1) Explain the term ‘counter urbanisation’.
The movement of people and employment away from large cities to smaller settlements.
2) Suggest reasons to explain why people would want to move away from large towns and cities.
There are four main reasons as to why people might want to move away from larger cities:
1. The increase in car ownership over the last 40 years means people are more mobile. This has led to an increase in commuting. Also, the growth in information technology (E-mail, faxes and video conferencing) means more people can work from home.
2. Urban areas are becoming increasing unpleasant place to live. This is the result of pollution, crime and traffic congestion.
3. More people tend to move when they retire.
4. New business parks on the edge of cities (on Greenfield sites) mean people no longer have to travel to the city centre. People now prefer to live on the outskirts of the city to be near where they work.
3) Which groups of people would be more likely to move away and why.
People who work in the office using ICT and the elder people are the groups of people who would be most likely to move away. This is because of the increasing pollution in the cities, people want to get away from that and live or work in a nice clean area. It is human nature to want that. Also, the use of e-mails and faxes has made the working world an easier place to get used to. The use of technology in this modern world has made working from home a much more popular choice among ICT users.
4) What impact could counter-urbanisation have on the environment and services in the affected large towns and cities?
There are many impacts that counter-urbanisation can have on the large towns and cities affected. One very worrying impact is the possibility of some areas of the city declining as people move further out of the city. This means that communities will be broken, schools may not have enough pupils and they will have to be closed down. This means that the remaining students will have to move schools, which may lead to a further decline. Also, crime might increase as less people will be around and there will be greater opportunities for the criminal. As fewer witnesses will be around on the streets.
Another impact on the cities might be the possibility of business in the CBD declining as people move out to the edge of the city. The migrants would obviously not come all the way back into the CBD for their shopping, they will probably use out of town shopping centres.
Another impact may be that traffic congestion will increase on major roads leading in and out of the city at peak times. This will increase the Co2 emissions from cars and will increase to the greenhouse effect and therefore the environment will become worse.
1) Explain the term ‘suburbanised village’.
A village that has adopted some of the characteristics (new housing estates, services etc.) of urban areas.
2) Read the information on the attached sheet about Thurston. Describe the location of Thurston.
Thurston is a village in Suffolk situated about three miles East of Bury St Edmunds and about ten miles south of Hopton.
3) Describe how the village changed between 1884 and 1992 under the following headings:
Size of village
The size of the village increased by a considerable amount between 1884 and 1992. In 1984 it had a mere 600 residents, whereas in 1994 that number rose to about 3000. The village expanded a little into the east and west and a few new roads, such as Mount road, were built.
Land use within and around the village
The land use has become more rewarding, for the village and local council. For example, in the north-west corner of the village, where in 1884 there was Thurston Heat, there are now shops. This is a benefit to the local community and the village will make more money. More shops have also been placed near the school. Another new feature is the playing field now near the centre of the village. The chalk pit has been turned into an area where children can enjoy themselves. This is good for the community. Overall, the land use has modernised the village a little bit.
Type and design of houses
The housing in and around the village has become more modernised. Council estates made housing more affordable which drew in even more potential residents of Thurston village. This might possibly lead to an increase in the villages wealth.
Range of services and amenities
There has been an increase in services and amenities. In 1884 there were only few services and amenities. However, in 1994 these services spread out all over the village and new ones were brought in.
Age and occupation of inhabitants
It is most likely that the age range of the inhabitants of the village will be the same as any other place. This is because it is mainly office workers and ICT users that move out of the city. These people will probably take their families with them. Also, the other main migrants are the elder people. They usually want to get away from the pollution and noise; if they have families then they might move with them. Or really caring sons/daughters might move with their old parents to look after them, taking their families with them too.
Public and private transport
The transport has become much better. With the introduction of the railway in 1846 people became much more mobile and could travel between places much easier. Also, the village has a set of new roads, such as Mount Road or the small roads going of Church Road.
4) How might the following groups of people be affected by the changes in the village:
Their land might be needed to be cleared to make way for new housing or new roads. They would obviously receive compensation but that might still not be able to please the land owners. Because they’ll lose their source of income, if they farm the land.
Retired local village residents
They might be disturbed by all the people coming into the village. All they want is peace and quiet but they might end up having noisy neighbours. Noise pollution will definitely become a problem in the village if people migrate their in great numbers. Most families in the UK own a car, so this will bring pollution with it.
Married couples with young children
These couple might be affected if the village becomes overcrowded. Schools might get filled up more quickly and force these couple to take their children to different, farther, schools or nurseries than they would like to. But they might also make new friends, and their children will grow up in a more rich community.
They might be affected because getting to work might become a problem due to congestion at peak times. It might force some people to drive a longer way to get to work. This congestion and further traveling distances could add to the greenhouse effect. Which is bad for the environment.
Brownfield and Greenfield sites
1) How many new homes will Britain be estimated to need by 2016?
It is estimated that 4.1 million new homes will be needed by 2016.
2) Where will most of these new homes be needed?
Suggest reasons to explain why the demand for new homes is likely to be strongest in this region.
Most of these homes will be needed in the south-east region of England. The demand for new housing is likely to be strongest in this region because the south-east is a major attraction to migrants. Due to all these migrants arriving in the south-east new housing is needed to house all these people.
3) What proportion of this estimated number of new homes does the Government suggest is built on Brownfield sites?
The government suggests to build 50% of the new homes on Brownfield sites. However, after the argument from ‘save the countryside’ the government revised this number and now decided that 60% will be built on Brownfield sites.
4) Which part of Britain has the least available Brownfield sites?
The south-east has the least available Brownfield sites.
5) Suggest reasons to explain why developers would prefer to build most or all new homes on Greenfield Sites.
Property developers would prefer to build on Greenfield sites because:
o Most British people want to own their own home, complete with garden, set in a rural or semi-rural location.
o People are healthier and generally have a better quality of life in rural areas.
o At present, for every three people moving into cities, five more out into the countryside.
o Greenfield sites are cheaper to build on than Brownfield sites as they are likely to have lower land values and are less likely to be in need of clearing-up operations.
6) Suggest reasons to explain why conservation groups and people living in villages want the houses to be built on Brownfield sites.
A few reasons as to why conservation groups and people living in villages want the houses to be built on Brownfield sites are as follows:
o There are already 3/4 of a million unoccupied houses in cities that could be upgraded
o A further 1.3 million could be created by either subdividing large houses or using empty space above shops and offices
o According to the database, 1.3 million homes could be built on vacant and derelict land and another 0.3 million by re-using old industrial and commercial premises.
o Urban living reduces the need to use the car and maintains services, especially retailing, in city centres.