AYEBALE GORRETH RE: NO099034636 CROSS CULTURE MANAGEMENT PGBM 07 (ASSIGNMENT) TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3 1. CROSS CULTURE MANAGEMENT…………………………………………………………………… 3 2. 1 Application of Cross-cultural Theories and Concepts to the Peer Action Learning Sets (PALS)…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 2. 2 Focus on Self…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 5 2. 3 Focus on Individual………………………………………………………………………………………….. 6 2. 4 Focus on Interaction…………………………………………………………………………………………. 7 2. 5 Focus on Cultural Diversity………………………………………………………………………………. 9 2.

THE ORGANISATION CULTURAL TEAM………………………………………………………. 10 3. THE ROLE OF POWER IN RELATION TO GENDER DISCRIMINATION IN ORGANISATIONS…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 11 Appendix…………………………………………………….. ………………………………………………………….. 13 References……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 20 INTRODUCTION

The concept of globalization has brought people from different parts of the global and from different cultural backgrounds into routine contact with each other and each other’s cultures (Morrison, 2002, P. 118). Adjusting to cultural differences can directly have an effect on the achievements or failure of the project. Culture has been defined differently by different scholars nevertheless it can be defined as a set of basic assumptions-shared solutions to universal problems of adaptation and internal integration which have evolved over time and are handed down from one generation to the next (Schneider and Barsoux 1997 P. 0). Therefore when engaging in strategic coalition, setting up operations abroad or attracting the local market, companies have to comprehend how culture can be harnessed to drive business forward. Companies also need to analyze the potential for culture clashes that can undermined good intentions (Schneider and Barsoux 1997 P. 10). 1. CROSS-CULTURAL MANAGEMENT 1. 1 Application of cross-cultural theories and concepts to the Peer Action Learning Sets (PALS) Culture from the diverse global world can best be explained by using the cultural dimensions adopted by various researchers as indicated in figure 1. . 1 in the appendix of whom include Schein, Trompenaars, Hall, Hofstede and Alder. According to Morrison (2002) P. 138, Hofstede carried out a research on IBM employees in 50 countries to distinguish the different culture dimensions. My PALS group consists of four diverse cultures from India, Pakistani, Thailand and Uganda. To arrive at the differences and similarities between cultures, I considered the various different dimensions adopted by Geert Hofstede which include, uncertainty avoidance, power distance, individualism versus collectivism, and masculinity/femininity.

According Schneider and Barsoux (1997) P. 79 uncertainty avoidance refers to the society’s discomfort with uncertainty, preferring predictability and stability and this is illustrated in figure 1. 1. 2 in the appendix. Morrison (2002) P. 139 argues that high levels of stress and anxiety denotes uncertainty avoidance countries. Hofstede found that except for the Indian culture, there is strong uncertainty avoidance in Pakistani, Thailand and moderately strong in East Africa. However I believes that uncertainty avoidance in Uganda the author’s culture is equally high.

Comparing the dimension to behaviours in the PALS groups, while Shweta from India was easy going, Ali from Pakistani, and Kopkit from Thailand were always anxious and wanted to find out more. According to Schneider and Barsoux (1997) P. 79 Power distance indicates the extent to which a society accepts unequal distribution of power in institutions and organizations. According to Hofstede, all the cultures in the PALS group are characterized by large power distance ranking East African countries(Uganda)(64), Pakistani(55), Thailand(64), India(77) (Schneider and Barsoux 1997 P. 80).

All group members denied the responsibility of representing the group and appointed me to represent them. However, being from a culture with large power distance I first declined to represent the group and thought Ali was more perfect and could therefore represent the group. They all refused to take up the responsibility of which I eventually took up after being pushed to do so. The fact that in all cultures there is high power distance, this was reflected in members taking ideas of one particular member of the group without criticizing that idea. Better work would not be produced since nobody could object to anybody’s decisions.

