Though they have been in being for less than a century. India and Pakistan have adequate history between them to make full several books. Tensions between Hindus and Muslims grew quickly with the split of India and Pakistan in 1947. Before tensenesss were running high. but now gave manner to rioting. It all started when India. so besides including what is now present twenty-four hours Pakistan. was under British regulation. The British had been governing for approximately a century and land the native’s faces in the soil the full clip they were in power.

Naturally. there were dissidents who did non appreciate being told what to make and these voices grew stronger as clip went along. Over the clip. Britain had given more and more freedom to India until it was about free. Around the clip of World War 2. Britain asked for the aid of Indians to contend in the war against Japan. India relented but so negotiations broke down and India demanded it be free. The Muslim cabal of British India ( or British Raj ) . which made up a smaller per centum of British India than Hindus did. did non desire India to be free. since they felt they would be treated like 2nd category citizens. Under British philosophy. all indigens were treated equal and the Muslims thought they would be treated more reasonably under British regulation. To to the full understand the deepness of the state of affairs. one would hold to travel back when the British first staked their claim in India.

On Dec. 31. 1600. Queen Elizabeth I granted permission to the British East India Company to transport out trade in the East. chiefly India. In 1608. the first British bargainers landed in contemporary Gujurat. They established a trading station ( mill ) and began merchandising with the locals. In 1612. bargainers fought off the Portuguese at the Battle of Swally. which won them the favour of the Mughal Emperor. Jahangir. Jahangir showed them his gratitude by allowing the British bargainers the right to construct trading stations in his land in exchange of European goods. This had a immense economic impact on the Mughal Empire and set the case in point for many of the other imperiums to follow. The emperor Jahangir was a benevolent adult male and was good respected by his topics. but he did non recognize his act was puting up the full subcontinent for catastrophe. In 1670. Charles II granted the right to the Company to raise an ground forces. get land. publish money and do everything that would fundamentally do it it’s ain state. Not until the 18th century were the British taken earnestly adequate to be considered a menace. and by so no 1 was powerful plenty to halt them.

They moved across the land. annexing all lands in contemporary India. Pakistan. Sri Lanka. parts of Bangladesh and Nepal. Some lands fought valorously against the might of the East India Trading Company but fell in the terminal. most notably Tippu Sultan of the Mysore Kingdom. Some little lands remained but they excessively. were shortly taken after the Lord Dalhousie. who devised the Doctrine of Lapse. which said the Company had the right to take over any land whose swayer had died without a male inheritor. At the terminal of their run. the Company had an ground forces of over 280. 000 ; merely 38. 000 of whom were British. The remainder of the 242. 000 were called sepoys. ( or sipiaahi in Urdu. intending “soldier” ) a mix of Hindus and Muslims some of whom served of their ain free will but more were conscripted. Soon. there was a complete monopoly on British India ; the Company stripped the land of cherished stuffs like gold. Ag. diamonds and silk. Indians did non do money off these since it was used to pay laughably high revenue enhancements.

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American indians now went through one of the most hard times in their history. At this clip. much of India was hit with a immense drouth that made farming really hard. What the East India Trading Company was making to India and its economic system was like what Britain was making to the English settlements in America. They transported the natural stuffs. ( which they bought from the husbandmans at stone underside monetary values ) back to Britain. where they were processed into goods. and sent them back to India as finished merchandises which they sold for really high monetary values. The Company forced husbandmans who could non pay their revenue enhancements to turn harvests that were in demand in Britain. such as anil. java. jute and tea. Britain used India for everything and gave back nil ; for case. they conducted the illegal opium trade through India to China since it could non merchandise opium straight in China because of Customs and Excise. At the tallness of operations. Britain exported about 1. 400 dozenss of opium per twelvemonth. Over the old ages. Indians began to experience that they were being treated below the belt and some rebellious ideas began to organize. All these emotions were jumpstarted when Mangal Pandey. a sepoy in the 34th regiment of the Bengal Native Infantry. ( Appendix A. Figure 2 ) fired at a dominating officer and was sentenced to hang.

At his hanging. in the face of all the British officers and the 1. 000 Indians who showed up to the hanging. shouted the words “Halla Bol” which means The End. Many historiographers thought the new Enfield P-53 rifle which used cow fat to grease the cartridge. was the provoker that led to unrest and mutiny. The cow is considered really sacred in Hindu civilization even today. After hearing about the heroics of Mangal Pandey. the sepoys revolted and therefore started The Rising. ( besides know as the Indian Rebellion of 1857 ) . The sepoys banded together and marched toward New Delhi. where the Mughal Emperor. seeking to rectify the error made by his ascendant. the emperor Jahangir. broke off from Company control and waged war against them. It was non much of a war. more of a hit and run event utilizing guerilla tactics. Although the British put down the mutineers. it caused them to rethink their policies refering India. Before now. the Company held a tight chokehold over India and there was no room for maneuvering.

