Chapter TWO


2.1 Introduction

This chapter will be explains about the offense bar and the elements of safety characteristics in landscape design. The chapter divided into several parts which are for the first portion is account about offense and the types of offense. Then, for the 2nd portion is about recreational park. This portion consist of the cardinal cognition about recreational park, which may include the definition, maps every bit good as the benefits of recreational park. The undermentioned portion is discoursing about relationship between offense and landscape design every bit good as the planning in the recreational park. It is concerns on how landscape design is applied to cut down the offense job within recreational park. Hence, there will be introduced about offense bar through environmental design ( CPTED ) which may include the definition, rules, restrictions, schemes and the development constituents every bit good as the benefits of CPTED. Finally, it will be finished with a sum-up for this chapter.

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2.2 Crime

2.2.1 Definition of Crime

Crime is an action which is wrongly to the jurisprudence ( Nathalie Des Rosiers and Steven Bittle ) and offense committed by an person or group with the purpose to perpetrate the discourtesy. An act or condemnable discourtesy was committed with the incorrect purpose and an act can non be a offense if it is non accompanied by any purpose, despite the effects of such action, conveying an hurt or decease to the victim. By ground of the discourtesy, the individual who commits the discourtesy shall be punished by jurisprudence such as imprisonment in return, or a all right, or even anguish or the decease punishment may be imposed on the culprit of the discourtesy if it is proved to be done ( Tun Salleh Abas ) .

In short, offense is a unsafe anti-social behavior and against to the moral values aˆ‹aˆ‹of society. Crime besides is a behavior that considered as one for go againsting of societal and public right.

2.2.2 Type of Crime

Crimes are divided into two classs which are index offense and non-index offenses. Basically, the measuring of a state ‘s offense are analysed based on the addition or lessening in an index index offenses that occurred.

  1. Index offense

Basically, offense index is anything that is physically pursued by the individual perpetrating the offense that include two classs of offenses which are violent offenses and belongings offenses.

Violent offenses occurs when an wrongdoer threatens to utilize violent force against a victim such as slaying, attempted slaying, colza, incest, robberies with pieces or without pieces, pack robbery armed or unarmed, wounded and others.

Property offenses included burglary and larceny by twenty-four hours or dark, bike larceny, vehicle larceny, larceny, other larceny where the discourtesy may affect the devastation of belongings and incendiarism victims may be subjected to force.

  1. Non-index offense

Non-index offenses refer to offenses that involves the unity such as forging money, Credit card, corruptness, breach of trust and others where it dwell of non-physical confrontation.

2.3 Recreational Park

2.3.1 Definition of Recreational Park

Recreational Park is a land that designated and reserved as a public park for recreational activities like active and inactive activities. Harmonizing to Jamil ( 2002 ) , recreational park is a infinite that create for diversion which may include the aesthetic component ensuing from the visual aspect of such infinite and recreational park is one of the important constituent for towns and metropoliss. Recreational park is an enclosed of land which is within or nearby of a metropolis or town and devoted to public diversion ( Gibberd, 1982 )

2.3.2 Functions of Recreational Park

Through recreational park, the users will acquire batch of benefits which are:

  1. Strengthen the relationship whether the relationship with the local community every bit good as with the household members.
  2. Provide peace of head to the users every bit good as the local community.
  3. To hike their fittingness and avoid the coronary diseases through diversion activities such as rubber-necking, jogging, bivouacing or other athletics activities.
  4. Promote the exchange of thoughts among the users which can maturate the degree of thought of them.

2.3.3 Factors that affect recreational park usage

Nowadays, it is indispensable for recreational park to reexamine and re-evaluate the facets or factors of recreational Parkss that can potentially hold a permanent impact on the hereafter ( Christiansen, 1977 ) . There are several factors that affect recreational park usage which are:

  1. Park Access – Easy entree to parks is associated with increased park usage.

Park trial is much more frequent and physical activity degrees are much higher for those who live within walking distance to a park.

  1. Park distribution –Higher park land area within a community is associated with increased engagement in physical activity.
  1. Park Facilities –Facilities should be designed to be as beautiful, exciting, and functional as they can be, instead than simply equal, irrespective of the resources available. Good design does n’t needfully intend disbursal, but it means the best design possible for the usage of the installation.
  1. Park Conditions – Park installations that are systematically good maintained, aesthetically appealing and safe are associated with increased public usage.

Parks users are more likely to see a park that is systematically good

maintained in which the installations are safe to utilize.

2.3.4 Benefits of Recreational Park

Basically, through the recreational park there are several benefits that users can obtain which are:

  1. Health Benefits

Access to recreational park, will take to healthy life styles for people of all ages which the strong grounds shows that when people have entree to Parkss and do the diversion activities. Health benefits may include the physical and mental wellness benefits.