For as long as results were produced, the rest of the member were not ready to test the credibility of such results. According to Hofstede, in individualist societies people are supposed to take care of themselves and remain emotionally independent from group (Schneider and Barsoux 1997 P. 79). According to Morrison (2002) P. 139 individualism refers to the extent to which individuals perceive themselves as independent and autonomous beings and at the opposite pole is collectivism in which people see themselves as integrated into ‘in-groups’. Uganda, Pakistani and Thailand cultures are individualistic societies as ifferentiated from the Indian culture. In the PALS group, Shweta the Indian was always interested in seeing us work as a group yet the rest of us preferred each member producing individual work subject to discussion. Pakistan and India have strong masculinity while Uganda and Thailand are characterized by femininity. Morrison (2002) P. 139 further argued that Hofstede associated masculinity with assertiveness, toughness and an emphasis on money and material things and at the opposite extreme of masculinity is femininity which denotes sensitivity, caring and emphasis on quality of life.

The masculinity characteristic of Indians was illustrated by Shweta’s ways of forcing her way through to get whatever she wanted. Ali wanted to do everything before anybody else did which is competitive characteristic of masculinity. Kopkit and I were more caring and ensured that all members had whatever it took to make things better by being compassionate and understanding. According to Hofstede,(1996), long term versus short term orientation refers to people’s time perspective in their daily lives. According to Morris (2002) P. 39 short time orientation stresses satisfying need here and now while long term orientation stresses virtuous living through thrift and persistence. All the group members were from long term orientation depending on the plans each member anticipated for after the course. My intentions are to acquire business and management skills that could be used while implement the law back at home. Drawing on the cultural map in figure 1. 1. 2, I established that Uganda, Thailand, Pakistani and India cultures are different. 1. 2 Focus on oneself My experience in the PALS group had an impact and I also had various impacts on the group.

The group had an opportunity to understand my culture, it helped me to understand certain things about me and in I turn made clear to them what I felt they did not know about me. I illustrated the above scenario using the “Johari window” in figure 1. 2. 1. according to Schneider and Barsoux (1997) P. 11, the Johari window tries to shade light on what I know about myself and what others know about me and do not know about me. I always supposed that if we worked together as group each of us making contribution and criticizing defaults in them, we would yield better results.

I therefore argued my group members to come up with their own ideas such that we could discuss such ideas and make better conclusions. I was supported by Ali from Pakistani who also believed that working as a group would very much simplify the work load. I observed that Kopkit from Thailand was always silent. Shweta believed in group work but only had ideas of brain storming. I assisted my group in a sense that none of the members was willing to stand up and represent the group and I was always asked to represent them because they felt I was bold and clear.

My group members helped me realize that I was “bold” something I did not know about myself. At first I felt I was not bold enough to stand before the whole international management class with people from different corners of the world looking at me but I made it after being pushed by my group members and since neither member was willing to represent the group. Hence I gained the confidence I felt I did not have before. I believed I was nervous and the group helped me avoid my nervousness by giving me every opportunity to speak in public. I always prepared carefully so as to be confident on a day specified for representations.

My group members and I believed that I was very useful to the discussions and relied a lot on my opinions. They also thought that I was accommodating and they made it my task to contact the rest of the members though I felt it was tiresome and costly to contact each member which ought to be a responsibility for a group as a whole. Being a member of my PALS group helped me develop and improve on the skills which I did not know that I actually possessed. I was able to understand various culture and how to deal and come to terms with all of them. 1. 3 Focus on individual

In trying to illustrate ones culture, we frequently call up for stereotypes that others have of us. According to Schneider and Barsoux (1997) P. 12, stereotypes represent mental “files” that are used to help to develop new information by comparing it with past practices and knowledge. My PALS group is comprised of four diverse cultures with the author being the only African and Ugandan in particular and the rest being Asian, Shweta from India, Ali from Pakistan and Kopkit(Get) from Thailand. I perceived Indians as unsociable and conservative and the Pakistani and Thailand members as conservative.