Now Britain realized that this chokehold was exactly what led to the mutiny and ordered the Company to loosen up its policies. Besides. it ordered more societal interaction between the Europeans and the Indians. This. they hoped would take to a more unfastened relationship and non a master-servant relationship. Besides. they rewarded the sepoys and male monarchs who stood by the Company during The Rising and besides softened their stance towards strict spiritual patterns such as the “suttee” which a widow ascent on to her husband’s funeral pyre and follows him to heaven. The British realized how strongly the Indians felt about their imposts and tried non to step in. Besides. the British Government appointed a governor-general who was to supervise all operations. The 2nd governor-general ( or vicereine ) repealed the Doctrine of Lapse. returning all the land the Company took over when the land’s native proprietors did non hold any male inheritors to take the throne. This accounted to about 25 % of the land the Company controlled. There was non much economic impact due to The Rising and things were run the same manner they have been for centuries. One thing that did do a difference was the Industrial Revolution ; it allowed machines to make the work in hours that took husbandmans yearss to finish.

It was besides at this clip that the British noticed a rift between Hindus and Muslims. The two groups chiefly kept to themselves and each faith denounced the other. They besides disagreed on many other things. which led the British to maintain them in separate regiments. In some conflicts. whole regiments would turn against their ain ground forces and fight those of the opposite faith. This intense disfavor dated from when their ascendants would contend for the best land and nutrient. Over the decennaries this disfavor grew so much that it was difficult to believe they could even populate by each other. In the earlier portion of the nineteenth century. the British gave an unprecedented sum of control back the Indians and the first seeds of self-government grew when it was announced the Indian community would choose a group of advisers to the Viceroy. Besides. Indians would be given selected functions in the cardinal authorities.

After the aid India gave in World War 1. the British authorities showed its gratitude by leting the Indians to put up their ain legislative assemblies and would easy be incorporated into the higher British legislative assemblies. Over clip. the Viceroy had come to confer with the Indian leaders of the legislative assemblies ( or Congress ) . so when it was found he had volunteered India’s services in World War 2 without confer withing the Indian leaders. there was a immense tumult. Normally. there would non been an tumult. but the people had gotten used to the freedom and control they had and did non wish to give it up. Sir Stafford Cripps started what is known now as the Cripps’ Mission. which was to convert the Indians to impart a manus to the British cause in exchange for independency after World War 2. He was successful in the beginning but negotiations between them began to interrupt down. At this clip. a adult male by the name of Mohandas K. Gandhi launched a non-violent motion known as Quit India. This motion called for the British to retreat wholly. At this same clip. Mohammad Ali Jinnah. a Muslim politician. wanted a separate entity for Muslims.

He and most of the Muslim population felt that they would be treated below the belt by a strictly Indian authorities since India was largely populated with Hindus. Jawaharlal Nehru. the Hindu leader. who was backed by the multitudes and most notably. Gandhi. rejected the British offer and the British were excessively occupied with World War 2 and complied with the Indians’ petition. This is where the struggle with Hindus and Muslims moved into high cogwheel. Jinnah wanted to make a separate state and Hindus did non desire to give up a portion of the land they had lost for centuries earlier. In the part that is now Kashmir. rioting broke out between Hindus and Muslims and the two leaders. who had the extreme regard for each other and merely wanted to be what was best for the people agreed to run into. They met in Kashmir. the centre of the public violences. so at least the force would halt for every bit long as they held unfastened conversation. They came off with the Muslims holding got what they wanted. a state for themselves. ( Appendix A. Figure 1 ) This state. officially named The Dominion of Pakistan ( Pakistan in Urdu means the Land of the Pure ) was in the north-west portion of the former British Raj and besides the eastern portion.

This was where most of the Muslims were situated anyhow but besides a mark of how they were treated as low category citizens because that part has really bad agriculture conditions and the land is really bouldery. The purposes of the baronial leaders. Nehru and Jinnah. ( Appendix A. Figure 3 ) were good but the leaders who followed them sullied their names by puting themselves up as enemies. Over the old ages. there have been many struggles between the two states. the last one about ensuing in atomic warfare. One of the grounds they hate each other is because each of the several faiths have a deep seated hate of another. This goes back to the clip of the Indus Valley Civilization ( Muslims ) and the brutal brown-skinned people of the South ( Hindus ) .

One of the chief grounds the hate has reignited over the past old ages is because of the state of Kashmir. Kashmir is a alcoholic. beautiful topographic point with olympian mountains and calm lakes which attracts 1000s of tourers per twelvemonth. It is over this Eden that conflicts are being fought. Besides. adding to the consequence Kashmir has on the economic system. it is a strategic military base because of the mountains. There have been entire of three struggles over the past old ages centered on Kashmir. As of now. India controls Kashmir and the newest menace that had come out of both states was atomic warfare. For two yearss. there was a draw to see who would wink foremost and the states came to an understanding non to utilize atomic arms. This menace of atomic warfare is immense since Pakistan is non to the full democratic and has been under military regulation for many old ages of its being.

