The undermentioned study purposes on utilizing the authorities statistics and air hose studies to depict the current international air power market from Australia to Europe via Asia every bit good as the major air hoses that involves in the passenger car of this kangaroo routes. The impact of the economic downswing in 2009 and the vent eruptions in Iceland to air hose industry will be included in this paper every bit good.

Table of Contentss

Abstract 2

Introduction 3

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Background 3

Kangaroo Routes 4

History of Kangaroo Routes 4

Daily Operation 5

Hub and Spoke Model 6

Airfare Comparison and Analysis


Inbound and Outbound to UK from Australia 7

Future Plans 8

Impacts of economic downswing and natural catastrophe on air travel 9

International Passenger 9

Seat Factor Effect 9

Air Fare Effect 10

Iceland Volcano Ash 12

Decision 14

Mention 15


Airline industry has been dramatically spread outing in the first decennary of the 21th century. Passengers choose to wing for concern trips or vacation. Australia is a immense market for air hose to run paths linking to Europe and Southeast Asia. The study will concentrate on the demand and monetary value analysis for the Kangaroo Routes. The operations and importance of the Hub Model conveying economic system benefits to the bearers. This includes the impacts of fiscal tsunami and natural catastrophe that affect the normal operation of the air hose. Future tendencies and programs of the air hose marked an of import milepost on the concern.


Australia is located in the Southern Hemisphere where the states surrounded by include Indonesia and New Zealand. Australia is comfortable developed state which is the universe ‘s 13th largest economic system, business communities and travelers used to go to and from Australia all twelvemonth about.

Hong Kong, Singapore and Bangkok located above the equator in which basking the hub benefits of the geographical location. Since aircraft engineering can non supply non-stop flight for 20 hours with normal siting constellation, no flights can be made straight from Europe and Australia. Alternatively, stop-over flights must be portion of the journey, more and more air hose seeking to digest the demand of the turning market. Carriers provide full-service and new coevals aircraft to advance and pull more riders choose to wing with them.

Europe is the largest market of the air power industry no affair with domestic or internationally. With London Heathrow Airport receive the bulk of the inbound rider from all over the universe and diverted to all parts in Europe.

International markets from Australia to Europe via Southeast

Kangaroo Paths

Kangaroo Route is trademarked by Qantas traditionally refers to the flight routes flown between Australia and United Kingdom, via the sou’-east which chiefly operated by Qantas. Nowadays, the term is normally used in the media and by air hose rivals.

Meanwhile, the United Kingdom path is holding ferocious competition with about 20 air hoses runing service between Australia and United Kingdom including Singapore Airlines, Japan Airlines, Air New Zealand, British Airways, Malaysia Airlines, Qantas, United Airlines, Cathay Pacific and Emirates.

Virgin Atlantic became the 21st bearer offers the Kangaroo Route following an air service understanding reached between the Hong Kong and United Kingdom.

History of Kangaroo Routes

The Kangaroo Route was foremost flown on 1 December 1947 operated by Qantas transporting 29 riders and 11 crews which stopover on 7 states in sou’-east. The return menu at the clip reaches & A ; lb ; 585. This sum reaches a worker of 2 old ages mean wage compared at that clip.

Qantas introduced Boeing 707 and 747 to the Kangaroo Route in the twelvemonth of 1959. With winging these aircrafts, the clip required going from Europe and Australia drops significantly as the figure of way stations beads. Less runing cost lowers the airfare dramatically. More and more travellers start to go with this trade name new kangaroo paths. For the following few decennaries, Qantas is subjected to increasing fight on the Kangaroo Route by other bearers such as Virgin Atlantic.

Qantas broke a universe distance record in 1989 to wing from London to Sydney non-stop for merely 20 hours taging a milepost on the route to Kangaroo Routes. Various air hoses maintain on the path to set up the direct long draw path from Australia and Europe.

During the beginning of 2009, Qantas is runing services utilizing Airbus A380 aircraft. This move can decidedly pull more often flyer to go with high comfort and epicurean characteristics of aircraft. Greater capacity of A380 helps to transport more riders to finish and cut down air hose from spill cost.


Flight No.



Sydney -London


On selected flights

– Service departs Tuesdays, Wednesdays, Thursdays, Fridays and Saturdays.

London Sydney


On selected flights

– Service departs Mondays, Tuesdays, Wednesdays, Thursdays and Sundays.

Melbourne – London


On selected flights

– Service departs Mondays and Sundays.

London – Melbourne


On selected flights

– Service departs Friday and Saturday.

Daily Operation





Departure Time



Hong Kong


Daily 2:25pm






Daily 3:30pm

Daily 4:15pm





Hong Kong


Daily 10:50pm









Daily 3:30pm

The above tabular array is being extracted from the Sydney and Melbourne airport flight information. Virgin Atlantic comprises a day-to-day flight from Sydney to London via Hong Kong.Qantas ‘s flights to London comprises two day-to-day flights from Sydney via Singapore or Bangkok and two day-to-day flights from Melbourne via Singapore or Hong Kong. In add-on, Qantas carry riders from Australia major metropolis like Perth, Adelaide, Brisbane riders to one of the three metropoliss in Southeast Asia like Hong Kong, Singapore and Bangkok so continue the journey to London Heathrow Airport.