My belief about Indians was conformed when Shweta gave me her phone number and email address and requested me never to give her contact to anybody else in the group. This showed how unfriendly she was as she was not ready to interact with anybody in the group. Shweta put me in a fix since I had to be loyal to her. when Ali from Pakistani requested me for her phone number, I could not avail him with the it. Shweta further had a lot of information that she kept to herself and did not wish to discuss it with anybody else. Shweta further liked initiating groups discussions but always gave excuses to turn up late or not to turn up at all.

I realized that she was not taking her studies very seriously yet she talked about excelling. Shweta was great and contributed a lot to the group work in her own ways. She could foster good working relationships and proposed venue and time for the meetings though she never lived to those commitments personally. Because of her, the rest of us always managed to meet and shared ideas. Ali on the other hand was open minded and very social. He kept time and believed in doing personal research which he brought forward for discussion.

However he encouraged laziness among the other member as he could do all that was necessary and presented his work for discussion. I did not like the idea of members taking his work as the best without comparing it with the rest of the work researched by other members. But however Ali put his work across for discussion and encouraged amendments and additions. The group was so dependent on Ali to carry out all the research work. Get from Thailand was in most cases quiet although he seemed to pay a lot of attention to what was going on during group discussion.

He had a problem with English and could not express himself very well. Due to that, he preferred to keep quiet rather than use vague English. He showed interest of socializing by producing whatever was within his reach for the best interest of the group. He was first in responding to class assignments for instance by quickly accessing textbooks from the library which could help the group conduct the research and getting ideas from other groups. He showed willingness to cooperate with the rest of the group and the group helped him to accept the language challenge and speak out his mind whenever necessary.

The group helped each and every member in one way or the other and we came to realize that we all needed each other to yield better results. I observed that it was interesting to work with new and distinct people who could help one to know ones skills and who could also befit by getting to know their weaknesses and strengths. 1. 3 Focus on interaction According to Schneider and Barsoux 1997 P. 40, the use of language may represent the most visible yet the least understood influence on our world view. It is through language that we devise opinions and understand the world and others.

All the cultures in the group had different languages with a common language “English” spoken with different accents. According to (Morrison 2002 P. 124), Language is the fundamental means of communication between people, which facilitates social relations and fosters a scheme of mutual values and norms. Hall distinguished between ‘low context’ and high ‘context’ cultures and observed that in low context culture, communication is clear and direct, and in high context culture, much goes unsaid depending on the relationship between the speakers, each is able to read the body language and interpret between the line (Morrison 2002 P. 24),. Schneider and Barsoux (1997) at page 40 argues that the difference between high and low context cultures can cause communication difficulties, even more so when the participants share the same mother tongue. Shweta from a high context culture liked explaining everything even when the meaning was very clear. I from a low context culture found this very disturbing and time consuming. Shweta communicated using body language and I adjusted to that kind of communication. For example winking her eyes a form of gesture indicating persistence.

Members from Pakistani and Indian cultures would speak their local language which was understood to them alone and I this was very rude and selfish. They would discuss using their language instead of English which was common and translated after they had understood in their own way. This made me feel like I was not part of the group. Except for the tendency of speaking their local language when in a group of diverse background, communication would not have been a major problem. I experienced the difficult of associating with people from different cultures who could hardly understand my accent.

Members could at times just accept without understanding what was being said. I felt I was wasting time explaining to people who were less interested. In relation to that, I as well found difficult in understanding the accents of the other members but however I am very much like changing and learning and therefore paid more attention to what was said and transformed my accent accordingly. Shweta from India put a red mark on her fore head which was a sign that she was married. I asked her why and to my surprise, she too did not know its relevance but it was only traditional.

I felt this was awkward and yet she valued it. She also kept a thread around her hand and claimed that it was for protection. I was scared associating with her because in Uganda that kind of norm would be associated with witchcraft. However I came to value and respect her because that was something which caused no harm but was only valuable to the Indian culture. To put so much emphasis on that would only cause conflicts and differences in the group. Assumptions of time also influence our relation with the environment and with people (Schneider and Barsoux 1997 P. 41).