  1. Social Benefits

Recreational park give communities a critical individuality. Well-maintained, accessible and functional installations are cardinal elements of strong, safe, family-friendly communities. Community diversion reduces disaffection, solitariness, and anti-social behavior

  1. Economy Benefits

Recreational park enhance belongings values, contribute to healthy and productive work forces and assist pull and retain concerns. Recreational park besides make community desirable topographic points to populate, work, drama and visit every bit good as services motivate concern resettlement and enlargement in the community.

  1. Environmental Benefits

Recreational Park is a cardinal function in continuing H2O and air quality, cut downing congestion and protecting nature. Through the proviso of recreational park, protected natural environment and contribute to the environmental wellness of our communities.

2.3.5 Planning of Good Recreational Park

In a recreational park, design phase is a footing for all development. It is indispensable for the interior decorators to garner and obtain all related and relevant information about the design considerations like circulation, visibleness, illuming and arrangement of parking batch every bit good as the activity country serviced. These elements will do the park more attractive every bit good as facilitate the users.

Besides, there is another of import facet of developing a good recreational park which is comfort. Comfort is a status or feeling of enjoyable easiness, well-being and contentment in footings of safety every bit good as first-class comfortss and installations that are provided. Through that, people will remain longer there and utilize the recreational park as a sociable topographic point. Then, a good and first-class planning design is necessary and play an of import function to make a successful recreational park.

2.4 Recreational Park Design and offense

A good design toward physical environment may cut down chances for offense, by doing it harder to perpetrate the offense or by doing it more likely that the wrongdoer will be caught. In add-on, design toward physical environment can besides cut down fright. For illustration, the good lighting may assist to take the fright created by darkness, and clear sightlines.

An opposing position of Parkss holds they are unsafe topographic points. Because Parkss are public instead than private infinites, they are frequently viewed as topographic points easy taken over for unwanted activities ( Knutsson, 1997 ) . In these state of affairss, Parkss produce fright among the users. Jane Jacobs ( 1961 ) place recreational Parkss as being within a set of land uses that draw more conventional users to an country, organizing denser informal control webs and adding ‘ eyes on the street ’ which mean the safety facet.

2.5 Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design ( CPTED )

2.5.1 Definition of CPTED

CPTED is a design attack which may utilize to avoid condemnable. It is a better every bit good as proper design, effectual usage toward the built environment which may cut down fright and incidence of offense and betterment of the quality of life. ( Tim Crowe, 2000 ) . CPTED play function to do the offense become less in the design of constructions every bit good as the design of vicinities ( Tim Crowe, 2000 ) .

2.5.2 Principles of CPTED

There are several rules of CPTED ( Cozens et al. , 2005 ) that may utilize in planing within the reinforced environment:

  1. Natural surveillance

Natural surveillance means the ability of the built environment to make a clear and broad chance for surveillance from assorted angles, whether indoors or out-of-doorss. Besides, this rule is to increase and raise the consciousness towards the populace through ‘eyes on the street’ attack of the condemnable and later cut downing the assurance of the felon to perpetrate the offense and do them frighten to make condemnable once more. Natural surveillance is besides of course happening which people are traveling around an country, they may be able to detect what is traveling on around them.

  1. Natural entree control

The chief scheme in entree control is to deny entree to offense marks and to make a perceptual experience of hazards to wrongdoers. This rule purpose to forestall a individual where he should non be at that place from come ining an country ( McCormick, 2006 ) . For illustration, it can implemented through the usage and decently located the entrywaies of infinite or edifice with security cards, fence, landscape gardening and other physical agencies.

  1. Territorial support

A individuals who do non belong in that topographic point at hazard will utilize it to perpetrate as condemnable or nuisance behavior at high hazard location. It is to demo the ownership of an country which a clear differentiation between public and private district can be marked out through the usage of physical elements such as fence, room accesss, landscaping and others.

2.5.3 Schemes of CPTED

Based on the rules of CPTED, it can be implemented through 3 schemes which are:

  1. Natural surveillance

Natural surveillance is used with easy through the design of a infinite, proviso of planing the landscape and Windowss or doors which face public countries.

  1. Mechanical surveillance

Mechanical surveillance is use the electronic and mechanical equipment such as lighting, CCTV, security mirrors, security dismay and other.

  1. Organised surveillance

Organised surveillance fundamentally facilitated through constabulary patrol, security guards or residents’ associations.

For the best design technique, these three schemes are implemented in an incorporate mode, with precedence given to the natural surveillance scheme at the early phase of environmental design to cut down the costs of rehabilitation of the country in the hereafter.

