Cpusat Essay, Research Paper
The times are altering & # 8230 ; How France, Germany and Sweden introduced private, overseas telegram and satellite Television & # 8211 ; a comparing over the past10 old ages. Why we have chosen this topic? Before get downing to compose about Television in Sweden, Germany and France, wewanted to compare French, German and Swedish media. But on history ofthe broadness of this analysis, we decided to concentrate on the evolutionof Television broadcast medium during these last 10 years.The proficient revolution which has appeared in this country since 1980is necessary to be understood to be able to follow and calculate whatwill go on in the hereafter when transnational companies can take alook on pan-european broadcast medium. In this paper we try to do thepoint on this alterations. Furthermore as we came from differentcountries and live now in an other one, we found it interesting tocompare the three states ( France, Germany and Sweden ) TV-broadcasting system. While we were seeking for informations, we discovered the spread that existsin cable-covering between France and the two other states. Whatare the chief grounds of this hold? Are they political, fiscal orcultural? We will seek to reply these inquiries in our paper. But wewill first define the different proficient footings that weare traveling to concentrate on. Then we will developp the birth of privatechannels, their ordinances, Torahs and funding in the differentcountries. In our paper you will happen the undermentioned proficient footings: tellurian broadcast medium: this is the basic engineering used tobroadcast wireless and Television. It s the usage of radio-frequencies that canbe received by a simple aerial. The job by utilizing terrestrialbroadcasting is, that you merely have a few ( up to max. 7 ) possiblefrequencies and that you need to hold expensive senders every100-150 kilometer to cover an area.Programms which are broadcasted terrestrical are e.g. : Swedish Television 1,2 and 4 ; German ARD, ZDF, 3. Programme and some private channels inurban countries ; French TF 1, France 2 and France 3. overseas telegram Television: the ground why you have merely a few frequences byusing tellurian broadcast medium is that terestrial broadcast medium isinfluenced by physical phenomens ( bandwith ) whereas airing ina overseas telegram is shielded/protected from outside influences. So you canhave more channels on the same bandwith-space. For illustration: a cablemight carry 7 programmes catched with an aerial from terrestricaltransmitters and extra 25 orbiter channels ( maximal 30-35different channels in one overseas telegram ) . Alternatively of linking to anantenna cable-households connect their TV-sets to the cable-network. satellite broadcast medium: a orbiter is a sender that ispositioned on a class in infinite 40.000 kilometer far from Earth. Theadvantage of this engineering is to cover a broad country with lone onetransmitter. Modern direct broadcast medium orbiters ( DBS, e.g. Astra ) can be received by little ( | 30cm ) and inexpensive ( | 2.000: – SKR ) & # 8221 ; satellite-dishes & # 8221 ; . To link a TV-set to the & # 8220 ; serve & # 8221 ; you besides needa device that converts the standard satellite-signals to signalsthat can be used by a standard TV-set.In the beginning ( 80s ) this engineering needed immense and expensivedishes and was merely used to convey signals to cable-networks.Newer engineering is frequently cheaper than linking a house to acable-network. In east-Germany the German PTT ( Telekom ) is competingwith their cable-network against the inexpensive satellite-dishes. The most tranceiver-signals on DBS-Astra are booked by British ( NBC-Super, MTV & # 8230 ; ) and German ( RTL, SAT-1 & # 8230 ; ) broadcasters. Satellitescan besides be used for telephone-connections, TV- or radio-broadcasting. TO BE FILLED WITH THE BEGINNING ( PUBLIC TV 1930S & # 8211 ; 1984 ) The first broadcast medium trials happenned in the late 30+s like inGermany. It is merely in 1945, after the 2nd universe war, that TheOrdinance formalized the province monopoly of airing which wasassigned to Radiodiffusion de France. The Radiodiffusion de Francehas so included telecasting in 1959 and became RTF ( Radiodiffusion-Television de France ) . Established as a public company accountableto the Ministery of Information, RTF became an & # 8220 ; Office & # 8221 ; ( ORTF ) stillsupervised by the authorities. The events that happened in France inMay 1968, have so helped the authorities to liberalise the medium.The authorities of information was hence abolished and in 1974, an Act divided the ORTF in seven different public companies whichformed the public broadcast medium service: TF1, Antenne 2, FR3, RadioFrance, TDF, SFP, INA.Private channels emerge in France with Canal Plus the crypted-payingchannel in 1984. This terrestical channel is owned by Havas. CanalPlus has to air a day-to-day clear plan lasting from 45 minutesto 6 hours, the norm is 3 hours and a half per twenty-four hours. In 1985 seesthe birth of two new private channels France 5 and TV6 which wereforbidden to air the twelvemonth after. Finally in 1987, they haverefound the right to air under the several name La Cinq andM6. At this