The assumptions have been described by Hall as Monochronic versus Polychronic. Monochrinic cultures are concerned with starting meeting on times and spending time productively and polychromic mangers believe that time expands to accommodate activities and that several activities can happen concurrently. Indian culture does not keep time. Sweater never kept time not even at one moment regardless of continuous reminders which upset me all the time. Ali on the other hand came before the time and Get and I were always on time. I always suggested to proceed with the discussions without Shweta but Ali and Get insisted we wait for her.

She always contended that we had extra time with in which to do the work waiting for the deadline. Knowing cultural differences and getting to cope with such cultural differences assisted the group to move forward. 1. 4 focus on cultural diversity Seymen (2006) defined diversity as a mixture of people with different identities within the same social system. He argues that as the world is shrinking through globalization, more and more people live and work in foreign countries and thus they frequently make contact with people coming from diversified cultural origins.

I first experienced cultural diversity when I travelled to study in the UK. For the first time I live and studied out of Uganda my home country. Besides the experience in my PALS group, I settles in University accommodation and I was allocated to a house with people from diversified background. We are five housemates from Greece, Spain, Nigeria, Trinidad(Caribbean), and I from Uganda. James from Nigeria found it very easy to interact with me since we were both black. However in spite being black, we had cultural differences for he was an outgoing person which was not part of me.

He was never amused whenever he requested me to go out with him and I turned down his offers. He realized that we could as well have good time with the rest of the housemates and learn more about their cultures. Nicole from Trinidad was black as well but we had nothing in common. Her accent was very complicated and I could hardly tell what she was communicating. At times I would pretend I was listening when actually I was not and she could realize this when I failed to respond to her questions. This was rude and I decided to pay more attention whenever she spoke or even begged her pardon where necessary.

Athanasius from Greece was very welcoming for he tried to show me around and was always willing to give a helping hand. I was worried thinking that he did whatever he did for me because he had personal interest but I later realized that this was the culture in Greece. He was very open and straight to the point. Whenever I commented about his culture and compared it with mine, he would ask me to style up. For some time we got differences because I could not handle being intimidated but however we resolved our differences and agreed to take each other the way we found each other.

It is after understanding our differences that we became more friendly. All my housemates liked listening a lot about my culture especially Pillar from Spain who thought Ugandan culture was to some extent primitive. She wanted to know more about Female Genital Mutilation which is known as female circumcision, she was also interest in understanding the inferiority of women in Uganda and why they are regarded as vulnerable group of people. In their culture whether man or woman they are all equal though I did not believe her.

To some extent I agreed with them about the primitive culture in Uganda. Being part of cultural diversity enabled be to become more open and seek clarity in situations which appear to be ambiguous to me. I also learnt to accept and respect others people’s cultures. I was able to understand that we could only continue living in harmony by understanding our cultural differences and how to go about them. In general cultural diversity is inevitable in our world, and it has great benefits for man if we can positively channelize the beauty, the strengths and the lessons that arise rom these diversities. 2. THE ORGANIZATION CROSS CULTURAL TEAM The solution to building cross-cultural teams, is focusing on the objectives of the team. The objective is the major production that a cross cultural team can potentially convey. The struggle and conflicts will surely going be there just like in teams who belong to the same culture. The aim ought to be to try and build on the strengths of such cross cultural teams, diminish conflicts, and disseminate the irregular miscommunication that diversity creates.

According to Watson and Gallagher (2005) P. 128, organisations assign people to work-groups as part of their infrastructure so as to facilitate staff function successfully in an effective work unit and at the same time maximise their individual potential for growth and development. It should be noted that in my PALS group there was no specific work allocated to a particular individual and every individual had to initiate himself or herself to do the work. The majority would leave the work to one particular member to do it all .

Watson and Gallagher (2005) argue that a vital factor for successful teams is the mix of team roles. Therefore I would advise that each group member is given a task to perform. The various roles indentified by Watson and Gallagher (2005) are described in table 2. 1. 1in the appendix to include; Shaper, implementer, completer-finisher, resource investigator, co-ordinator, team worker, plant, Monitor-evaluator and specialist. Had we thought of it earlier, the struggle would not have been a hassle because every member would been allocated a task to accomplish and accountable to the rest.