The subject of struggle and via media goes really good with this subject since hostility seems to be a ne’er stoping rhythm of struggles and via medias between these two states. There have been many struggles in the short 60 old ages of these states existence. most notably the struggle that brought the separation of India and Pakistan. There has ne’er been in the history of world. two states who fought like this for what sums to so small. The ground as to why India and Pakistan strongly dislike each other is because each several state does non like the other’s faith. Even before the British came to the subcontinent. Hindus and Muslims lived together in peace. The conditions may non hold been harmonious. but they were good plenty so Muslims and Hindus could populate together. Now. by making two separate states. each faith had a common enemy they could distribute propaganda about.

It made it easier for the people who are seeking to make pandemonium easier to make so. The original initiation male parent of each state had merely baronial purposes and merely tried to halt the bloodshed. They did non conceive of the hate and hostility that would follow. It is like the Constitution of these United States. the leaders who wrote it had the right thought when composing it. but they did non recognize people of future coevalss would be pull stringsing those really Torahs to their ain terminals. Peoples have made premises about other people merely because of their place state and they are predisposed to dislike that peculiar individual. If the state was united. like it was under the British. people would be unfastened and non so speedy to judge based on faith. The via medias. they turned out to be speedy via medias as struggles continue to turn up. even to this really twenty-four hours. The biggest via media. which was one-sided in favour of the Pakistanis. was that Pakistan was created in the first topographic point to avoid farther bloodshed. As it has been stated before. tensenesss between Hindus and Muslims grew quickly with the split of India and Pakistan in 1947.

Plants Cited

Baker. Mark. “The War of Sorrow in Kashmir. ” WorldPress 4 June 2002. Vol. 49 No. 9 erectile dysfunction. 1 Nov. 2007. Banerjie. Indranil. Observing 50 Old ages of Indian Independance. 1997. SAPRI INDIA. 1 Nov. 2007. Bollu. Nagandra. Personal interview. 17 Oct. 2007.

Bollu. Prasuna. Personal interview. 16 Oct. 2007.
“Kargil War-1965. ” Armed Conflict Events Data. 11 Dec. 2000. 1 Nov. 2007.
Kotapati. Krishnavati. Personal interview. 24 Oct. 2007.
Kotapati. Rao. Personal interview. 15 Oct. 2007.
Pike. John. “1999 Kargil Conflict. ” Global Security. Ed. John Pike. 27 Apr. 2005. 1 Nov. 2007. Rakshak. Bharat. The First Kashmir War 1947-48. Ed. Bharat Rakshak. 10 June 2007. 1 Nov. 2007. Singh. Karam. Indian Soldier. Photograph. Tribune India. Tribune India. Ed. H. K. Dua. 1 Nov. 2007.

Annotated Bibliography

Primary Beginnings

Bollu. Nagandra. Personal interview. 17 Oct. 2007.
Nagandra Bollu was a 18-year old male child at the clip and was really much into the war and how it was traveling. This first-hand history helped me to visualise what the common people were experiencing at the clip.

Bollu. Prasuna. Personal interview. 16 Oct. 2007.
Prasuna Bollu was a 13-year old miss when the war started and her household had some political influence. Her penetration showed me what the wealthier people of India were believing about the war.

Kotapati. Krishnavati. Personal interview. 24 Oct. 2007.

Krishnavati Kotapati’s male parent was enlisted to function in the ground forces and he served for 2 old ages. Her input gives me the feelings of a soldier who really participated in the war.

Kotapati. Rao. Personal interview. 15 Oct. 2007.
Rao Kotapati is a historiographer is his trim clip and has helped me through some hard parts of my paper. He is of import to my paper because he has witnessed the events with his ain eyes

Secondary Beginnings

Baker. Mark. “The War of Sorrow in Kashmir. ” WorldPress 4 June 2002. Vol. 49
No. 9 erectile dysfunction. 1 Nov. 2007. This web site gave me many facts on how the people of Kashmir acted. This beginning is valuble to my paper since it gave me specific quotation marks of what the people of Kashmir said.

Banerjie. Indranil. Observing 50 Old ages of Indian Independance. 1997. SAPRI INDIA. 1 Nov. 2007. This web site is a basic overview of everything that happened. This beginning is valuable to me since it provides a timeline for me to mention to.

Pike. John. “1999 Kargil Conflict. ” Global Security. Ed. John Pike. 27 Apr. 2005. 1 Nov. 2007. This web site gave me a batch of my information for the Kargil War. It gave me battles sites and maps and a batch of things I will utilize to a great extent in my paper.

Rakshak. Bharat. The First Kashmir War 1947-48. Ed. Bharat Rakshak. 10 June 2007. 1 Nov. 2007. This web site was about the first Kashmir War and what caused it. This beginning is of import to my paper since this is the beginning I used most for the Kashmir War.

Singh. Karam. Indian Soldier. Photograph. Tribune India. Tribune India. Ed. H. K. Dua. 1 Nov. 2007. This image depicts an Indian soldier dressed for combat. This image is of import to my paper because it shows how soldiers at that clip went into war.

“Kargil War-1965. ” Armed Conflict Events Data. 11 Dec. 2000. 1 Nov. 2007. This website gave many bantam inside informations about the war that I could non happen in other beginnings. This web site is of import to my paper because of the intricate inside informations it gave about the war.


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