It raised attending for rivals that Qantas is looking into purchasing aircraft like Boeing 777 or Airbus A340 in which is capable to wing between London and Sydney non-stop while Virgin Atlantic ordered Boeing 787 to wing straight from London to Perth.

Qantas is the chief operated air hose to transport rider from Melbourne. Numerous air hoses act as confederations to work together and transport rider to the finish. Take QF09 as an illustration, five air hoses merge into a individual flight towards Singapore so London. This would greatly increase the cost efficiency of the bearer. The airdrome gate and cost can be avoided at most instance and prevent duplicated work by the crew members. The going clip was normally set as in the afternoon session in order to suite rider with a shorter period of transportation clip during the stop-over station and besides to forestall an nightlong stay at the airdrome.

Hub and Spoke Model

As it is non possible to hold direct flight from Australia to European Countries, it intensifies the importance of hub and spoke theoretical account in south-east Asia. Hub and spoke defines as travelers traveling between airdromes non served by direct flights and alteration planes to the finishs. Majority of the hubs are located at airdromes in the metropoliss of the caput offices.

Hong Kong, Bangkok and Singapore acts as a major hub located in Asia that take travelers from America or Australia way station at airdromes so reassign to the United Kingdom.

Airfare Comparison and Analysis




Destination ( Via Singapore or Hong Kong )

Economy / FlexiSaver Fare Range

Premium Economy / Business Fare Range




$ 2433 – $ 3012

$ 4158 – $ 5325




$ 2886 – $ 3006

$ 5729 – $ 6421

A380-800 / B777-300



$ 1955 – $ 2644

$ 11065




$ 2507 – $ 2966

$ 5730 – $ 6401

A380-800 / B777-300



$ 1945 – $ 2440

$ 11046

By comparing the air hose with their respective aircraft utilizing to transport rider from Australia to Europe, Virgin Atlantic fly with Airbus A340-600 theoretical account while Qantas and Singapore Airline uses Boeing B777-300 or Airbus A380-800. With winging trade name new aircraft like A380 or B777, these bring net income for operators. Whether it is being used to make existent cost economy and cut down the figure of flights while maintaining similar capacity. This can offer more capacity with fewer take-off slots at a lower cost per place than any other larger aircraft.

The airfare on the above tabular array is subjected to the current monetary value as at August 2010. The economic system menu ranges between $ 1955 and $ 3012 with the highest menu which is operated by the Singapore air hose. For concern airfare, it reaches up to $ 11065 for going Singapore air hose. It is obvious that Singapore air hose cost at least a factor of three more than other specified air hose for concern category airfare. The account buttocks was that Singapore air hose en-suite with comfort and luxury concern category seats when winging with an A380 where as supplying more economic seats on plane, the aircraft can supply with a larger capacity to go more rider on board which lowers the cost for the economic airfare.

Inbound and Outbound to UK from Australia

Presently, more than twenty air hoses provide flights from Australia ‘s major metropolis to London Heathrow Airport in which the transportation clip for some air hose may transcend 6 hours. Merely British Airways, Qantas Airline and Virgin Atlantic provide an intermediate halt either in Hong Kong or Singapore with less than 90 proceedingss waiting clip. From the above statistic, it is crystal clear that Qantas Airways carry over 10,000 riders inward and outward each month. This figure is approximately ternary the measure of British Airways and a factor of five compared to Virgin Atlantic. These three air hoses come up with the competition as the halt over clip is much less than other ‘s bearer.

Time cost to every rider is a finding factor for a rider chooses to wing with the specified air hose. With a shorter travel clip, the traveler is more satisfied and more likely to wing with the same bearer. Due to limited supply of seats by Virgin Atlantic and British Airways, both bearers started to be after to order new coevals aircraft to transport more riders to fulfill the increasing demand of the Kangaroo paths.

Future Plans

As seen from the tendency of the rider motion, it is estimated that the Numberss of rider going internationally will be increasing for the coming two old ages. For the demand of the Kangaroo paths is being expanded in the undermentioned decennary, major air hose get downing to endeavor into the ferocious competition on the air market between Australia and Europe. Boeing and Airbus are working shoulder to shoulder to resuscitate the dream non-stop flights between London and Sydney. Flying 19 hr non-stop with new coevals aircraft is commercially feasible for an air hose to transport more riders and efficaciously lowers the cost for long draw journey.