It is true that we all had our strength and weaknesses. I bet I should have been given a task of a completer-finisher for I cared a lot about accomplishing targets and meeting deadlines and getting the group mission to a victorious conclusion. I was always impatient with other group members who had more informal behaviour or dispositions such Shweta. Ali should have taken the role of team worker since he worked easy with everyone. He always supported us in our weaknesses and underpinned our weaknesses. He tried to get consensus between I and Shweta.

Shweta should have been assigned the role of Plant for she is imaginative and likes brain storms and Kopkit would have been assigned a task of implementer for he was always organised and quick at responding to goals. Identifying a person’s team role helps to advance self-awareness and individual effectiveness, foster mutual trust and understanding among social group, aid team selection and team-building, and match people to job more effective (Watson and Gallagher 2005 p. 137). By recognise team roles, we would improve our effectiveness.

Hence if my PALS group was a cross-cultural team within an organisation, I would recommend that each member is allocated a task instead of leaving all the work to one particular person. 3. THE ROLE OF POWER IN RELATION TO GENDER DISCRIMINATION IN ORGANISATIONS. Power is the capacity to control the behaviour and/or approach of others. Sources of individual power include legal power based on holding a official position. Others obey because they recognize the authenticity of the position of the power holder. Reward power is where by the subjects comply in order to gain rewards in control of the power holder.

Coercive power is where by conformity is to steer clear of penalty from the power holder. Specialist power is based on a person’s knowledge, proficient and information in a certain area and referent power where by the subjects comply because they value and like the person in authority. Millmore et al. 2007 established that gender equality in the work place has been an important human resource agenda item in work organizations since the mid 1970s when legislation was introduced to tackle a history of inequitable practices , largely directed against woman workforce.

According Millmore et al. 2007, despite the steady raise of woman managers, apparent over the past decades, their positions in the organizations entail low-paid roles with minimal influence and authority than their male counter parts. Wolfram, H. and Mohr, G. (2007), citing from (Bundesmisterium Fur Familie, Senoiren, Frauen und Jugend 2003 German Federal Ministry for Family senior citizen, women and youth) argues that in spite of the growing number of women holding high management positions, the collection “female leaders with male followers” is still exceptional.

Wolfram, H. and Mohr, G. (2007), further observed that only 10percent of woman workers in Germany show that they work as leaders. In subordinate management, roughly 20percent of the leadership positions are held by women. Women are still a great deal more like to survive in part-time jobs and do the bulk of unpaid family care. The rationale for women to return to work part-time is that this enables them some flexibility in juggling work and household tasks (Scott. J. & Nola. J. 2007)

However as observed earlier, women have got double roles to play which hinders them from taking up top managerial positions. In Uganda for instance, habitually women’s roles were secondary to those of men despite the considerable economic and social responsibilities. Women are taught to conform with the needs of their fathers, brothers husbands and other men and to show their subordination to men in public life. Women in rural areas were expected to go down on their knees when speaking to men. However the global world has changed the system and women are in position to take up top managerial positions.

But the change of legislation to ensure women emancipation cannot rule out the fact that up to date men still consider women as subordinates. APPENDIX Trompennars Relationship with nature Relationship with people Universalism versus particularism Individualism versus collectivism Affectivity Diffuse versus specific Achievement versus ascription Relationship with time Schein Relationship with nature Human activity Human nature Relationship with people Time Truth and reality Kuclkholn and Strodtbeck Relationship with time Human activity Human nature

Relationship with people Time Hall Space: Personal/physical Time: monochromic/polychromic Language: high context/low context Friend ship Alder Human nature Relationship with nature Individualism/collectivism Human activity (being/doing) Space (private/public) Time (past/present, future) Hofstede Uncertainty avoidance Power distance Individualism/collectivism Masculinity/femininity Figure 1. 1. 1 Key dimensions of culture (Adopted by Schneider and Barsoux, 1997, P. 31) Power distance Low uncertainty avoidance Low uncertainty avoidance Low power distance

