were traded on the site and eBay itself made gross profits of $1. Ban. There are almost 105 million users registered in 38 countries round the world, some nine million in the I-J. Some regular prayers have become so addicted to trading on the site that they’ve set up their own businesses for items to sell online. In Britain, eBay’s popularity has grown to such an extent that the University of Birmingham this summer launched the first I-J course on buying and selling on eBay. The big attraction for sellers is price. Sellers often find that they are able to get prices for their goods that they could never get any other way.

Fashion retailers say that they can sell out-of-season stock for app in the pound on eBay, whereas they would get a mere app in the pound in the shop. And for buyers, the thrill of the auction itself is highly addictive. Bidders obsessively track the progress of the auction to see how their bid is faring. And eBay will even send bidders mobile phone alerts to update them on the progress of the auction. The auction system works almost entirely on trust. Buyers and sellers agree to exchange money and goods usually on the basis of little more information than appears on the screen.

Sellers post photos and descriptions of the items on eBay and may respond to email enquiries from potential bidders. Auctions last anything from one to ten days. Often, the bulk of the bids come in the closing minutes. To improve trust, eBay uses a feedback system, with both sides posting comments about one another once the transaction is complete. In this way, regular traders can build reputation for honest dealing. Surprisingly, there is little fraud on eBay. The site is used increasingly to sell stolen goods, pirated CDC and fake designer items but the company employs 800 people to tackle the problem.

Example: Q: What form of fraud has become more frequent recently on eBay? A: Selling stolen goods (Do not use more than three words in your answer. ) 1. How much did eBay earn last year? 2 wanly company NAS enlarger market value eBay or General Motors? 3. Which institution educates people on how to trade on eBay? 4. What attracts sellers? 5. How can bidders be informed about auctions when they are not online? 6. What is the operation of eBay based on that makes it work? 7. What do sellers put up on the site to inform buyers about the items for sale? 8. At least how long an auction must be? 9.

What tools ensures the maintaining of the trust on eBay? WRITING Write an article for an English language magazine as requested in the notice from the magazine below. Write between 100 and 150 words. English Learners Worldwide ‘Reading books teaches things about life. ‘ Write us your thoughts about the usefulness of books in real life. Tell us about a book that made you think and had a major effect on you. Include: ( The story of the book ( What it taught you. The best article will receive an award of IOW. Write a letter to a friend in Britain. Describe your new Job. Say what the good and bad points are. Detente 100 Ana 1 words.

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