2.5.4 Development Component of CPTED

There are seven development constituents which identified to implement the CPTED construct:

  1. Layout design

Layout design is divided into for facet which included assorted development, activity coevals, entrapment topographic point and dead terminal every bit good as the position of infinite. Mixed development encouraged to make an active and unrecorded every bit good as busy environment during the twenty-four hours and it may consists of residential, commercial, industrial and public infinite development activities.

Activity coevals enhance the safety of the milieus and natural surveillance through the ‘eyes on the street’ attack and promote several activities that are allowed to pull attending of the local community such as dark market, coffeehouse, eating houses, athleticss and diversion, and others.

Entrapment topographic point and dead terminal means the infinites that are deserted, stray and surrounded which designs should avoid creative activity of entrapment musca volitanss particularly in auto Parkss, prosaic paseos, dead-end roads or back lanes. This is because to forestall hideawaies for felons and menaces from felons or interlopers.

View of infinite facilitate the sensing of felons and to cut down the fright of going a victim of offense with provide clear, maximised and unobstructed position of infinite at short and long distance, particularly for countries environing the prosaic paseos.

  1. Access and Pedestrian Walkways

Entree may include the roads every bit good as the prosaic paseos that dwelling of tunnels, prosaic Bridgess and narrow lanes. It usage of clear signage as way index and reminder has to be planned in an incorporate mode, so that the user is non baffled and is wary of the environing country. The intent is to forestall or cut down the route and prosaic paseos that are separated, quiet, concealed and trapped.

  1. Soft Landscaping and Urban Design Element

The usage of soft landscaping such as trees, bush every bit good as land screen and the elements of urban design or difficult landscape gardening covers all types semisynthetic constructions such as street furniture, prosaic paseos, summerhouses, fountains, garden lamps, statues and others. It can be used to find the public and private boundaries ( National Landscape Guidelines, 2008 ) .

  1. Car Parks

Parking countries should be emphasize on safety steps such as auto parking tonss confronting towards concern premises and has good lighting. This is to increase the safety and cut down condemnable incidents every bit good as to increase the natural surveillance.

  1. Lighting

The lighting particularly at dark allows an person to be able to see or be seen clearly. The lighting can cut down public fright particularly in auto Parkss, coach Michigans, ATM machines and other topographic points. The intent is to forestall being of dark and dimmed infinite, enable felons or interlopers to be easy recognised and identified.

  1. Security Devicess

Security devices is to supply a reminder, consciousness and warning to the populace which may include the safety mirrors, security dismay, CCTV and warning mark boards.

  1. Management and Care

To forestall being of bedraggled and derelict country or edifices every bit good as to heighten the safety degree, countries that belonging to residential, commercial, industrial, substructure and public-service corporations, and topographic points of public concentration which are owned by the authorities, authorities bureaus, personal and private sectors should be maintained on a regular basis and sporadically to heighten the degree of safety.

2.5.5 Benefits of CPTED

Crime Prevention through Environmental Design ( CPTED ) is a well-researched offense bar method which has been shown to cut down chances for offense and anti-social behavior ( Queensland Government, 2007 ) . Through this attack, there are batch of benefits non merely the offense jobs may be reduced, but it besides give other benefits ( Ministry of Justice, 2005 ) which are:

  1. Safety and security are indispensable to successful communities.
  2. Safe design enhances the quality of the environment.
  3. Planing for safety makes sense financially.
  4. Integrated planning makes a important part to undertaking offense.

2.6 Drumhead

In decision, the design, care, and policing of the recreational park demand to work together, so that the general public perceives the park as a safe topographic point, wants to travel to the park on a regular basis, and spends their optional clip in the park engaged in valued activities. Crime and upset is limited, and diverse use of the park by different groups is tolerated. Legal activities are the dominant activities in the park. Because the local community values the park, it has a sense of “ownership” of it, and there are sufficient Numberss of users who act as “natural guardians” to guarantee informal societal control and they besides support formal intercessions by park direction every bit good as the constabulary when such intercessions are necessary. Besides, CPTED was originally developed to cut down offense in public lodging undertakings, but its applications are limitless. It is a construct that can work non merely in lodging, but in concerns, industries, public edifices, Parkss and diversion countries, and schools. It is a construct that can be used efficaciously to procure one edifice or an full metropolis.


  1. Ekblom, P. ( 2011 ) . Guest Editor’s Introduction, Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design.
  2. McCormick, J. ( 2006 ) . Design Against Crime. National Recreation and Park Association.
  3. S.Shuhana, A.Z Natasha, A.H Nur Rasyiqah, A.A Norsiah. ( 2014 ) . Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design Program’s Implementation And Its Effectss On The Liveability Of Kuala Lumpur City Centre.
  4. A. Gardner, R. ( 1981 ) . Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design
  5. Kaunihera. ( 2012 ) . Guidelines For CPTED In And Around Licensed Premise

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