Uncertainty avoidance High power distance India Uganda Thailand Pakistani High uncertainty avoidance High uncertainty avoidance High Power distance Low power distance Figure 1. 1. 2 The cultural Map (adopted from Schneider and Barsoux 1997 P. 81 and modified by the author). Hard working Responsible Bold Accommodating Things I see Things I do not see Things they see Shared blind spot unconscious Gutless Things they do not see Figure 1. 2. 1 The Johari window(adopted from Schneider and Barsoux 1997 P. 81 and modified by the author). Team Role| Strength |

Shaper| Challenging, dynamic, goal-oriented, has drive and courage | Implementer| Disciplined, organised, efficient, turns ideas into actions| Completer-finisher| Accurate, conscientious, meticulously prevents error| Resource investigator| Extrovert, enthusiastic, communicative, explores opportunities, develops contracts| Co-ordinator| Calm, confident, clarifies goals, promotes participative decision making| Team worker| Co-operative, caring, diplomatic, sensitive, a good listener, averts friction| Plant| Creative, imaginative, unorthodox, solves difficult problems| Monitor-evaluator| Logical, analytical, discerning, judges accurately| Specialist| Single-minded, motivated by the pursuit of knowledge| Table 2. 1. 1 Team roles (adopted from Watson and Gallagher (2205) p. 136-137 and modified by the author) Learning diary 8th/02/2010 – 12th /02/2010 During this week, the programme leader allocated student to their PALS group.

We were assigned group work on professional identities, development of poster ideas and present our PALS group poster for judging before a panel. I did the work with Kopkit since we had not identified the rest of our group mates. Kopkit refused to make the presentation and I too had no the courage to do it but I eventually had to present the work. Shweta appeared in middle of the presentation and started brainstorming her ideas without understanding the question first. She confused all our ideas and when I asked her to explain what she had in mind to the panel, she declined and wanted me to do it. Explaining somebody’s ideas was very hard and our first work was so insufficient as compared to other members who were organised. 15th/02/2010 – 19th/02/2010

During this week in the cross-cultural work shop we were to describe our culture as we see it and compare notes with the other members of the group. Nobody was willing to say a thing about their culture. It took quite a long time for someone to think about their cultures. I learnt that it is very difficult to describe one’s own culture. We were further given an assignment to discuss it in our PALS group and make presentations in the next class. We agreed on a specific date and time but Shweta turned up at the end of the discussion and proposed that we meet on another date. I was not amused by her ways of doing things to the detriment of others. I had to tell her and she thought I was not being fare. 6/02/2010 – 19th/02/2010 During this week we had to make a presentation on work that we earlier researched on in our PALS group, regarding cultural map used to analyse the cultural dimensions within the group. We were required to map the cultures in our group, to establish the similarities and differences and the implications on team management leadership styles. Like before, I was asked to make the presentation. However without letting anybody in the group know I came up with the idea of engaging all the members in the discussion. I presented part of the work and started picking upon different members in the group to present various issues.

The presentation was very lively and interesting when all the members participated instead of leaving it to me. I realized that team work can improve the quality of work produced. 22nd/02/2010 – 26th/02/2010 Farhan one of the student in the MA International Management class likes control. I have always observed this from the time he appointed himself class representative which was not a bad idea because I bet nobody in the class had the courage to take up the position without being appointed. However his influence reached my nerves when we presented our work and he raised a contention that it was not standard work. I also felt that his work was not good since he presented a forest of words with a desert of meaning.

The programme leader simplified it all when she said that neither of us was wrong since we all had different ideas. I further noticed that in his group Farhan did not give a chance to the rest of the members to show their talent as he controlled the whole system. He interrupted the tutor every time and as a result, the students would lose truck. I liked Farhan for he had a sense of humour, he did not hold back any record of wrong and would engage you to talk even when you were less interested. 1st/03/2010 – 05th/03/2010 For quite a long time I paid a lot of attention trying to make sense out of what the instructor in International businesses environment was saying.