clip, it already existed five public channels: TF1 ( which is since 1987 privatized ) , A2 ( rebaptised France 2 ageneralist airing telecasting ) , FR3 ( today called France 3, anational and regional Television ) , Television 5 Europe ( European channel launched in1983, transmits programmes broadcast in French-speaking states bysatellite ) and RFO ( transmits wireless and Television programmes to Frenchoverseas districts and ownerships ) . In may 1992, ARTE-La Sept, the Franco-German channel has started to air on the Gallic andGerman cable-net. Then when the private Gallic channel, La Cinq, stopped broadcast medium, ARTE was allowed to air from 19h to 1hin the forenoon on this available frequency. The 13th of december1994, has appeared a new public channel & # 8220 ; La Cinquieme & # 8221 ; besides called & # 8221 ; channel of cognition & # 8221 ; ( la cha Ne du savoir ) which is broadcastingon the same frequency as ARTE until 19h. To summarize, today the Gallic TV-broadcasters are: public: France 2private: France 3M6 ArteTF 1 La CinquiemeCanal+ ( pay-tv ) RFO Television 53.2 CABLE/SATELLITE TVCable channels were launched in France in 1984, 2 % of the householdswere cabled. This inaugural came from Minister Mauroy who presentedcable as & # 8220 ; a monolithic, consistent and orderly solution to satisfymultiple communicating demands & # 8221 ; . In fact this overseas telegram program metopposition of several parties. This was stand foring to high costs, and the province organisation ( DGT ) assigned of the overall controlcontrol of the execution of the new engineering antagonized themanufacturers of overseas telegram equipment who proved unable to bring forth whatwas required within the in agreement monetary value and clip. In 1986, the cableplan was definitevly abandonned. Around 10 private companies are nowresponsible for advancing the overseas telegram, for case La compagnieg n rattle de videocommunication, la Lyonnaise Communication, Eurocable & # 8230 ; It exists 25 local channels, 13 Gallic channels are broadcasted, overseas telegram now reaches 25,3 % of Gallic families and the fee vary from115: SKR to 400: SKR on history of the figure of channels you wishreceiving. It costs a batch of money for the company to portion the overseas telegram in Franceas it requires the usage of an expensive stuff such as the opticalmicrofiber. Because of this cost, the overseas telegram cyberspace is now set forcollectivity alternatively of persons. Furthermore this installationcan merely be achieved on the will of the county otherwise theautorisation can non be received by the overseas telegram company. thecommercial board of the overseas telegram society has to convert thesecommunities. France ownes two direct-diffusing orbiters: TDF 1 and TDF 2, andone telecommunication one: Telecommunication 2A. Most of the programmesdiffused through orbiter are in fact the one you can acquire thanks tothe overseas telegram. & # 8212 ; & # 8211 ; 3.3 LAWS AND REGULATIONSThe C.S.A. ( Conseil Sup rieur de l+ Audiovisuel ) is the authorityresponsible in France for broadcasting+s ordinances. It is composedof 9 designed members: – three chosen by the President of Republique- three chosen by the President of Senat- three other by the President of National AssemblyThis establishment is truly politicised as we can see. It insures regard of pluralist look of thoughts, of Frenchlanguage and civilization, of free competition, of quality and diversityof plans & # 8230 ; It besides regulates the frequencies gestion. It caninterfer every bit good in the populace as in the private sector. It givesthe autorisations of development of overseas telegram webs, satellite andterrestrial Television, M6 and Canal Plus for case are allowedto broadcast for 10 old ages, so tehy have to renegotiate theirautorisation of broadcast medium. Autorisations for CableTV last 20years and can be allowed to companies or & # 8220 ; regies & # 8221 ; on local electedpeople+s proposal. Furthermore Gallic and foreign channels whichwant to air on overseas telegram cyberspace demand to subscribe a convention with theCSA. The execution of the cyberspace is so under the Communeresponsibility. The CSA makes besides policy such as advertisement to be respected. Thetime of advertisement per hours is 12 manganese. TF1 for case hasoverpassed this allowance of 81 secondes and 94 secondes an othertime and was hence obliged to pay 2. 800.000,00 Ffr ( 4.000.000,00: SEK ) , which equals 16.000 Ffr per second ( 23.000,00: SEK ) . It besides reuglates the political intercession on the public channeland made the jurisprudence of the three 3rd to be regarded. This regulationis that the channel in a political programm should esteem 1/3 forthe authorities, 1/3 for bulk and 1/3 for resistance. 3.4 FINANCING4. TV-BROADCASTING IN GERMANY4.1 HISTORYThe first TV-experiments in Germany were made in the 1930s tobroadcast e.g. the Olympic Games. After World War II the harbingerof the first German TV-station ARD began airing under alliedcontrol in 1949 in northern Germany and Northrhine-Westfalia underthe duty of the NWDR-Laenderanstalt. The ARD is abroadcaster with merely forming maps for the & # 8220 ; Laender & # 8221 ; -basedproduction installations ( Laenderanstalten, e.g. NDR, WDR & # 8230 ; ) . Everypart of the programm that is broadcasted under the label ARD is