Impacts of economic downswing and natural catastrophe on air travel

International Passenger

The effect of the economic downswing can to a great extent impact the air hose concern. The graph is obtained from the United States Bureau of transit statistics. Between September 2008 and June 2009, there is a important bead of air travelers, and do a subtraction five per centum alteration in rider volume. This is an alarming figure to air hoses to get down to establish an alternate scheme on cut down cost for an air hose. Harmonizing to the supply and demand rule, as supply is fixed with demand lessening, the airfare drops dramatically. This would greatly cut down the gross of the bearer. As the cost for aircraft ownership, aircraft care and airdrome parking fee can non be avoided, air hoses have no agencies to cut down cost.

One the other manus, air traveler rate duplicate the rate of economic system growing. The large slack in an economic system can ensue in an immediate consequence to air hoses. More business communities halt the concern trips and rider refused to hold vacations during the difficult times. The demand for the path decreased and consequences in a great doomed for an air hose.

Seat Factor Effect

June 2009 – May 2010

June 2008 – May 2009





Gross Passenger Miles ( 000 )





Available Seat Miles ( 000 )





Passenger Load Factor ( % )





Seat factor can be referred to the rider burden factor which is used for ciphering the mean tenancy on the paths of an aircraft. With this information, the air hoses are able to find the gross potency and profitableness of a peculiar path is. The above is the United States Air Carrier Traffic Statistics through May 2010 on a 12 month footing. The figures show a distinguishable between with the one-year twelvemonth get downing at June 2009 and June 2008. For an air hose to gain a net income, each bearer set a minimal mark for the place factor with at least 75 % where Qantas Airline set at 80 % . With the economic downswing period, US have recorded a 3 % lower on the burden factor. Although it is non a big slack, a little per centum alteration can greatly impact the cost and gross of the concern. In most instance, with the place factor lower than 50 % , it is suggested that the bearer to change the path or diminish the frequence of the specified path to cut down cost for fuel and set downing fee.

Air Fare Effect

Air menu for an air hose can change from clip to clip. With the terrible impact of the economic downswing, less rider choose to go. Normally, air hose starts to sell the cheapest Ten category economic system menu so followed by expensive Y category menus. With the demand non making the equilibrium point, air bearer was non able to make the needed gross revenues and keep to sell the cheaper menu for a longer period of clip.

Since the supply of seats for an aircraft is fixed which can non be altered, it consequences inordinate cost for fuel and crew. The state of affairs can likely be improved by delegating a new fleet for the crew to fulfill the minimal sum of flight attender to supply normal service. In add-on, the air hose performs flight agreement to understate the figure of aircraft during off peak months. In the other custodies, the confederations in the air hose industry can work manus in manus to fight in the economic downswing. For illustration, air hoses in the same confederation can unify path that are similar to each other to cut down cost that efficaciously benefits both air hoses.

Iceland Volcano Ash

The International Air Transport Association says that the flight breaks due to the vent ash cost planetary airlines 1.7 billion US dollars. The calamity hit about one tierce of the planetary flights and it was estimated that the 1.2 million riders were affected per twenty-four hours. Although IATA said that bearers can salvage approximative 110 million a twenty-four hours on fuel for planes non winging, air hoses has to confront an extra cost to look after the isolated riders. It was lay waste toing that the air hose industry has lost 10 billion in the fiscal twelvemonth of 2009 and calculate to lose a farther 3 billion due to the incident.

The European air safety organisation said the ash could take to intermittent jobs to air traffic to disrupt for six months. Volcanic ash consists of bantam atoms of powdered stone and spectacless which badly damage the airframes and engines. This would decidedly convey immense fiscal impact to the air hoses.

Passenger Volume affected by Volcano Ash

As seen from the Australia air power statistic, there is a monolithic bead of rider volume from United Kingdom. Flight prohibition was imposed for a hebdomad in Europe. No aircraft was permitted to wing which cause the air hose to cover with 1000000s of riders. Airline has to counterbalance the doomed of rider and in add-on no gross is recorded during the period. On the contrary, replacement can be applied in this instance. Passengers from Europe choose to go with permutation such as trains or ferries. Travelers choose to go by train to the finish that was non affected by the volcanic ash and fly by plane with the nearest airdrome. The handiness of replacement that would assist to find how profitable an industry is. Furthermore, the riders travel to Australia on May which is the highest in the twelvemonth. This supports that the demand for the seats increases and more business communities starts their trip across the universe. The airfare can be raised for the period that an air hose can retrieve the doomed.


To reason, air hose industry strived hard for the past two old ages in covering with two lay waste toing incidents. Economic factor is one of the cardinal issues to find the market of air power and reflect the alteration in economic system really immediate. With the air power industry finally spread outing, it is estimated that the rider volume across the universe addition for the undermentioned decennary. On the other manus, as bearer start to order new coevals aircraft, more travelers can be carried on a individual aircraft which expeditiously cut down the unit cost of the rider. The aircraft was able to wing long draw journey up to 25 hours which mark a stat mi rock on the Kangaroo path. Aviation is the hardest concern of all time be, working on an confederation can be one of the manner to last. Thus, competition between air hoses is acquiring fierce in the close hereafter.


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