I did not have the guts to ask him to repeat basically because I knew even though he repeated, I would not pick a thing. I followed from power point presentation. Today I realised this was not my problem alone but also a problem to the Chinese students. He asked one of the Chinese student to talk about Proctor and Gamble (P&G) and the student just looked at him. He tried to simplify the question and the student said “no” where a “no” does not match. Most of the rest of the students were laughing and I found this very disturbing because I had the same problem. One of the students wrote down in pen the lecturer’s words but the Chinese student was already demoralised and she preferred to keep quiet.

After the class I asked some of the wayward students who laughed during class what the lecturer was saying and to my surprise, they too did not know. I learnt that it is very easy to look at peoples’ mistakes than our own mistakes. 8th/03/2010 – 12th/03/2010 This week we were instructed in our PALS group to read any Article from Emerald. Nobody in the group read the article and the discussion was aborted. We agreed to meet at the next meeting with the article ready. Members did not turn up and I had to do my own reading. Ali contended he was sick and promised to read the article from home which he did. Shweta requested Ali to give her a copy of the Article since she was not ready to do research work. Kopkit was silent about the whole issue. 15th/03/2010 – 19th/03/2010

Today during the cross-cultural management workshop we played the “Lego” game in which we were separated in two different groups from diverse cultures. In my group we were not allowed to talk excepted for pronouncing out colours which were given different identity name such as ‘gra’ for grey, ‘ga’ for green, ‘bra’ for black. In the other group they were not to talk at all. Some of the group members just sat back and watched while others worked. For those who were building just put blocks without a sense of direction and would get to some point and bring down all the work to start a fresh. The whole process was confusing and it was not until when we were time barred that we finally managed to build the tour.

From this experience I learnt that we cannot produced organised work when we ourselves are not organised. We did not have a leader though there was a spirit of team work reason as which we finally made a tower. 22nd/03/2010 – 26th/02/2010 This week is a week of my worst experience in Sunderland. At night on the 25th/05/2010 at 2:00 O’clock my little brother died. I had a lot of school work to discuss with my group mates the next day. I asked my sisters to inform Ali that I was not able to continues with the discussions and had to travel the next day. I informed Shweta about my situation and I was shocked when she asked me for my research work instead of sympathising with me. I was so cold and did not give her any response.

I then informed Mariah with whom we had carried out research together and she was asking me to email her the research work. She too could not understand my situation. I did not communicate with her again. I realised that the students cared a lot about their individual interests than group interest. However I thank a lot Sandy my programme leader who provided me with a crying shoulder and was there for me throughout my hard time. From her I learnt that leadership and management does not only focus on individual interest but on diversity. Ignoring others feeling may affect the way people relate and if it is an organisation, it could as well affect the business. 0th/05/2010 – 15th/05/2010 I returned from Uganda and I am trying to pick up from where I stopped. However Mariah with whom I was cross has promised to help me where necessary. All my course mates are very kind and concerned about what happened to me. Back at my house I was give a warm welcome. Every time I remember my little brother, and break down into tears, my house mates especially Pillar from Spain takes me into her arms and embrace me to comfort me, something that is not in my culture at all. I feel so comforted and at home in the diverse culture and am sure no matter how hard the situation, I am going to make it. REFERENCES Text books Schneider, S. C. nd Barsoux, J-L (1997) Managing Across Cultures. Times/Prentice Hall. Morrison, J. (2002) The international Business Environment. Palgrave Publishers Ltd. Watson, G. and Gallagher, K. (2005) Managing For Results (2nd Edition) Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. Journals Desere, K. (2003) The Impact of cultural Diversity on work team performance; Team performance Management: 9 (3/4) pp 78 – 83 Seymen, O. A. (2006) The Cross Cultural Diversity Phenomenon in Organisations and d Different Approaches for Different Cultural Diversity Management. The Cross Cultural Management 13 (4) pp 297 Wolfram, H. and Mohr, G. (2007) professional Respect for Female and Male

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