produced under the duty of a state-based station. Thesecond German broadcaster ZDF is different from ARD. The ZDFproduces Television on its ain but the station is indirectly controlled by aconference of the provinces. There are besides several regional
“third”channels bound to the culture of one or more states which are onlybroadcastet within the states and are produced by the”Laenderanstalten”. Private TV-programmes were introduced in 1984. You will find moreabout the introduction on the following page. There were 15 Germany-based TV-broadcasters in 1994. To summarise, today the Germany-based TV-broadcasters are :public: ARDprivate (general interest): ZDFRTL Arte (with F)Sat 1 3-Sat (with AU + CH)Pro7 DW-TV (foreign service)private (special interest):private (pay TV): Kabel 1Premiere Vox Viva RTL 2 DSF n-tvDefinitions on the next page!4.2 CABLE/SATELLITE TV The German PTT developed as one of the first PTT s in Europestandards in cabling private households. But in the late 70 s thesocial democrats (SPD) blocked the PTT because the Bonn governmentwas afraid that cable technology would lead into private TV. Afterthe changing the government in 1982 the new conservative government(CDU) and the minister for post and telecommunication Schwarz-Schilling invested in the new cable-technology. The first private TV-broadcasters (SAT-1 and RTLplus) got theirlicense for a cable-trial-project in Ludwigshafen in 1984. Afterstarting the Ludwigshafen project (estimated for 3 years duration)the countries with conservative majority allowed the PTT tobroadcast the trial-programmes from the trial-projects in theirregular cable-networks. This was the beginning of private TV inGermany and a trial-project became regular-service within a fewmonths… . After a decision from the highest court in 1986commercial TV was legal. The social democrats (SPD) changed theirpolitics against private TV in the late 80 s and gave licenses to afew of the most important private broadcasters in states with a SPDmajority. Now Koeln (Cologne) in the state of Northrhine-Westfalia(SPD) is one of the most important places for German media (RTL,Viva-TV, Vox) among the traditional “media-capitols” Hamburg andMuenchen. After unification in 1990 the PTT Telekom invested in cable Networksin the former GDR. But 1994 only 14 percent of all east-Germanhouseholds were connected to a cablenetwork and even terrestricalbroadcasting still has not reached the “western” standard. Foreastern Germany satelite-TV is very important. For this reason theGerman public broadcasters ARD and ZDF decided in 1992 to broadcastvia the ASTRA-Sat to reach the eastern population. In 1993 the PTTsigned a contract with the Luxemburg based ASTRA-Enterprises tobecome a associate member of this commercial organization. Since1995 the Telekom is a private company and there are plans to providetechnology for digital and pay-TV in the future. 17 % of all east-German households and 11% of all west-German hhhave a satellite-dish (1993). More than 90% of the german-sat-dishesare focused on the Astra-Sat. Connected to a cablenetwork are 48%(west) and 14% (east) of all households. In some urban areas free terrestrial frequencies are licensed to afew private channels (RTL, Sat 1, Pro 7). Local TV is very new in Germany, the first License was given by thestates Berlin and Brandenburg to “1A-Brandenburg” in 1993 for thetowns Potsdam and Berlin. There are also some projects in statefinanced open channels in several cable networks. 4.3 LAWS AND REGULATIONSAmong the three countries we compare, Germany is the only countryrunning a “federal system”. Media in general are underlying rulesand laws by the decentralized several state-governments within theFederal Republic of Germany. Also the public broadcasters are ruledby the several states (Laender) and the private channels get theirLicenses from the states.The reason for the decentralized broadcasting system in Germany isthe German “Grundgesetz”, the Basic Law that guarantees the”cultural sovereinty” of the staates. This Basic Law protects themedia from possible political interests a central (Bonn or Berlinbased) government might have. Even the fees for the public-broadcasters are fixed by decissionsfrom a conference of the federal states. The only exception now isthe Deutsche Welle (DW-TV), a broadcaster for foreign countrieswhich is used as a “ambassador” for german culture and is underspecial government-regulation. In the 80s all German states drafted private-media laws. Now everystate has the legal possibility to give licenses to commercial TV-stations. The supervisory body for Licenses in each state is called”Landesmedienanstalt”. Because of the decentralised German systemall laws and regulations concerning commercial broadcasters areconnected to the “cultural sovereinty” of the states. To avoid thata private broadcaster has to license his programm in every of the 16German states all states signed a contract (Staatsvertrag). Thiscontract guarantees e.g. that each state will accept the licensegiven by a Landesmedienanstalt in a single German state. In thiscontract are also fixed regulations about ownership, content ofprogrammes and the possibility for each “Landesmediananstalt” toaccuse decisions made in an other state. Each Landesmedienanstalt is also responsible for the decission whichprogrammes are allowed to be broadcasted in the PTT-cable-network intheir state (normally: 1. stations licenced within the state, 2.stations licenced in other states, 3. foreign stations).Another important assignment of the Landesmedienanstalt is to watchthe german media-ownership-regulations. There are special quotationsin ownership which have to be controlled. The strongest regulationis that no one is allowed to hold more than 50% on an broadcaster.An other important mechanism is the declaration of a channel, thereare declarations as “special interest” (only one topic, e.g. sport,movies), “general interest” (with information/news) and “pay TV”. The most important german media-investors are Bertelsmann (RTL,Premiere) and the Kirch-Group (Sat 1, Kabel 1, Pro 7). Both groupsare accused to violate the ownership and monopoly-law that will berenewed within this year. Because of the relative liberal-license-law in 1994 more than 10 newentrepeneurs anounced to apply for a german TV-license (e.g.Disney). 5. SWEDEN5.1 HISTORYUnlike Germany and France where they started with experimental TV-broadcasting in the late 30 s Sweden launched its first channel in1956. But like in France and Germany the state had a monopoly onbroadcasting. The first Swedish channel was Channel 1 the secondchannel (TV 2) was launched in 1969. Since 1987 the two publictelevision channels have been organized in such a way that TV 1 isbased on programme production in Stockholm and and TV 2 onproduction in ten TV districts in the provinces. The first two private Swedish channels where introduced in Sweden in1987 by satellite and cable. TV 3 and Filmnet-pay TV are swedishowned but were not allowed and licensed to send on terrestrialfrequencies so they transmit via satellite and cable. In 1989 thethird satellite broadcaster the Nordic Channel was launched and twomore pay-TV channels, TV 1000 and SF-Succ where introduced to themarket. TV 1000 and Succ merged two years later. The first privatechannel licensed to transmitt terrestrial within Sweden was TV 4 in1991.To summarise, today the Swedish TV-broadcasters are :public: TV 1private :TV 3 TV 2TV 4 TV 5 Nordic (pay-tv) TV 1000 (pay-tv)5.2 CABLE AND SATThe construction of cable networks begann in 1984. This share wassupposed to bring 3 000 employments perr year for 7 years and was amean to protect telephone monopoly. Now Sweden is among theeuropean countries with the most cable subscribers (B, NL, CH). Upto 50% of all households in sweden have acces to the cable and 7%own a satellite-dishLike in France the cable-networks gave a chance for local stations.Advertising is not allowed for these local stations so they have alack of money and often broadcast only a few hours a day. Local-TVis provided in circa 30 towns and can be seen by 16% of all Swedes(1993). Satellite installation was given birth in the middle of the 1970+sthrough an agreement among the five Nordic countries to launchNORDSAT. This satellite would inforce the cooperation between thesecountries and also helpes to promote nordic culture. In fact thisproject died and a Tele-X was launched by Sweden and Norway, thenFinland joined the project. Nowadays 60 % of the Swedish householdshave access to the satellite channels. 5.3 LAWS AND REGULATIONS-cable transmission legislation 1992In Sweden, the Radio Act and the Enabling Agreement between thebraodcasting companies and the State are leading broadcastingpolicies The State exercise no control over the programms prior tobroadcasting. However a Broadcasting council is empowered to raiseobjections to specific programms. The Cable Law -The two Swedish public channels are financed by a license fee. 6. CONCLUSIONIn the times of public-tv the few possible frequencies forterrestrical-broadcasting where used by the very few public channelsin each country. These channels were under control of the state andnot connected to financiel interests of owners or investors. Withthe beginning of the 80s the invention of cable TV made broadcastingfrom up to 30 channels possible. Our governments had to face thedemand for TV-licenses and also had to invest in cable-infrastructure. In the late 80s new direct broadcasting satelitesgave the same number of channels to households in less developedregions. One thing we found out and can face now as a major fact is thatthere is no cable-infrastructure in France and only a few commercialchannels (compared to the 57 million inhibitants). The market seemsto be influenced by the default of the state to provide cableaccess. For some reasons we can t evaluate from sweden in a fewweeks how the “sleeping beauty” France managed not to develop acable-network. But we can compare the facts for all three countries and conclude:-dual system in all 3 countries (public and private tv since mid80s)-tv is important in all countries 97% (see chart)-pay tv is introduced in all countries7. QUESTIONS TO THE CLASS-maybe there is no demand for cable in France?-will the public channels survive?-we only evaluated quantity and historical information and facts-what about quality?